Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11217

Search results for: turbulent free surface flow

11217 CFD Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in a Free Surface Flow

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


In this work, we determine the turbulent dynamic structure of pollutant dispersion in two-phase free surface flow. The numerical simulation was performed using ANSYS Fluent. The flow study is three-dimensional, unsteady and isothermal. The study area has been endowed with a rectangular obstacle to analyze its influence on the hydrodynamic variables and progression of the pollutant. The numerical results show that the hydrodynamic model provides prediction of the dispersion of a pollutant in an open channel flow and reproduces the recirculation and trapping the pollutant downstream near the obstacle.

Keywords: CFD, free surface, polluant dispersion, turbulent flows

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11216 CFD Study of Free Surface Flows Resulting from a Dam-Breaking

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


Free surface flows caused by dam breaks in channels or rivers is an attention-getting subject to the engineering practice, however, the studies are few to be reported. In this paper, a numerical investigation of unsteady free surface flows resulting from a dam-breaking in a rectangular channel is studied. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of fluid method (VOF). Verification for a typical dam-break problem is analyzed by comparing the present results with others and very good agreement is obtained. The present approach is then used to predict the characteristics of free surface flow due to the dam breaking in channel. The characteristics of complex unsteady free surface flow in these examples are clearly explained. The numerical results show that the flow became more disturbed after impacting the vertical wall, then a recirculation zone, as well as turbulence phenomena, were created. At this instant, a cavity of air was included on the flow. The results agree well with the experimental data found in the literature.

Keywords: CFD, dam-break, free surface, turbulent flows, VOF

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11215 The Influence of the Discharge Point Position on the Pollutant Dispersion

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different vertical inlet positions of an open channel are investigated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Pollutants are injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free surface flow. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of the fluid method (VOF). By focusing on investigating the influences of flow on pollutants, it is found that pollutant released from the bottom position of the channel takes more time to disperse in the longitudinal direction of the flow in comparison with the case of pollutant released near the free surface. On the other hand, the pollutant released from the bottom position generates a vertical dispersion with decreased amplitude. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accident or planned pollutant discharged into a river.

Keywords: numerical simulation, pollutant release, turbulent free surface flow, VOF model

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11214 On the Free-Surface Generated by the Flow over an Obstacle in a Hydraulic Channel

Authors: M. Bouhadef, K. Bouzelha-Hammoum, T. Guendouzen-Dabouz, A. Younsi, T. Zitoun


The aim of this paper is to report the different experimental studies, conducted in the laboratory, dealing with the flow in the presence of an obstacle lying in a rectangular hydraulic channel. Both subcritical and supercritical regimes are considered. Generally, when considering the theoretical problem of the free-surface flow, in a fluid domain of finite depth, due to the presence of an obstacle, we suppose that the water is an inviscid fluid, which means that there is no sheared velocity profile, but constant upstream. In a hydraulic channel, it is impossible to satisfy this condition. Indeed, water is a viscous fluid and its velocity is null at the bottom. The two configurations are presented, i.e. a flow over an obstacle and a towed obstacle in a resting fluid.

Keywords: experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, subcritical regime, supercritical flow

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11213 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun


The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.

Keywords: experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime

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11212 Experiments of a Free Surface Flow in a Hydraulic Channel over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bouinoun, M. Bouhadef


The present study is concerned with the problem of determining the shape of the free surface flow in a hydraulic channel which has an uneven bottom. For the mathematical formulation of the problem, the fluid of the two-dimensional irrotational steady flow in water is assumed inviscid and incompressible. The solutions of the nonlinear problem are obtained by using the usual conformal mapping theory and Hilbert’s technique. An experimental study, for comparing the obtained results, has been conducted in a hydraulic channel (subcritical regime and supercritical regime).

Keywords: free-surface flow, experiments, numerical method, uneven bottom, supercritical regime, subcritical regime

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11211 Study of the Relationship between the Roughness Configuration of Channel Bottom and the Creation of Vortices at the Rough Area: Numerical Modelling

Authors: Youb Said, Fourar Ali


To describe the influence of bottom roughness on the free surface flows by numerical modeling, a two-dimensional model was developed. The equations of continuity and momentum (Naviers Stokes equations) are solved by the finite volume method. We considered a turbulent flow in an open channel with a bottom roughness. For our simulations, the K-ε model was used. After setting the initial and boundary conditions and solve the equations set, we were able to achieve the following results: vortex forming in the hollow causing substantial energy dissipation in the obstacle areas that form the bottom roughness. The comparison of our results with experimental ones shows a good agreement in terms of the results in the rough area. However, in other areas, differences were more or less important. These differences are in areas far from the bottom, especially the free surface area just after the bottom. These disagreements are probably due to experimental constants used by the k-ε model.

Keywords: modeling, free surface flow, turbulence, bottom roughness, finite volume, K-ε model, energy dissipation

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11210 Towards Accurate Velocity Profile Models in Turbulent Open-Channel Flows: Improved Eddy Viscosity Formulation

Authors: W. Meron Mebrahtu, R. Absi


Velocity distribution in turbulent open-channel flows is organized in a complex manner. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability of fluid motion resulting from the free-surface turbulent flow condition. This phenomenon is complicated further due to the complex geometry of channels and the presence of solids transported. Thus, several efforts were made to understand the phenomenon and obtain accurate mathematical models that are suitable for engineering applications. However, predictions are inaccurate because oversimplified assumptions are involved in modeling this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study velocity distribution profiles and obtain simple, more accurate, and predictive mathematical models. Particular focus will be made on the acceptable simplification of the general transport equations and an accurate representation of eddy viscosity. Wide rectangular open-channel seems suitable to begin the study; other assumptions are smooth-wall, and sediment-free flow under steady and uniform flow conditions. These assumptions will allow examining the effect of the bottom wall and the free surface only, which is a necessary step before dealing with more complex flow scenarios. For this flow condition, two ordinary differential equations are obtained for velocity profiles; from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation and equilibrium consideration between turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and dissipation. Then different analytic models for eddy viscosity, TKE, and mixing length were assessed. Computation results for velocity profiles were compared to experimental data for different flow conditions and the well-known linear, log, and log-wake laws. Results show that the model based on the RANS equation provides more accurate velocity profiles. In the viscous sublayer and buffer layer, the method based on Prandtl’s eddy viscosity model and Van Driest mixing length give a more precise result. For the log layer and outer region, a mixing length equation derived from Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis provides the best agreement with measured data except near the free surface where an additional correction based on a damping function for eddy viscosity is used. This method allows more accurate velocity profiles with the same value of the damping coefficient that is valid under different flow conditions. This work continues with investigating narrow channels, complex geometries, and the effect of solids transported in sewers.

Keywords: accuracy, eddy viscosity, sewers, velocity profile

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11209 Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Water Wave for the Flow Around NACA 0012 Hydrofoil and Wigley Hull Using VOF Method

Authors: Omar Imine, Mohammed Aounallah, Mustapha Belkadi


Steady three-dimensional and two free surface waves generated by moving bodies are presented, the flow problem to be simulated is rich in complexity and poses many modeling challenges because of the existence of breaking waves around the ship hull, and because of the interaction of the two-phase flow with the turbulent boundary layer. The results of several simulations are reported. The first study was performed for NACA0012 of hydrofoil with different meshes, this section is analyzed at h/c= 1, 0345 for 2D. In the second simulation, a mathematically defined Wigley hull form is used to investigate the application of a commercial CFD code in prediction of the total resistance and its components from tangential and normal forces on the hull wetted surface. The computed resistance and wave profiles are used to estimate the coefficient of the total resistance for Wigley hull advancing in calm water under steady conditions. The commercial CFD software FLUENT version 12 is used for the computations in the present study. The calculated grid is established using the code computer GAMBIT 2.3.26. The shear stress k-ωSST model is used for turbulence modeling and the volume of the fluid technique is employed to simulate the free-surface motion. The second order upwind scheme is used for discretizing the convection terms in the momentum transport equations, the Modified HRICscheme for VOF discretization. The results obtained compare well with the experimental data.

Keywords: free surface flows, breaking waves, boundary layer, Wigley hull, volume of fluid

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11208 Dam Break Model Using Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Alireza Lohrasbi, Alireza Lavaei, Mohammadali M. Shahlaei


The liquid flow and the free surface shape during the initial stage of dam breaking are investigated. A numerical scheme is developed to predict the wave of an unsteady, incompressible viscous flow with free surface. The method involves a two dimensional finite element (2D), in a vertical plan. The Naiver-Stokes equations for conservation of momentum and mass for Newtonian fluids, continuity equation, and full nonlinear kinematic free-surface equation were used as the governing equations. The mapping developed to solve highly deformed free surface problems common in waves formed during wave propagation, transforms the run up model from the physical domain to a computational domain with Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element modeling technique.

Keywords: dam break, Naiver-Stokes equations, free-surface flows, Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian

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11207 Numerical Analysis of Passive Controlled Turbulent Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Authors: Mustafa Soyler, Mustafa M. Yavuz, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, unsteady two-dimensional turbulent flow around a circular cylinder and passive control of the flow with groove on the cylinder was examined. In the CFD analysis, solutions were made using turbulent flow conditions. Steady and unsteady solutions were used in turbulent flow analysis. Numerical analysis of the flow around the circular cylinder is difficult since flow is not in a stable regime when Reynold number is between 1000 and 10000. The analyses in this study were performed at a subcritical Re number of 5000 and the results were compared with available experimental results of the drag coefficient (Cd) and Strouhal (St) number values in the literature. The effect of different groove types and depths on the Cd coefficient has been analyzed and grooves increase the Cd coefficient compared to the smooth cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, drag coefficient, flow over cylinder, passive flow control

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11206 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol


Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: aerodynamics, boundary layer, dimple, drag, kinetic energy, turbulence

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11205 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations

Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien


In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords: compressible lattice Boltzmann method, multiple relaxation times, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows

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11204 CFD Simulation of Surge Wave Generated by Flow-Like Landslides

Authors: Liu-Chao Qiu


The damage caused by surge waves generated in water bodies by flow-like landslides can be very high in terms of human lives and economic losses. The complicated phenomena occurred in this highly unsteady process are difficult to model because three interacting phases: air, water and sediment are involved. The problem therefore is challenging since the effects of non-Newtonian fluid describing the rheology of the flow-like landslides, multi-phase flow and free surface have to be included in the simulation. In this work, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT is used to model the surge waves due to flow-like landslides. The comparison between the numerical results and experimental data reported in the literature confirms the accuracy of the method.

Keywords: flow-like landslide, surge wave, VOF, non-Newtonian fluids, multi-phase flows, free surface flow

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11203 Heat Transfer of an Impinging Jet on a Plane Surface

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


A cold, thin film of liquid impinging on an isothermal hot, horizontal surface has been investigated. An approximate solution for the velocity and temperature distributions in the flow along the horizontal surface is developed, which exploits the hydrodynamic similarity solution for thin film flow. The approximate solution may provide a valuable basis for assessing flow and heat transfer in more complex settings.

Keywords: flux, free impinging jet, solid-surface, uniform wall temperature

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11202 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee


The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

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11201 Performance of Slot-Entry Hybrid Worn Journal Bearing under Turbulent Lubrication

Authors: Nathi Ram, Saurabh K. Yadav


In turbomachinery, the turbulent flow occurs due to the use of high velocity of low kinematic viscosity lubricants and used in many industrial applications. In the present work, the performance of symmetric slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under laminar and turbulent lubrication has been investigated. For turbulent lubrication, the Reynolds equation has been modified using Constantinescu turbulent model. This modified equation has been solved using the finite element method. The effect of turbulent lubrication on bearing’s performance has been presented for symmetric hybrid journal bearing. The slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under turbulent/laminar regimes have been investigated. It has been observed that the stiffness and damping coefficients are more for the bearing having slot width ratio (SWR) of 0.25 than the bearing with SWR of 0.5 and 0.75 under the turbulent regime. Further, it is also observed that for constant wear depth parameter, stability threshold speed gets increased for bearing operates at slot width ratio 0.25 under turbulent lubrication.

Keywords: hydrostatic bearings, journal bearings, restrictors, turbulent flow models, finite element technique

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11200 An Experimental Investigation of Air Entrainment Due to Water Jets in Crossflows

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani


Vertical water jets discharging into free surface turbulent cross flows result in the ingression of a large amount of air in the body of water and form a region of two-phase air-water flow with a considerable interfacial area. This research presents an experimental study of the two-phase bubbly flow using image processing technique. The air ingression and the trajectories of bubble swarms under different experimental conditions are evaluated. The rate of air entrainment and the bubble characteristics such as penetration depth, and dispersion pattern were found to be affected by the most influential parameters of water jet and cross flow including water jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio, water jet falling height, and cross flow depth. This research improves understanding of the underwater flow structure due to the water jet impingement in crossflow and advances the practical applications of water jets such as artificial aeration, circulation, and mixing where crossflow is present.

Keywords: air entrainment, image processing, jet in cross flow, two-phase flow

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11199 Study of the Influence of Nozzle Length and Jet Angles on the Air Entrainment by Plunging Water Jets

Authors: José Luis Muñoz-Cobo González, Sergio Chiva Vicent, Khaled Harby Mohamed


When a vertical liquid jet plunges into a liquid surface, after passing through a surrounding gas phase, it entrains a large amount of gas bubbles into the receiving pool, and it forms a large submerged two-phase region with a considerable interfacial area. At the intersection of the plunging jet and the liquid surface, free-surface instabilities are developed, and gas entrainment may be observed. If the jet impact velocity exceeds an inception velocity that is a function of the plunging flow conditions, the gas entrainment takes place. The general goal of this work is to study the effect of nozzle parameters (length-to-diameter ratio (lN/dN), jet angle (α) with the free water surface) and the jet operating conditions (initial jet diameters dN, initial jet velocity VN, and jet length x1) on the flow characteristics such as: inception velocity of the gas entrainment Ve, bubble penetration depth Hp, gas entrainment rate, Qa, centerline jet velocity Vc, and the axial jet velocity distribution Vx below the free water surface in a plunging liquid jet system.

Keywords: inclined plunging water jets, entrainment, two phase flow, nozzle length

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11198 Flow Field Analysis of a Liquid Ejector Pump Using Embedded Large Eddy Simulation Methodology

Authors: Qasim Zaheer, Jehanzeb Masud


The understanding of entrainment and mixing phenomenon in the ejector pump is of pivotal importance for designing and performance estimation. In this paper, the existence of turbulent vortical structures due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the free surface between the motive and the entrained fluids streams are simulated using Embedded LES methodology. The efficacy of Embedded LES for simulation of complex flow field of ejector pump is evaluated using ANSYS Fluent®. The enhanced mixing and entrainment process due to breaking down of larger eddies into smaller ones as a consequence of Vortex Stretching phenomenon is captured in this study. Moreover, the flow field characteristics of ejector pump like pressure velocity fields and mass flow rates are analyzed and validated against the experimental results.

Keywords: Kelvin Helmholtz instability, embedded LES, complex flow field, ejector pump

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11197 Dynamic and Thermal Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Offset Jet

Authors: Ali Assoudi, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec


Studying the flow characteristics of a turbulent offset jet is an important topic among researchers across the world because of its various engineering applications. Some of the common examples include: injection and carburetor systems, entrainment and mixing process in gas turbine and boiler combustion chambers, Thrust-augmenting ejectors for V/STOL aircrafts and HVAC systems, environmental dischargers, film cooling and many others. An offset jet is formed when a jet discharges into a medium above a horizontal solid wall parallel to the axis of the jet exit but which is offset by a certain distance. The structure of a turbulent offset-jet can be described by three main regions. Close to the nozzle exit, an offset jet possesses characteristic features similar to those of free jets. Then, the entrainment of fluid between the jet, the offset wall and the bottom wall creates a low pressure zone, forcing the jet to deflect towards the wall and eventually attaches to it at the impingement point. This is referred to as the Coanda effect. Further downstream after the reattachment point, the offset jet has the characteristics of a wall jet flow. Therefore, the offset jet has characteristics of free, impingement and wall jets, and it is relatively more complex compared to these types of flows. The present study examines the dynamic and thermal evolution of a 3D turbulent offset jet with different offset height ratio (the ratio of the distance from the jet exit to the impingement bottom wall and the jet nozzle diameter). To achieve this purpose a numerical study was conducted to investigate a three-dimensional offset jet flow through the resolution of the different governing Navier–Stokes’ equations by means of the finite volume method and the RSM second-order turbulent closure model. A detailed discussion has been provided on the flow and thermal characteristics in the form of streamlines, mean velocity vector, pressure field and Reynolds stresses.

Keywords: offset jet, offset ratio, numerical simulation, RSM

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11196 Energy Conservation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache


Energy conservation is one of the major concerns in the modern high tech era due to the limited amount of energy resources and the increasing cost of energy. Predicting an efficient use of energy in thermal systems like heat exchangers can only be achieved if the second law of thermodynamics is accounted for. The performance of heat exchangers can be substantially improved by many passive heat transfer augmentation techniques. These letters permit to improve heat transfer rate and to increase exchange surface, but on the other side, they also increase the friction factor associated with the flow. This raises the question of how to employ these passive techniques in order to minimize the useful energy. The objective of this present study is to use a porous substrate attached to the walls as a passive enhancement technique in heat exchangers and to find the compromise between the hydrodynamic and thermal performances under turbulent flow conditions, by using a second law approach. A modified k- ε model is used to simulating the turbulent flow in the porous medium and the turbulent shear flow is accounted for in the entropy generation equation. A numerical modeling, based on the finite volume method is employed for discretizing the governing equations. Effects of several parameters are investigated such as the porous substrate properties and the flow conditions. Results show that under certain conditions of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and its effective thermal conductivity the minimum rate of entropy production is obtained.

Keywords: second law approach, annular heat exchanger, turbulent flow, porous medium, modified model, numerical analysis

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11195 Numerical Analysis of the Flow Characteristics around a Deformable Vortex Generators

Authors: A. Koulali


Flow structure evolution around a single pair of Delta vortex generators (VGs) is studied numerically. For laminar, transient, and turbulent flow regimes, numerical simulations have been performed in a duct with a pair of Delta vortex generators. The finite element method was used to simulate the flow. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed insight into the generation and dissipation of longitudinal vortices over a wide range of flow regimes, including the laminar-turbulent transition. A wide range of parameters has been exploited to describe the induced phenomena within the flow. We examined various parameters depending on the VG geometry, the flow regime, and the channel geometry. A detailed analysis of the turbulence and wall shear stress properties has been evaluated. The results affirm that there are still optimal values to obtain better performing vortices in order to improve the exchange performance.

Keywords: deformable VG, turbulent flow, delta vortex generators, finite element method

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11194 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez


Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

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11193 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao


Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, turbulent flow, RANS model, large Eddy simulation

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11192 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Georges Le Palec


Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Counterflow stream, jet, velocity, concentration

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11191 Turbulent Flow in Corrugated Pipes with Helical Grooves

Authors: P. Mendes, H. Stel, R. E. M. Morales


This article presents a numerical and experimental study of turbulent flow in corrugated pipes with helically “d-type" grooves, for Reynolds numbers between 7500 and 100,000. The ANSYS-CFX software is used to solve the RANS equations with the BSL two equation turbulence model, through the element-based finite-volume method approach. Different groove widths and helix angles are considered. Numerical results are validated with experimental pressure drop measurements for the friction factor. A correlation for the friction factor is also proposed considering the geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers evaluated.

Keywords: turbulent flow, corrugated pipe, helical, numerical, experimental, friction factor, correlation

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11190 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.

Keywords: bed roughness, ejection and sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple product

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11189 Surveying Energy Dissipation in Stepped Spillway Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah


Stepped spillway includes several steps from the crest to the toe. The steps of stepped spillway could cause to decrease the energy with making energy distribution in the longitude mode and also to reduce the outcome speed. The aim of this study was to stimulate the stepped spillway combined with stilling basin-step using Fluent model and the turbulent superficial flow using RNG, K-ε. The free surface of the flow was monitored by VOF model. The velocity and the depth of the flow were measured by tail water depth by the numerical model and then the dissipated energy was calculated along the spillway. The results indicated that the stilling basin-step complex may cause energy dissipation increment in the stepped spillway. Also, the numerical model was suggested as an effective method to predict the circular and complicated flows in the stepped spillways.

Keywords: stepped spillway, fluent model, VOF model, K-ε model, energy distribution

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11188 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong


This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noise

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