Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: ankle-foot orthotic

8 The Low-Cost Design and 3D Printing of Structural Knee Orthotics for Athletic Knee Injury Patients

Authors: Alexander Hendricks, Sean Nevin, Clayton Wikoff, Melissa Dougherty, Jacob Orlita, Rafiqul Noorani

Abstract:

Knee orthotics play an important role in aiding in the recovery of those with knee injuries, especially athletes. However, structural knee orthotics is often very expensive, ranging between $300 and $800. The primary reason for this project was to answer the question: can 3D printed orthotics represent a viable and cost-effective alternative to present structural knee orthotics? The primary objective for this research project was to design a knee orthotic for athletes with knee injuries for a low-cost under $100 and evaluate its effectiveness. The initial design for the orthotic was done in SolidWorks, a computer-aided design (CAD) software available at Loyola Marymount University. After this design was completed, finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to understand how normal stresses placed upon the knee affected the orthotic. The knee orthotic was then adjusted and redesigned to meet a specified factor-of-safety of 3.25 based on the data gathered during FEA and literature sources. Once the FEA was completed and the orthotic was redesigned based from the data gathered, the next step was to move on to 3D-printing the first design of the knee brace. Subsequently, physical therapy movement trials were used to evaluate physical performance. Using the data from these movement trials, the CAD design of the brace was refined to accommodate the design requirements. The final goal of this research means to explore the possibility of replacing high-cost, outsourced knee orthotics with a readily available low-cost alternative.

Keywords: 3D printing, knee orthotics, finite element analysis, design for additive manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
7 Designing and Using a 3-D Printed Dynamic Upper Extremity Orthosis (DUEO) with Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Upper Extremity Involvement

Authors: Justin Lee, Siraj Shaikh, Alice Chu MD

Abstract:

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) commonly present with upper extremity impairment, affecting one or both extremities, and are classified using the Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS). The MACS defines bimanual hand abilities for children ages 4-18 years in everyday tasks and is a gradient scale, with I being nearly normal and V requiring total assistance. Children with more severe upper extremity impairment (MACS III-V) are often underrepresented, and relatively few effective therapies have been identified for these patients. Current orthoses are static and are only meant to prevent the progression of contractures in these patients. Other limitations include cost, comfort, accessibility, and longevity of the orthoses. Taking advantage of advances in 3D printing technology, we have created a highly customizable upper extremity orthotic that can be produced at a low cost. Iterations in our design have resulted in an orthotic that is custom fit to the patient based on scans of their arm, made of rigid polymer when needed to provide support, flexible material where appropriate to allow for comfort, and designed with a mechanical pulley system to allow for some functional use of the arm while in the orthotic. Preliminary data has shown that our orthotic can be built at a fraction of the cost of current orthoses and provide clinically significant improvement in assisting hand assessment (AHA) and pediatric quality of life scores (PedsQL).

Keywords: upper extremity orthosis, upper extremity, orthosis, 3-D printing, cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, spasticity, customizable

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
6 A Smart CAD Program for Custom Hand Orthosis Generation Based on Anthropometric Relationships

Authors: Elissa D. Ledoux, Eric J. Barth

Abstract:

Producing custom orthotic devices is a time-consuming and iterative process. Efficiency could be increased with a smart CAD program to rapidly generate custom part files for 3D printing, reducing the need for a skilled orthosis technician as well as the hands-on time required. Anthropometric data for the hand was analyzed in order to determine dimensional relationships and reduce the number of measurements needed to parameterize the hand. Using these relationships, a smart CAD package was developed to produce custom sized hand orthosis parts downloadable for 3D printing. Results showed that the number of anatomical parameters required could be reduced from 8 to 3, and the relationships hold for 5th to 95th percentile male hands. CAD parts regenerate correctly for the same range. This package could significantly impact the orthotics industry in terms of expedited production and reduction of required human resources and patient contact.

Keywords: CAD, hand, orthosis, orthotic, rehabilitation robotics, upper limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
5 A Biomechanical Model for the Idiopathic Scoliosis Using the Antalgic-Trak Technology

Authors: Joao Fialho

Abstract:

The mathematical modelling of idiopathic scoliosis has been studied throughout the years. The models presented on those papers are based on the orthotic stabilization of the idiopathic scoliosis, which are based on a transversal force being applied to the human spine on a continuous form. When considering the ATT (Antalgic-Trak Technology) device, the existent models cannot be used, as the type of forces applied are no longer transversal nor applied in a continuous manner. In this device, vertical traction is applied. In this study we propose to model the idiopathic scoliosis, using the ATT (Antalgic-Trak Technology) device, and with the parameters obtained from the mathematical modeling, set up a case-by-case individualized therapy plan, for each patient.

Keywords: idiopathic scoliosis, mathematical modelling, human spine, Antalgic-Trak technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
4 Development of a Novel Ankle-Foot Orthotic Using a User Centered Approach for Improved Satisfaction

Authors: Ahlad Neti, Elisa Arch, Martha Hall

Abstract:

Studies have shown that individuals who use Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFOs) have a high level of dissatisfaction regarding their current AFOs. Studies point to the focus on technical design with little attention given to the user perspective as a source of AFO designs that leave users dissatisfied. To design a new AFO that satisfies users and thereby improves their quality of life, the reasons for their dissatisfaction and their wants and needs for an improved AFO design must be identified. There has been little research into the user perspective on AFO use and desired improvements, so the relationship between AFO design and satisfaction in daily use must be assessed to develop appropriate metrics and constraints prior to designing a novel AFO. To assess the user perspective on AFO design, structured interviews were conducted with 7 individuals (average age of 64.29±8.81 years) who use AFOs. All interviews were transcribed and coded to identify common themes using Grounded Theory Method in NVivo 12. Qualitative analysis of these results identified sources of user dissatisfaction such as heaviness, bulk, and uncomfortable material and overall needs and wants for an AFO. Beyond the user perspective, certain objective factors must be considered in the construction of metrics and constraints to ensure that the AFO fulfills its medical purpose. These more objective metrics are rooted in a common medical device market and technical standards. Given the large body of research concerning these standards, these objective metrics and constraints were derived through a literature review. Through these two methods, a comprehensive list of metrics and constraints accounting for both the user perspective on AFO design and the AFO’s medical purpose was compiled. These metrics and constraints will establish the framework for designing a new AFO that carries out its medical purpose while also improving the user experience. The metrics can be categorized into several overarching areas for AFO improvement. Categories of user perspective related metrics include comfort, discreteness, aesthetics, ease of use, and compatibility with clothing. Categories of medical purpose related metrics include biomechanical functionality, durability, and affordability. These metrics were used to guide an iterative prototyping process. Six concepts were ideated and compared using system-level analysis. From these six concepts, two concepts – the piano wire model and the segmented model – were selected to move forward into prototyping. Evaluation of non-functional prototypes of the piano wire and segmented models determined that the piano wire model better fulfilled the metrics by offering increased stability, longer durability, fewer points for failure, and a strong enough core component to allow a sock to cover over the AFO while maintaining the overall structure. As such, the piano wire AFO has moved forward into the functional prototyping phase, and healthy subject testing is being designed and recruited to conduct design validation and verification.

Keywords: ankle-foot orthotic, assistive technology, human centered design, medical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
3 3D Design of Orthotic Braces and Casts in Medical Applications Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

Authors: Sanjana S. Mallya, Roshan Arvind Sivakumar

Abstract:

Orthotics is the branch of medicine that deals with the provision and use of artificial casts or braces to alter the biomechanical structure of the limb and provide support for the limb. Custom-made orthoses provide more comfort and can correct issues better than those available over-the-counter. However, they are expensive and require intricate modelling of the limb. Traditional methods of modelling involve creating a plaster of Paris mould of the limb. Lately, CAD/CAM and 3D printing processes have improved the accuracy and reduced the production time. Ordinarily, digital cameras are used to capture the features of the limb from different views to create a 3D model. We propose a system to model the limb using Microsoft Kinect2 sensor. The Kinect can capture RGB and depth frames simultaneously up to 30 fps with sufficient accuracy. The region of interest is captured from three views, each shifted by 90 degrees. The RGB and depth data are fused into a single RGB-D frame. The resolution of the RGB frame is 1920px x 1080px while the resolution of the Depth frame is 512px x 424px. As the resolution of the frames is not equal, RGB pixels are mapped onto the Depth pixels to make sure data is not lost even if the resolution is lower. The resulting RGB-D frames are collected and using the depth coordinates, a three dimensional point cloud is generated for each view of the Kinect sensor. A common reference system was developed to merge the individual point clouds from the Kinect sensors. The reference system consisted of 8 coloured cubes, connected by rods to form a skeleton-cube with the coloured cubes at the corners. For each Kinect, the region of interest is the square formed by the centres of the four cubes facing the Kinect. The point clouds are merged by considering one of the cubes as the origin of a reference system. Depending on the relative distance from each cube, the three dimensional coordinate points from each point cloud is aligned to the reference frame to give a complete point cloud. The RGB data is used to correct for any errors in depth data for the point cloud. A triangular mesh is generated from the point cloud by applying Delaunay triangulation which generates the rough surface of the limb. This technique forms an approximation of the surface of the limb. The mesh is smoothened to obtain a smooth outer layer to give an accurate model of the limb. The model of the limb is used as a base for designing the custom orthotic brace or cast. It is transferred to a CAD/CAM design file to design of the brace above the surface of the limb. The proposed system would be more cost effective than current systems that use MRI or CT scans for generating 3D models and would be quicker than using traditional plaster of Paris cast modelling and the overall setup time is also low. Preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the Kinect2 is satisfactory to perform modelling.

Keywords: 3d scanning, mesh generation, Microsoft kinect, orthotics, registration

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2 Characterizing the Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Digital Brace Design

Authors: Inigo Sanz-Pena, Shanika Arachchi, Dilani Dhammika, Sanjaya Mallikarachchi, Jeewantha S. Bandula, Alison H. McGregor, Nicolas Newell

Abstract:

The use of orthotic braces for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is the most common non-surgical treatment to prevent deformity progression. The traditional method to create an orthotic brace involves casting the patient’s torso to obtain a representative geometry, which is then rectified by an orthotist to the desired geometry of the brace. Recent improvements in 3D scanning technologies, rectification software, CNC, and additive manufacturing processes have given the possibility to compliment, or in some cases, replace manual methods with digital approaches. However, the rectification process remains dependent on the orthotist’s skills. Therefore, the rectification process needs to be carefully characterized to ensure that braces designed through a digital workflow are as efficient as those created using a manual process. The aim of this study is to compare 3D scans of patients with AIS against 3D scans of both pre- and post-rectified casts that have been manually shaped by an orthotist. Six AIS patients were recruited from the Ragama Rehabilitation Clinic, Colombo, Sri Lanka. All patients were between 10 and 15 years old, were skeletally immature (Risser grade 0-3), and had Cobb angles between 20-45°. Seven spherical markers were placed at key anatomical locations on each patient’s torso and on the pre- and post-rectified molds so that distances could be reliably measured. 3D scans were obtained of 1) the patient’s torso and pelvis, 2) the patient’s pre-rectification plaster mold, and 3) the patient’s post-rectification plaster mold using a Structure Sensor Mark II 3D scanner (Occipital Inc., USA). 3D stick body models were created for each scan to represent the distances between anatomical landmarks. The 3D stick models were used to analyze the changes in position and orientation of the anatomical landmarks between scans using Blender open-source software. 3D Surface deviation maps represented volume differences between the scans using CloudCompare open-source software. The 3D stick body models showed changes in the position and orientation of thorax anatomical landmarks between the patient and the post-rectification scans for all patients. Anatomical landmark position and volume differences were seen between 3D scans of the patient’s torsos and the pre-rectified molds. Between the pre- and post-rectified molds, material removal was consistently seen on the anterior side of the thorax and the lateral areas below the ribcage. Volume differences were seen in areas where the orthotist planned to place pressure pads (usually at the trochanter on the side to which the lumbar curve was tilted (trochanter pad), at the lumbar apical vertebra (lumbar pad), on the rib connected to the apical vertebrae at the mid-axillary line (thoracic pad), and on the ribs corresponding to the upper thoracic vertebra (axillary extension pad)). The rectification process requires the skill and experience of an orthotist; however, this study demonstrates that the brace shape, location, and volume of material removed from the pre-rectification mold can be characterized and quantified. Results from this study can be fed into software that can accelerate the brace design process and make steps towards the automated digital rectification process.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, orthotics, scoliosis brace design, sculpting software, spinal deformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1 The Usefulness and Usability of a Linkedin Group for the Maintenance of a Community of Practice among Hand Surgeons Worldwide

Authors: Vaikunthan Rajaratnam

Abstract:

Maintaining continuous professional development among clinicians has been a challenge. Hand surgery is a unique speciality with the coming together of orthopaedics, plastics and trauma surgeons. The requirements for a team-based approach to care with the inclusion of other experts such as occupational, physiotherapist and orthotic and prosthetist provide the impetus for the creation of communities of practice. This study analysed the community of practice in hand surgery that was created through a social networking website for professionals. The main objectives were to discover the usefulness of this community of practice created in the platform of the group function of LinkedIn. The second objective was to determine the usability of this platform for the purposes of continuing professional development among members of this community of practice. The methodology used was one of mixed methods which included a quantitative analysis on the usefulness of the social network website as a community of practice, using the analytics provided by the LinkedIn platform. Further qualitative analysis was performed on the various postings that were generated by the community of practice within the social network website. This was augmented by a respondent driven survey conducted online to assess the usefulness of the platform for continuous professional development. A total of 31 respondents were involved in this study. This study has shown that it is possible to create an engaging and interactive community of practice among hand surgeons using the group function of this professional social networking website LinkedIn. Over three years the group has grown significantly with members from multiple regions and has produced engaging and interactive conversations online. From the results of the respondents’ survey, it can be concluded that there was satisfaction of the functionality and that it was an excellent platform for discussions and collaboration in the community of practice with a 69 % of satisfaction. Case-based discussions were the most useful functions of the community of practice. This platform usability was graded as excellent using the validated usability tool. This study has shown that the social networking site LinkedIn’s group function can be easily used as a community of practice effectively and provides convenience to professionals and has made an impact on their practice and better care for patients. It has also shown that this platform was easy to use and has a high level of usability for the average healthcare professional. This platform provided the improved connectivity among professionals involved in hand surgery care which allowed for the community to grow and with proper support and contribution of relevant material by members allowed for a safe environment for the exchange of knowledge and sharing of experience that is the foundation of a community practice.

Keywords: community of practice, online community, hand surgery, lifelong learning, LinkedIn, social media, continuing professional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 231