Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 395

Search results for: Elisa Arch

395 Comparative Study of Arch Bridges with Varying Rise to Span Ratio

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Arnab Kumar Sinha


This paper presents a comparative study of Arch bridges based on their varying rise to span ratio. The comparison is done between different steel Arch bridges which have variable span length and rise to span ratio keeping the same support condition. The aim of our present study is to select the optimum value of rise to span ratio of Arch bridge as the cost of the Arch bridge increases with the increasing of the rise. In order to fulfill the objective, several rise to span ratio have been considered for same span of Arch bridge and various structural parameters such as Bending moment, shear force etc have been calculated for different model. A comparative study has been done for several Arch bridges finally to select the optimum rise to span ratio of the Arch bridges. In the present study, Finite Element model for medium to long span, with different rise to span ratio have been modeled and are analyzed with the help of a Computational Software named MIDAS Civil to evaluate the results such as Bending moments, Shear force, displacements, Stresses, influence line diagrams, critical loads. In the present study, 60 models of Arch bridges for 80 to 120 m span with different rise to span ratio has been thoroughly investigated.

Keywords: arch bridge, analysis, comparative study, rise to span ratio

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394 Study of Dermatoglyphics Pattern in Patient with Hypertension

Authors: Ajeevan Gautam, Gulam Anwer Khan, Pratibha Pokhrel


Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. It is grooved by ridges and forms variety of configurations. The aim of the study was to identify dermal ridge patterns on fingertip of hypertensive patients and in normal population and to compare patterns among them. Methods: The subjects of the study were 130 hypertensives and 130 non-hypertensives cases of Kathmandu Valley aged between 40 to 80 years. Case history was recorded after consent finger prints were taken. Different parameters as whorl, loop, arch and composite patterns were studied and analysed. Result: It revealed, increased whorl pattern in hypertensive. It showed 65.69% whorl, 29.23% loop and 5.07% arch patterns in right hand of hypertensive people. In control, it was found to be 34.46% whorl, 58.15% loop and 5.38% arch patterns respectively. Similarly in left hand 63.69% whorl, 32% loop and 4.30% arch in hypertensive group. In control group it was 60.15% as loop, 35.69% as whorl and 15% as arch. Discussion: Based on findings of the result, it was concluded that the whorl, loop and arch patterns observed as 65.69%, 29.23% and 5.07% respectively in hypertensive cases in right hand. Similarly in left hand, it was found to be 4.30% as arch, 32% as loop and 63.69% as whorl patterns, but in normotensive subjects these patterns were recorded as 36.43%, 58.15%, 5.38% in right hand and 35.69%, 60.15%, 4.15% in left hand as whorl, loop and arch respectively.

Keywords: arch, dermatoglyphics, hypertension, loop, whorl

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393 Crossbite Unilateral Correction Using Transpalatal Arch with Extension Arm Modification

Authors: Hanifa Maryani Ahmad, Muslim Yusuf


Background: Unilateral crossbite can be defined as an abnormal transverse relationship between the upper and lower teeth where the mandibular buccal cusp occluding to the maxillary buccal cusp and which involves only one side of the arch. This report describes the treatment of an adolescent female with Class III malocclussion unilateral crossbite resulting from a mildly constricted maxillary arch. The patient had a Class III skeletal relationship, Class III molar relationships, unilateral crossbite on the left side, and deviated midlines. Objectives: The treatment objectives were to correct the abnormal transverse relationship, achieve proper dental inclination, and correct the unilateral crossbites to improve the facial profile. Case management: The treatment protocol was using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification to expand the maxillary arch. Following the levelling and aligning stage of treatment, using a vertical loop while mandibular arch was expanded after getting an end to end relationship on the anterior side. Results: Corrections of the unilateral crossbite were achieved in 4 months. The treatment is still on process because the canines relationship were not corrected. Conclusions: This report highlights a treatment using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification that can be used to expand the transverse width of an arch to correct the discrepancy. Even though the treatment processes were still ongoing, the correction of the unilateral crossbite have been achieved in 4 months by only using the transpalatal arch.

Keywords: crossbite unilateral, late growing, non-extraction, transpalatal arch

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392 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based- Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: diagnosis, iatex agglutination, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA

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391 A Cadaveric Study of Branching Pattern of Arch of Aorta and Its Clinical Significance in Nepalese Population

Authors: Gulam Anwer Khan, A. Gautam


Background: The arch of aorta is a large artery that arches over the root of the left lung and connects the ascending aorta and descending aorta. It is situated in the superior mediastinum behind the manubrium sterni. It gives off three major branches i.e. brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery arising from the superior surface of arch of aorta from right to left. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study. It was carried out in 44 cadavers, obtained during dissections for undergraduates of Department of Anatomy, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, between March 2015 to October 2016. Cadavers of both sexes were included in the present study. The arch of aorta was dissected and exposed according to the methods described by Romanes in Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomy. Results: Out of 44 dissected cadavers, 35 (79.54%) were male and 9 (20.46%) were female cadavers. The normal branching pattern of the arch of aorta was encountered in 28 (63.64%) cadavers and the remaining 16 (36.36%) cadavers showed variations in the branching pattern of arch of aorta. Two different types of variations on the branching pattern of arch of aorta were noted in the present study, in which 12 (27.27%) cadavers had common trunk of the Arch of Aorta. In 3 (5.00%) male cadavers, we found the origin of the Thyroid ima artery. This variation was noted in 1(1.66%) female cadaver. Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers’ revealed wide variations in the branching pattern of the arch of ao rta. These variations are of clinical significance and also very useful for the anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists, surgeons for practice during angiography, instrumentation, supra-aortic thoracic, head and neck surgery.

Keywords: arch of aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, Thyroidea ima artery

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390 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand


Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

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389 Natural Frequency Analysis of Small-Scale Arch Structure by Shaking Table Test

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Joo-Won Kang


Structural characteristics of spatial structure are different from that of rahmen structures and it has many factors that are unpredictable experientially. Both horizontal and vertical earthquake should be considered because of seismic behaviour characteristics of spatial structures. This experimental study is conducted about seismic response characteristics of roof structure according to the effect of columns or walls, through scale model of arch structure that has the basic dynamic characteristics of spatial structure. Though remarkable response is not occurred for horizontal direction in the region of higher frequency than the region of frequency that seismic energy is concentrated, relatively large response is occurred in vertical direction. It is proved that seismic response of arch structure with column is varied according to property of column.

Keywords: arch structure, seismic response, shaking table, spatial structure

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388 ARIMA-GARCH, A Statistical Modeling for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

Authors: Salman Mohamadi, Seyed Mohammad Ali Tayaranian Hosseini, Hamidreza Amindavar


In this paper, we provide a procedure to analyze and model EEG (electroencephalogram) signal as a time series using ARIMA-GARCH to predict an epileptic attack. The heteroskedasticity of EEG signal is examined through the ARCH or GARCH, (Autore- gressive conditional heteroskedasticity, Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) test. The best ARIMA-GARCH model in AIC sense is utilized to measure the volatility of the EEG from epileptic canine subjects, to forecast the future values of EEG. ARIMA-only model can perform prediction, but the ARCH or GARCH model acting on the residuals of ARIMA attains a con- siderable improved forecast horizon. First, we estimate the best ARIMA model, then different orders of ARCH and GARCH modelings are surveyed to determine the best heteroskedastic model of the residuals of the mentioned ARIMA. Using the simulated conditional variance of selected ARCH or GARCH model, we suggest the procedure to predict the oncoming seizures. The results indicate that GARCH modeling determines the dynamic changes of variance well before the onset of seizure. It can be inferred that the prediction capability comes from the ability of the combined ARIMA-GARCH modeling to cover the heteroskedastic nature of EEG signal changes.

Keywords: epileptic seizure prediction , ARIMA, ARCH and GARCH modeling, heteroskedasticity, EEG

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387 Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of Arch Dam Based on Response Surface Method

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong


Earthquake is one of the main loads threatening dam safety. Once the dam is damaged, it will bring huge losses of life and property to the country and people. Therefore, it is very important to research the seismic safety of the dam. Due to the complex foundation conditions, high fortification intensity, and high scientific and technological content, it is necessary to adopt reasonable methods to evaluate the seismic safety performance of concrete arch dams built and under construction in strong earthquake areas. Structural seismic vulnerability analysis can predict the probability of structural failure at all levels under different intensity earthquakes, which can provide a scientific basis for reasonable seismic safety evaluation and decision-making. In this paper, the response surface method (RSM) is applied to the seismic vulnerability analysis of arch dams, which improves the efficiency of vulnerability analysis. Based on the central composite test design method, the material-seismic intensity samples are established. The response surface model (RSM) with arch crown displacement as performance index is obtained by finite element (FE) calculation of the samples, and then the accuracy of the response surface model (RSM) is verified. To obtain the seismic vulnerability curves, the seismic intensity measure ??(?1) is chosen to be 0.1~1.2g, with an interval of 0.1g and a total of 12 intensity levels. For each seismic intensity level, the arch crown displacement corresponding to 100 sets of different material samples can be calculated by algebraic operation of the response surface model (RSM), which avoids 1200 times of nonlinear dynamic calculation of arch dam; thus, the efficiency of vulnerability analysis is improved greatly.

Keywords: high concrete arch dam, performance index, response surface method, seismic vulnerability analysis, vector-valued intensity measure

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386 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis


The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

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385 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi


A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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384 Investigating Re-Use a Historical Masonry Arch Bridge

Authors: H. A. Erdogan


Historical masonry arch bridges built centuries ago have fulfilled their function until recent decades. However, from the beginning of 20th century, these bridges have remained inadequate as a result of increasing speed, size and capacity of the means of transport. Although new bridges have been built in many places, masonry bridges located within the city limits still need to be used. When the size and transportation loads of modern vehicles are taken into account, it is apparent that historical masonry arch bridges would be exposed to greater loads than their initial design loads. Because of that, many precautions taken either remain insufficient or damage these bridges. In this study, the history of Debbaglar Bridge, one of the historic bridges located in the city center of Aksaray/Turkey is presented and its existing condition is evaluated. Structural analysis of the bridge under present conditions and loads is explained. Moreover, the retrofit and restoration application prepared considering the analysis data is described.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, Aksaray debbaglar bridge, masonry bridge, reconstruction

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383 Analyzing of Arch Steel Beams with Pre-Stressed Cables

Authors: Erkan Polat, Barlas Ozden Caglayan


By day-to-day developed techniques, it is possible to pass through larger openings by using smaller beam-column sections. Parallel to this trend, it is aimed to produce not only smaller but also economical and architecturally more attractive beams. This study aims to explain the structural behavior of arch steel beam reinforced by using post-tension cable. Due to the effect of post-stressed cable, the arch beam load carrying capacity increases and an optimized section in a smaller size can be obtained with a better architectural view. It also allows better mechanical and applicational solutions for buildings. For better understanding the behavior of the reinforced beam, steel beam and arch steel beam with post-tensioned cable are all modeled and analyzed by using SAP2000 Finite element computer program and compared with each other. Also, full scale test specimens were prepared to test for figuring out the structural behavior and compare the results with the computer model results. Test results are very promising. The similarity of the results between the test and computer analysis shows us that there are no extra knowledge and effort of engineer is needed to calculate such beams. The predicted (and proved by tests) beam carrying capacity is 35% higher than the unreinforced beam carrying capacity. Even just three full scale tests were completed, it is seen that the ratio (%35) may be increased ahead by adjusting the cable post-tension force of beams in much smaller sizes.

Keywords: arch steel beams, pre-stressed cables, finite element, specimen Test

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382 Comparison of Applicability of Time Series Forecasting Models VAR, ARCH and ARMA in Management Science: Study Based on Empirical Analysis of Time Series Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Hammad Tahir, Fawwad Mahmood Butt


Purpose: This study attempts to examine the best forecasting methodologies in the time series. The time series forecasting models such as VAR, ARCH and the ARMA are considered for the analysis. Methodology: The Bench Marks or the parameters such as Adjusted R square, F-stats, Durban Watson, and Direction of the roots have been critically and empirically analyzed. The empirical analysis consists of time series data of Consumer Price Index and Closing Stock Price. Findings: The results show that the VAR model performed better in comparison to other models. Both the reliability and significance of VAR model is highly appreciable. In contrary to it, the ARCH model showed very poor results for forecasting. However, the results of ARMA model appeared double standards i.e. the AR roots showed that model is stationary and that of MA roots showed that the model is invertible. Therefore, the forecasting would remain doubtful if it made on the bases of ARMA model. It has been concluded that VAR model provides best forecasting results. Practical Implications: This paper provides empirical evidences for the application of time series forecasting model. This paper therefore provides the base for the application of best time series forecasting model.

Keywords: forecasting, time series, auto regression, ARCH, ARMA

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381 Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection among Egyptian Children by Using Different Laboratory Techniques

Authors: Mohamed A. Alhammad, Hadia A. Abou-Donia, Mona H. Hashish, Mohamed N. Massoud


Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiologic agent of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide. The present study was aimed 1) to detect rotavirus infection as a cause of diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age using the two serological methods (ELISA and LA) and the PCR technique (2) to evaluate the three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 247 children less than 5 years old, diagnosed clinically as acute gastroenteritis and attending Alexandria University Children Hospital at EL-Shatby. Rotavirus antigen was screened by ELISA and LA tests in all stool samples, whereas only 100 samples were subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of rotavirus RNA. Results: Out of the 247 studied cases with diarrhoea, rotavirus antigen was detected in 83 (33.6%) by ELISA and 73 (29.6%) by LA, while the 100 cases tested by RT-PCR showed that 44% of them had rotavirus RNA. Rotavirus diarrhoea was significantly presented with a marked seasonal peak during autumn and winter (61.4%). Conclusion: The present study confirms the huge burden of rotavirus as a major cause of acute diarrhoea in Egyptian infants and young children. It was concluded that; LA is equal in sensitivity to ELISA, ELISA is more specific than LA, and RT-PCR is more specific than ELISA and LA in diagnosis of rotavirus infection.

Keywords: rotavirus, diarrhea, immunoenzyme techniques, latex fixation tests, RT-PCR

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380 Relationship between Finger Print Pattern and Gender among Adolescents of Igala Ethnic Group, Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Idoko Ukanu, Sunday Abba, Balogun Sadiya


The study of the finger prints patterns among the Igala ethnic groups was done in order to see their association gender. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 602 subjects participated in this study, 322 females and 280 males, which were mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 13-19 years. The subjects fingerprint pattern was obtained by allowing them place the tip of each finger on the stamp pad, which is then imprinted on the questionnaire, this was done for both the left and right hand. Female had higher arch, whorl and loop finger print pattern in most of the right fingers than the males, the differences were statistically significant for the right index, right ring finger and right little finger, but were statistically insignificant for right thumb and right middle finger as p = 0.207 and 0.726, respectively. The result also revealed that males had higher arch finger print pattern in the right index and right little finger than the females, which was statistically significant (p = 0.001), and also a high whorl finger print pattern than the females in the right middle and ring finger.

Keywords: arch, loop, whorl, fingers

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379 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar


The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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378 Effect of Arch-Wire Qualities and Bracket Design on the Force Systems during Sliding Mechanics

Authors: Davender Kumar


Aim: It is important for the orthodontist to be familiar with the sliding resistance (SR) generated by the ligation method used during the space closure phase with sliding mechanics. To determine new, experimental non-conventional (slide) ligature demonstrates less friction in vitro when compared other ligatures on the market. Methods: Experimental in vitro were carried out to test the performance of the low-friction system with regard to assess the forces released by different bracket–ligature systems with bonded in iron plate mounted on an Instron machine. Results: The outcomes of experimental testing showed that the combination of the low-friction ligatures with the super elastic nickel-titanium and SS wires produced a significantly smaller amount of binding at the bracket/arch wire/ligature unit when compared to conventional elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: The biomechanical consequences of the use of low-friction ligatures were shorter duration of orthodontic treatment during the levelling and aligning phase, concurrent dentoalveolar expansion of the dental arch, and the possibility of using biologically adequate orthodontic forces.

Keywords: archwire, bracket, friction, ligation

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377 Detection of Helicobacter Pylori by PCR and ELISA Methods in Patients with Hyperlipidemia

Authors: Simin Khodabakhshi, Hossein Rassi


Hyperlipidemia refers to any of several acquired or genetic disorders that result in a high level of lipids circulating in the blood. Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of hyperlipidemia with serum lipid changes. The aim of this study was to detect of Helicobacter pylori by PCR and serological methods in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this case-control study, 174 patients with hyperlipidemia and 174 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical and biochemical parameters were performed in all samples. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H pylori cagA specific primers. The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 79% of the hyperlipidemia and in 56% of the control group by ELISA test and 49% of the hyperlipidemia and in 24% of the control group by PCR test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in hyperlipidemia as compared to controls. In addition, patients with hyperlipidemia had significantly higher values for triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, waist to hip ratio, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and lower levels of HDL-C than control participants (all p < 0.0001). Our result detected the ELISA was a rapid and cost-effective detection and considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of H. pylori cagA and clinical parameters are important in early detection of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with H. pylori infection by PCR and ELISA tests.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, hyperlipidemia, PCR, ELISA

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376 Analysis of the Sagittarius, Borje Ghos, the Symbol of the City of Isfahan

Authors: Shirin Manavi, Gorbanali Ebrahimi


Man is a symbolist. He experiences living, whether he lived in the Old World or he is living in today's world. The symbol is a kind of concise expression of wishes and in the meantime, it comprises all the demands and Dos and Don'ts of a group, a people, and a nation. Our land, Iran, is also the land of symbols, explicit and hidden ones. The astronomical symbols are among these symbols that were recruited in fortune telling of cities. One of the symbols is the astronomical symbol of sagittairc which is the astrology of some cities such as Isfahan. November 22 of each year has been selected by Isfahan experts as Isfahan's Glorification Day. They have also selected the historically painted picture on the entrance of Qeysariye Bazar which has been designed based on the arch constellation. This symbol was chosen because Isfahan has been found in arch constellation on the basis of historical documentation of astrology. This study aims at the recognition, description, and analysis of the arch constellation, the symbol of Isfahan where it has been displayed once upon a time over the Tabarak castle and it is for centuries on the vertex of Isfahan's Qeysariye Bazar. This research has been done on the basis of the analytical method, but due to the particular structure of this paper, it has also benefited from the historical and descriptive methods.

Keywords: Isfahan's Qeysariye Bazar, semiotics, astrology of cities, constellation, sagittairc (Borje Ghos)

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375 Designing Price Stability Model of Red Cayenne Pepper Price in Wonogiri District, Centre Java, Using ARCH/GARCH Method

Authors: Fauzia Dianawati, Riska W. Purnomo


Food and agricultural sector become the biggest sector contributing to inflation in Indonesia. Especially in Wonogiri district, red cayenne pepper was the biggest sector contributing to inflation on 2016. A national statistic proved that in recent five years red cayenne pepper has the highest average level of fluctuation among all commodities. Some factors, like supply chain, price disparity, production quantity, crop failure, and oil price become the possible factor causes high volatility level in red cayenne pepper price. Therefore, this research tries to find the key factor causing fluctuation on red cayenne pepper by using ARCH/GARCH method. The method could accommodate the presence of heteroscedasticity in time series data. At the end of the research, it is statistically found that the second level of supply chain becomes the biggest part contributing to inflation with 3,35 of coefficient in fluctuation forecasting model of red cayenne pepper price. This model could become a reference to the government to determine the appropriate policy in maintaining the price stability of red cayenne pepper.

Keywords: ARCH/GARCH, forecasting, red cayenne pepper, volatility, supply chain

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374 Nano-Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Active Schistosomal Infection

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A.Demerdash, Engy M. Abd El-Moneem, Mohamed A. Hendawy, Ibrahim R. Bayoumi


There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays of schistosomiasis as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. This study aims at increasing the diagnostic efficiency of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen detection assays through gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific anti-Schistosoma mansoni monoclonal antibodies. In this study, several hybidoma cell lines secreting MAbs against adult worm tegumental Schistosoma antigen (AWTA) were produced at Immunology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute and preserved in liquid nitrogen. One MAb (6D/6F) was chosen for this study due to its high reactivity to schistosome antigens with highest optical density (OD) values. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized and conjugated with MAb (6D/6F). The study was conducted on serum samples of 116 subjects: 71 patients with S. mansoni eggs in their stool samples group (gp 1), 25 with other parasites (gp2) and 20 negative healthy controls (gp3). Patients in gp1 were further subdivided according to egg count in their stool samples into Light infection {≤ 50 egg per gram(epg) (n= 17)}, moderate {51-100 epg (n= 33)} and severe infection {>100 epg(n= 21)}. Sandwich ELISA was performed using (AuNPs -MAb) for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) levels in serum samples of all groups and the results were compared with that after using MAb/ sandwich ELISA system. Results Gold- MAb/ ELISA system reached a lower detection limit of 10 ng/ml compared to 85 ng/ml on using MAb/ ELISA and the optimal concentrations of AuNPs -MAb were found to be 12 folds less than that of MAb/ ELISA system for detection of CSA. The sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA levels using AuNPs -MAb were 100% & 97.8 % respectively compared to 87.3% &93.38% respectively on using MAb/ ELISA system. It was found that CSA was detected in 9 out of 71 S.mansoni infected patients on using AuNPs - MAb/ ELISA system and was not detected by MAb/ ELISA system. All those patients (9) was found to have an egg count below 50 epg feces (patients with light infections). ROC curve analyses revealed that sandwich ELISA using gold-MAb was an excellent diagnostic investigator that could differentiate Schistosoma patients from healthy controls, on the other hand it revealed that sandwich ELISA using MAb was not accurate enough as it could not recognize nine out of 71 patients with light infections. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that: Loading gold nanoparticles with MAb (6D/6F) increases the sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected. Moreover this binding will decrease the amount of MAb consumed in the assay and lower the coast. The significant positive correlation that was detected between ova count (intensity of infection) and OD reading in sandwich ELISA using gold- MAb enables its use to detect the severity of infections and follow up patients after treatment for monitoring of cure.

Keywords: Schistosomiasis, nanoparticles, gold, monoclonal antibodies, ELISA

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373 A Comprehensive Review on Structural Properties and Erection Benefits of Large Span Stressed-Arch Steel Truss Industrial Buildings

Authors: Anoush Saadatmehr


Design and build of large clear span structures have always been demanding in the construction industry targeting industrial and commercial buildings around the world. The function of these spectacular structures encompasses distinguished types of building such as aircraft and airship hangars, warehouses, bulk storage buildings, sports and recreation facilities. From an engineering point of view, there are various types of steel structure systems that are often adopted in large-span buildings like conventional trusses, space frames and cable-supported roofs. However, this paper intends to investigate and review an innovative light, economic and quickly erected large span steel structure renowned as “Stressed-Arch,” which has several advantages over the other common types of structures. This patented system integrates the use of cold-formed hollow section steel material with high-strength pre-stressing strands and concrete grout to establish an arch shape truss frame anywhere there is a requirement to construct a cost-effective column-free space for spans within the range of 60m to 180m. In this study and firstly, the main structural properties of the stressed-arch system and its components are discussed technically. These features include nonlinear behavior of truss chords during stress-erection, the effect of erection method on member’s compressive strength, the rigidity of pre-stressed trusses to overcome strict deflection criteria for cases with roof suspended cranes or specialized front doors and more importantly, the prominent lightness of steel structure. Then, the effects of utilizing pre-stressing strands to safeguard a smooth process of installation of main steel members and roof components and cladding are investigated. In conclusion, it is shown that the Stressed-Arch system not only provides an optimized light steel structure up to 30% lighter than its conventional competitors but also streamlines the process of building erection and minimizes the construction time while preventing the risks of working at height.

Keywords: large span structure, pre-stressed steel truss, stressed-arch building, stress-erection, steel structure

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372 CPPI Method with Conditional Floor: The Discrete Time Case

Authors: Hachmi Ben Ameur, Jean Luc Prigent


We propose an extension of the CPPI method, which is based on conditional floors. In this framework, we examine in particular the TIPP and margin based strategies. These methods allow keeping part of the past gains and protecting the portfolio value against future high drawdowns of the financial market. However, as for the standard CPPI method, the investor can benefit from potential market rises. To control the risk of such strategies, we introduce both Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) risk measures. For each of these criteria, we show that the conditional floor must be higher than a lower bound. We illustrate these results, for a quite general ARCH type model, including the EGARCH (1,1) as a special case.

Keywords: CPPI, conditional floor, ARCH, VaR, expected ehortfall

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371 Seismic Assessment of a Pre-Cast Recycled Concrete Block Arch System

Authors: Amaia Martinez Martinez, Martin Turek, Carlos Ventura, Jay Drew


This study aims to assess the seismic performance of arch and dome structural systems made from easy to assemble precast blocks of recycled concrete. These systems have been developed by Lock Block Ltd. Company from Vancouver, Canada, as an extension of their currently used retaining wall system. The characterization of the seismic behavior of these structures is performed by a combination of experimental static and dynamic testing, and analytical modeling. For the experimental testing, several tilt tests, as well as a program of shake table testing were undertaken using small scale arch models. A suite of earthquakes with different characteristics from important past events are chosen and scaled properly for the dynamic testing. Shake table testing applying the ground motions in just one direction (in the weak direction of the arch) and in the three directions were conducted and compared. The models were tested with increasing intensity until collapse occurred; which determines the failure level for each earthquake. Since the failure intensity varied with type of earthquake, a sensitivity analysis of the different parameters was performed, being impulses the dominant factor. For all cases, the arches exhibited the typical four-hinge failure mechanism, which was also shown in the analytical model. Experimental testing was also performed reinforcing the arches using a steel band over the structures anchored at both ends of the arch. The models were tested with different pretension levels. The bands were instrumented with strain gauges to measure the force produced by the shaking. These forces were used to develop engineering guidelines for the design of the reinforcement needed for these systems. In addition, an analytical discrete element model was created using 3DEC software. The blocks were designed as rigid blocks, assigning all the properties to the joints including also the contribution of the interlocking shear key between blocks. The model is calibrated to the experimental static tests and validated with the obtained results from the dynamic tests. Then the model can be used to scale up the results to the full scale structure and expanding it to different configurations and boundary conditions.

Keywords: arch, discrete element model, seismic assessment, shake-table testing

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370 Detection of Total Aflatoxin in Flour of Wheat and Maize Samples in Albania Using ELISA

Authors: Aferdita Dinaku, Jonida Canaj


Aflatoxins are potentially toxic metabolites produced by certain kinds of fungi (molds) that are found naturally all over the world; they can contaminate food crops and pose a serious health threat to humans by mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Several types of aflatoxin (14 or more) occur in nature. In Albanian nutrition, cereals (especially wheat and corn) are common ingredients in some traditional meals. This study aimed to investigate the presence of aflatoxins in the flour of wheat and maize that are consumed in Albania’s markets. The samples were collected randomly in different markets in Albania and detected by the ELISA method, measured in 450 nm. The concentration of total aflatoxins was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and they were ranged between 0.05-1.09 ppb. However, the screened mycotoxin levels in the samples were lower than the maximum permissible limits of European Commission No 1881/2006 (4 μg/kg). The linearity of calibration curves was good for total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1) (R²=0.99) in the concentration range 0.005-4.05 ppb. The samples were analyzed in two replicated measurements and for each sample, the standard deviation (statistical parameter) is calculated. The results showed that the flour samples are safe, but the necessity of performing such tests is necessary.

Keywords: aflatoxins, ELISA technique, food contamination, flour

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369 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad


This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper, ELISA, Iran, India

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368 Enhancing the Sensitivity of Antigen Based Sandwich ELISA for COVID-19 Diagnosis in Saliva Using Gold Conjugated Nanobodies

Authors: Manal Kamel, Sara Maher


Development of sensitive non-invasive tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens is imperative to manage the extent of infection throughout the population, yet, it is still challenging. Here, we designed and optimized a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen detection in saliva. Both saliva samples and nasopharyngeal swapswere collected from 170 PCR-confirmed positive and negative cases. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with S1protein receptor binding domain (RBD) nanobodies. Recombinant S1 monoclonal antibodies (S1mAb) as primery antibody and gold conjugated nanobodies as secondary antibody were employed in sandwich ELISA. Our developed system were optimized to achieve 87.5 % sensitivity and 100% specificity for saliva samples compared to 89 % and 100% for nasopharyngeal swaps, respectively. This means that saliva could be a suitable replacement for nasopharyngeal swaps No cross reaction was detected with other corona virus antigens. These results revealed that our developed ELISAcould be establishedas a new, reliable, sensitive, and non-invasive test for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the easily collected saliva samples.

Keywords: COVID 19, diagnosis, ELISA, nanobodies

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367 A Novel Nano-Chip Card Assay as Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Lymphatic Filariasis Compared to Nano-Based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Manal Ahmed, Mahmoud M. El-Shall


Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by small roundworms. The filarial worms are transmitted and spread by blood-feeding black flies and mosquitoes. Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis) is caused by Wuchereriabancrofti, Brugiamalayi, and Brugiatimori. Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable, and rapid diagnostic kits. Nanodiagnostics involve the use of nanotechnology in clinical diagnosis to meet the demands for increased sensitivity, specificity, and early detection in less time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nano-based enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and novel nano-chip card as a rapid test for detection of filarial antigen in serum samples of human filariasis in comparison with traditional -ELISA. Serum samples were collected from an infected human with filarial gathered across Egypt's governorates. After receiving informed consenta total of 45 blood samples of infected individuals residing in different villages in Gharbea governorate, which isa nonendemic region for bancroftianfilariasis, healthy persons living in nonendemic locations (20 persons), as well as sera from 20 other parasites, affected patients were collected. The microfilaria was checked in thick smears of 20 µl night blood samples collected during 20-22 hrs. All of these individuals underwent the following procedures: history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations, which included examination of blood samples for microfilaria using thick blood film and serological tests for detection of the circulating filarial antigen using polyclonal antibody- ELISA, nano-based ELISA, and nano-chip card. In the present study, a recently reported polyoclonal antibody specific to tegumental filarial antigen was used in developing nano-chip card and nano-ELISA compared to traditional ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftianfilariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 45 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with sera from microfilaremicbancroftianfilariasis patients (n = 36) with a sensitivity of 80 %. Circulating filarial antigen was detected in 39/45 patients who were positive for circulating filarial antigen using nano-ELISA with a sensitivity of 86.6 %. On the other hand, 42 out of 45 patients were positive for circulating filarial antigen using nano-chip card with a sensitivity of 93.3%.In conclusion, using a novel nano-chip assay could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftianfilariasis.

Keywords: lymphatic filariasis, nanotechnology, rapid diagnosis, elisa technique

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366 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker


Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

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