Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4503

Search results for: organizational theory

4503 Understanding Workplace Behavior through Organizational Culture and Complex Adaptive Systems Theory

Authors: Péter Restás, Andrea Czibor, Zsolt Péter Szabó

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Purpose: This article aims to rethink the phenomena of employee behavior as a product of a system. Both organizational culture and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory emphasize that individual behavior depends on the specific system and the unique organizational culture. These two major theories are both represented in the field of organizational studies; however, they are rarely used together for the comprehensive understanding of workplace behavior. Methodology: By reviewing the literature we use key concepts stemming from organizational culture and CAS theory in order to show the similarities between these theories and create an enriched understanding of employee behavior. Findings: a) Workplace behavior is defined here as social cognition issue. b) Organizations are discussed here as complex systems, and cultures which drive and dictate the cognitive processes of agents in the system. c) Culture gives CAS theory a context which lets us see organizations not just as ever-changing and unpredictable, but as such systems that aim to create and maintain stability by recurring behavior. Conclusion: Applying the knowledge from culture and CAS theory sheds light on our present understanding of employee behavior, also emphasizes the importance of novel ways in organizational research and management.

Keywords: complex adaptive systems theory, employee behavior, organizational culture, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4502 The Liability of Renewal: The Impact of Changes in Organizational Capability, Performance, Legitimacy and Pressure for Change

Authors: Alshehri Sultan

Abstract:

Organizational change has remained an important subject for many researchers in the field of organizations theory. We propose the importance of organizational liability of renewal through a model that examines how an organization can overcome potential rigidities in organizational capabilities from learning by changing capabilities. We examine whether an established organization can overcome liability of renewal by changes in organizational capabilities and how the organizational renewal process reflect on the balance between the dynamic aspect of organizational learning as demonstrated by changes in capabilities and the stabilizing aspects of organizational inertia. We found both positive relationship between organizational learning and performance, and between legitimacy and performance. Performance and legitimacy have, however, a negative relationship on the pressure for change.

Keywords: organizational capabilities, organizational liability, liability of renewal, pressure for change

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4501 The Capability of Organizational Leadership: Development of Conceptual Framework

Authors: Kurmet Kivipõld, Maaja Vadi

Abstract:

Current paper develops the conceptual framework for organizational leadership capability. Organizational leadership here is understood as collective multi-level phenomenon which has been embedded into organizational processes as a capability at the level of the entire organization. The paper analyses and systematises the theo¬retical approaches to multi-level leadership in existing literature. This analysis marks the foundation of collective leadership at the organizational level, which forms the basis for the development of the conceptual framework of organi¬zational leadership capability. The developed conceptual framework of organiza¬tional leadership capability is formed from the synthesis of the three groups of base theories – traditional leadership theories, the resource-based view from strategic management and complexity theory from system theories. These conceptual sources present the main characteristics that determine the nature of organizational leadership capability and are the basis for its mea¬surement.

Keywords: leadership, organizational capability, organizational leadership, resource-based view, system theory

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4500 A Global Organizational Theory for the 21st Century

Authors: Troy A. Tyre

Abstract:

Organizational behavior and organizational change are elements of the ever-changing global business environment. Leadership and organizational behavior are 21st century disciplines. Network marketing organizations need to understand the ever-changing nature of global business and be ready and willing to adapt to the environment. Network marketing organizations have a challenge keeping up with a rapid escalation in global growth. Network marketing growth has been steady and global. Network marketing organizations have been slow to develop a 21st century global strategy to manage the rapid escalation of growth degrading organizational behavior, job satisfaction, increasing attrition, and degrading customer service. Development of an organizational behavior and leadership theory for the 21st century to help network marketing develops a global business strategy to manage the rapid escalation in growth that affects organizational behavior. Managing growth means organizational leadership must develop and adapt to the organizational environment. Growth comes with an open mind and one’s departure from the comfort zone. Leadership growth operates in the tacit dimension. Systems thinking and adaptation of mental models can help shift organizational behavior. Shifting the organizational behavior requires organizational learning. Organizational learning occurs through single-loop, double-loop, and triple-loop learning. Triple-loop learning is the most difficult, but the most rewarding. Tools such as theory U can aid in developing a landscape for organizational behavioral development. Additionally, awareness to espoused and portrayed actions is imperatives. Theories of motivation, cross-cultural diversity, and communications are instrumental in founding an organizational behavior suited for the 21st century.

Keywords: global, leadership, network marketing, organizational behavior

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4499 Organizational Change in the FBI after 9/11: An Institutional Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Ben D. Atkins

Abstract:

This study will examine the impact of September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the organizational development of American federal law enforcement through focusing on the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Content analysis of discourse in a federal law enforcement practitioner publication along with official FBI statements will be used to gain a better understanding of FBI organizational changes that have taken place since the events of September 11, 2001. Analysis of content trends in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and public discourse of FBI officials from 1999 to 2005 indicate that, in addition to structural changes, the bureau has also undergone a variety of cultural changes. The results offer some support for the institutional theoretical perspective, suggesting that post-9/11 organizational changes such as new mission priorities and the establishment of new branches were partially initiated due to a variety external pressures, which lends support for coercive isomorphism. Furthermore, structural changes are discussed in relation to the attainment and maintenance of organizational legitimacy.

Keywords: institutional theory, organizational theory, law enforcement, public administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
4498 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

Abstract:

Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, organizational culture, rewards

Procedia PDF Downloads 539
4497 Investigation of Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Research in Health Sector

Authors: Serdar Öge, Pinar Ertürk

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The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be found whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated scientific research methods and statistical analysis. In addition, elationships between the dimensions of organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior subscales will be questioned statistically.

Keywords: organizational climate, organizational citizenship, organizational citizenship behavior, climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
4496 Linking Business Owners’ Choice of Organizational Form to Appraisers’ Determination of Value: An Agency Theory Perspective

Authors: Majdi Anwar Quttainah, William Paczkowski, Ali Muhammad

Abstract:

Determining the value of a privately held firms confound those in academia as well as practitioners in the fields of appraisal, forensic accounting, and law. Divergent parties to the transfer look to apply the valuation technique to serve their own best interests. This paper seeks to explore how agency theory induces owners to choose the form of their businesses at inception and how this choice will affect the appraisers’ valuation of the firm at the transfer of ownership.

Keywords: organizational form, agency theory, value

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4495 Deconstructing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: A Comparison of Organizational Behaviour and Branding Perspectives

Authors: Satya Girish Goparaju

Abstract:

It is said that the pyramid of Needs is not an invention by Maslow but only a graphical representation of his theory. It is also interesting to note how business management schools have adopted this interpreted theory to organizational behavior and marketing subjects. Against this background, this article attempts to raise the point that the hierarchy of needs proposed by Abraham Maslow need not necessarily be represented in a pyramid, but a linear model would be more eligible in the present times. To propose this point, this article presents needs a comparative study of ‘self-actualization’ (the apex of the pyramid) in organizational behavior and branding contexts, respectively. This article tries to shed light on the original theory proposed by Maslow, which stated that self-actualization is attained through living one’s life completely and not by satisfying individual needs. Therefore, in an organizational behavior perspective, it can be understood that self-actualization is irrelevant as an employee’s life is not the work and the satisfied needs in a workplace will only make the employee perform better. In the same way, a brand does not sell products to satisfy all needs of a consumer and does not have a role directly in attaining self-actualization. For the purpose of this study, select employees of a branding agency will participate in responding to a questionnaire to answer both as employees of an organization and also as consumers of a global smartphone brand. This study aims to deconstruct the interpretations that have been widely accepted by both organizational behavior and branding professionals.

Keywords: branding, marketing, needs, organizational behavior, psychology

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4494 United against Drugs: Divergent Counternarcotic Strategies of US Government Agencies in Afghanistan

Authors: Anthony George Armiger II

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This paper focuses on the counternarcotic strategies of US government agencies in Afghanistan from 2001-2014. Despite a heavy US presence in the country, Afghanistan currently accounts for 80% of opium production worldwide and remains a key contributor to the global drug market. This paper argues that the divergent counternarcotic strategies of various US government agencies on the ground in Afghanistan are a product of the organizational differences amongst those agencies and that those differences can challenge the implementation of counternarcotics policies in Afghanistan. To gain a more in-depth perspective, this paper analyzes the counternarcotic strategies of two US government agencies in Afghanistan; the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Utilizing the framework of the organizational behavior model of organizational theory, this paper will highlight the varying organizational interests, opinions, standard operating procedures, and routines of both of the government agencies. The paper concludes with implications on counternarcotics, as well as the counterinsurgency in Afghanistan and provides recommendations for future research on foreign policy and counternarcotics.

Keywords: Afghanistan, drug policy, organizational theory, United States foreign policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4493 The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Burn out on Organizational Cynicism: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Aykut Bedük, Kemalettin Eryeşil, Osman Eşmen

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational commitment which is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, and burnout syndrome and organizational cynicism. Accordingly, a field research based on survey method was conducted on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. The findings of the research show that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational cynicism and burnout while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and burnout. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism.

Keywords: burnout, organizational commitment, organizational cynicism, healthcare management

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4492 Ingratiation as a Moderator of the Impact of the Perception of Organizational Politics on Job Satisfaction

Authors: Triana Fitriastuti, Pipiet Larasatie, Alex Vanderstraten

Abstract:

Many scholars have demonstrated the negative impacts of the perception of organizational politics on organizational outcomes. The model proposed in this study analyzes the impact of the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. In the same way, ingratiation as a moderator variable is tested. We applied regression analysis to test the hypothesis. The findings of the current research, which was conducted with 240 employees in the public sector in Indonesia, show that the perception of organizational politics has a negative effect on job satisfaction. In contrast, ingratiation plays a role that fully moderates the relationship between organizational politics and organizational outcomes and changes the correlation between the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. Employees who use ingratiation as a coping mechanism tend to do so when they perceive a high degree of organizational politics.

Keywords: ingratiation, impression management, job satisfaction, perception of organizational politics

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4491 The Effect of Change Communication towards Commitment to Change through the Role of Organizational Trust

Authors: Enno R. Farahzehan, Wustari L. Mangundjaya

Abstract:

Organizational change is necessary to develop innovation and to compete with other competitors. Organizational changes were also made to defend the existence of the organization itself. Success in implementing organizational change consists of a variety of factors, one of which is individual (employee) who run changes. The employee must have the willingness and ability in carrying out the changes. Besides, employees must also have a commitment to change for creation of the successful organizational change. This study aims to execute the effect of change communication towards commitment to change through the role of organizational trust. The respondents of this study were employees who work in organizations, which have been or are currently running organizational changes. The data were collected using Change Communication, Commitment to Change, and Organizational Trust Inventory. The data were analyzed using regression. The result showed that there is an effect among change communication towards commitment to change which is higher when mediated by organizational trust. This paper will contribute to the knowledge and implications of organizational change, that shows change communication can affect commitment to change among employee if there is trust in the organization.

Keywords: change communication, commitment to change, organizational trust, organizational change

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4490 The Impact of Job Meaningfulness on the Relationships between Job Autonomy, Supportive Organizational Climate, and Job Satisfaction

Authors: Sashank Nyapati, Laura Lorente-Prieto, Maria Peiro

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The general objective of this study is to analyse the mediating role of meaningfulness in the relationships between job autonomy and job satisfaction and supportive organizational climate and job satisfaction. Theories such as the Job Characteristics Model, Conservation of Resources theory, as well as the Job Demands-Resources theory were used as theoretical framework. Data was obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), and sample was composed of 1005 and 1000 workers from Spain and Portugal respectively. The analysis was conducted using the SOBEL Macro for SPSS (A multiple regression mediation model) developed by Preacher and Hayes in 2003. Results indicated that Meaningfulness partially mediates both the Job Autonomy-Job Satisfaction as well as the Supportive Organizational Climate-Job Satisfaction relationships. However, the percentages are large enough to draw substantial conclusions, especially that Job Meaningfulness plays an essential – if indirect – role in the amount of Satisfaction that one experiences at work. Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: meaningfulness, job autonomy, supportive organizational climate, job satisfaction

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4489 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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4488 The Influence of Leader’s Sources of Power on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohamed Yunus, Noorlaila Yunus, Kadulliah Ghazali

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In this an era of intense competition, Malaysia aspires to be a fully developed country by 2020 and desires its citizens to perform and execute excellent work behaviors. For that reason, organizations are focusing on employees’ positive and constructive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). They expect employees to not only complete their required duties by providing excellent performance but also keenly go beyond their roles that are not specifying in their formal job descriptions to ensure organizational success. The role and duty to acquire employees to engage and connect in OCB is the responsibility of a leader. Thus, leaders can utilize their sources of power to enable subordinates to accomplish organizational objective including OCB. Therefore, this paper formulates a framework postulating leader’s sources of power as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The discussion on implications for future theory development is discussed.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), leader’s sources of power, call centre industry, conceptual paper

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4487 Unintended Health Inequity: Using the Relationship Between the Social Determinants of Health and Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance as a Catalyst for Organizational Development and Change

Authors: Dinamarie Fonzone

Abstract:

Employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) strategic decision-making processes rely on financial analysis to guide leadership in choosing plans that will produce optimal organizational spending outcomes. These financial decision-making methods have not abated ESI costs. Previously unrecognized external social determinants, the impact on ESI plan spending, and other organizational strategies are emerging and are important considerations for organizational decision-makers and change management practitioners. The purpose of thisstudy is to examine the relationship between the social determinants of health (SDoH), employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) plans, andthe unintended consequence of health inequity. A quantitative research design using selectemployee records from an existing employer human capital management database will be analyzed. Statistical regressionmethods will be used to study the relationships between certainSDoH (employee income, neighborhood geographic living area, and health care access) and health plan utilization, cost, and chronic disease prevalence. The discussion will include an application of the social gradient of health theory to the study findings, organizational transformation through changes in ESI decision-making mental models, and the connection of ESI health inequity to organizational development and changediversity, equity, and inclusion strategies.

Keywords: employer-sponsored health insurance, social determinants of health, health inequity, mental models, organizational development, organizational change, social gradient of health theory

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4486 Internal and External Influences on the Firm Objective

Authors: A. Briseno, A, Zorrilla

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Firms are increasingly responding to social and environmental claims from society. Practices oriented to attend issues such as poverty, work equality, or renewable energy, are being implemented more frequently by firms to address impacts on sustainability. However, questions remain on how the responses of firms vary across industries and regions between the social and the economic objectives. Using concepts from organizational theory and social network theory, this paper aims to create a theoretical framework that explains the internal and external influences that make a firm establish its objective. The framework explains why firms might have a different objective orientation in terms of its economic and social prioritization.

Keywords: organizational identity, social network theory, firm objective, value maximization, social responsibility

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4485 The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence

Authors: Amira Khelil, Habib Affes

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The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: collective competence, exploitation learning, exploration learning, knowledge management, organizational learning capabilities

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4484 The Role of Organizational Trust in the Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Case Study of Sport Organizations of Tehran Municipality

Authors: Tayebeh Zargar

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The aim of the present research is to study the role of organizational trust in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors in sport organizations of Tehran Municipality. The method of this study is correlation and it is based on structural equation modeling. Among all staffs of sport organizations of Tehran Municipality, 150 staff members were selected through random sampling. The data gathering instrument of the study incorporated the Moorman’s (1999) Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), Ruder’s (2003) Trust Organizational Questionnaire (TOQ), and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (DiPaola, Tarter, & Hoy, 2005). SEM was utilized to analyze the data. Regarding the relationships between the variables presented in the model, the following results were obtained: organizational justice has significant direct positive effect on organizational trust (β=0.82), and organizational trust itself has significant direct positive effect on citizenship behavior (β=0.65). According to the results, making efforts in order to encourage staff members to participate more in organizational decision-making will influence their condition. Furthermore, paying more attention to organizational justice may cause the staff members to accept the organizational structure and respect the rules, volunteer in supporting the organizational resources, and have active participation in managing organization roles.

Keywords: organizational trust, organizational justice, organizational citizenship behaviors, sport organizations

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4483 Relationship of Organizational Culture, Teacher Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Universities in Bangkalan District

Authors: Iqbal Abd. Muhbir Hadi Anam

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The purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship between organizational culture, teacher psychological empowerment, and organizational citizenship behavior at the University of Bangkalan District. The data was obtained using a survey of 100 respondents tested for validity and reliability. The analytical technique used is a hierarchical regression test. The results showed that the organizational culture of the university had a strong influence on the psychological empowerment of teachers and the psychological empowerment of teachers and that the organizational culture and psychological empowerment of teachers provided effective predictions of the psychological empowerment of the university. In addition, organizational culture directly or indirectly influences teachers' organizational citizenship behavior through psychological empowerment. Given these results, universities need to build an organizational culture that reflects the nature of the university.

Keywords: organizational behavior, teacher psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behavior, universities

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4482 A Configurational Approach to Understand the Effect of Organizational Structure on Absorptive Capacity: Results from PLS and fsQCA

Authors: Murad Ali, Anderson Konan Seny Kan, Khalid A. Maimani

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Based on the theory of organizational design and the theory of knowledge, this study uses complexity theory to explain and better understand the causal impacts of various patterns of organizational structural factors stimulating absorptive capacity (ACAP). Organizational structure can be thought of as heterogeneous configurations where various components are often intertwined. This study argues that impact of the traditional variables which define a firm’s organizational structure (centralization, formalization, complexity and integration) on ACAP is better understood in terms of set-theoretic relations rather than correlations. This study uses a data sample of 347 from a multiple industrial sector in South Korea. The results from PLS-SEM support all the hypothetical relationships among the variables. However, fsQCA results suggest the possible configurations of centralization, formalization, complexity, integration, age, size, industry and revenue factors that contribute to high level of ACAP. The results from fsQCA demonstrate the usefulness of configurational approaches in helping understand equifinality in the field of knowledge management. A recent fsQCA procedure based on a modeling subsample and holdout subsample is use in this study to assess the predictive validity of the model under investigation. The same type predictive analysis is also made through PLS-SEM. These analyses reveal a good relevance of causal solutions leading to high level of ACAP. In overall, the results obtained from combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA are very insightful. In particular, they could help managers to link internal organizational structural with ACAP. In other words, managers may comprehend finely how different components of organizational structure can increase the level of ACAP. The configurational approach may trigger new insights that could help managers prioritize selection criteria and understand the interactions between organizational structure and ACAP. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications arising from these findings.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, organizational structure, PLS-SEM, fsQCA, predictive analysis, modeling subsample, holdout subsample

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4481 Perceived Organizational Justice, Trust and Employee Engagement in Bank Managers

Authors: Seemal Mazhar Khan, Tahira Mubashar

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The present research aimed to investigate the relationship in perceived organizational justice, organizational trust and employee engagement in bank employees. It was hypothesized: there is likely to be a relationship in perceived organizational justices, organizational trust and employee engagement; perceived organizational justice and organizational trust are likely to predict employee engagement; there is likely to be effect of bank type and designation on perceived organizational justice, organizational trust and employee engagement. The sample consisted of 150 bank employees (50 from government, 50 from private and 50 from privatized banks) selected from different banks in Lahore, Pakistan. Correlational research design was used to conduct this study. Perceived Organizational Justices Questionnaire, Organizational Trust Questionnaire and Employee Engagement Scale were used for assessment. Pearson product moment correlation, hierarchical regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were applied. Results showed a positive significant relationship in perceived organizational justice and organizational engagement and there were also a positive significant relation between organizational trust and job and organizational engagement. Results showed that organizational trust predicts organizational engagement after controlling the effect of age, marital status and socio-economic status and there is a significant interaction effect of bank type and designation level on organizational trust in bank employees. The findings of the research can serve as a platform for the awareness of important antecedents of employee engagement and organizations can inculcate trust for better and improved engagement of its employees, thereby, enhancing the productivity of their employees.

Keywords: bank employees, organizational engagement, perceived organizational justice, trust

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4480 The Roles of Organizational Culture, Participative Leadership, Employee Satisfaction and Work Motivation Towards Organizational Capabilities

Authors: Inezia Aurelia, Soebowo Musa

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Many firms still fail to develop organizational agility. There are more than 40% of organizations think that they are low/not agile in facing market change. Organizational culture plays an important role in developing the organizations to be adaptive in order to manage the VUCA effectively. This study examines the relationships of organizational culture towards participative leadership, employee satisfaction, employee work motivation, organizational learning, and absorptive capacity in developing organizational agility in managing the VUCA environment. 263 employees located from international chemical-based company offices across the globe who have worked for more than three years were the respondents in this study. This study showed that organizational clan culture promotes the development of participative leadership, which it has an empowering effect on people in the organization resulting in employee satisfaction. The study also confirms the role of organizational culture in creating organizational behavior within the organization that fosters organizational learning, absorptive capacity, and organizational agility, while the study also found that the relationship between participative leadership and employee work motivation is not significant.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, employee satisfaction, employee work motivation, organizational agility, organizational culture, organizational learning, participative leadership

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4479 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange on Turnover Intention: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt, Emine Öğüt

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Leader member exchange is considered as relationship-based approach to leadership. The focal point of this theory is that effective leadership processes occur when leaders and followers are able to develop mature leadership relationships and thus gain access to a variety of benefits these relationships bring. In this context, it can be claimed that the quality of leader member exchange appears to have a strong affect on perceived organizational support and reduce turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the levels of leader member exchange, perceived organizational support and turnover intention on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. A field study based on survey method on 134 physicians who are employees of a health institution operating in the mentioned sample. In accordance with this purpose, it has been observed that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between leader member exchange and turnover intention. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between perceived organizational support and turnover intention.

Keywords: leader member exchange, perceived organizational support, social exchange theory, turnover intention

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4478 The Effect of Organizational Virtuousness on Nurses' Organizational Identification Level and Performance: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Aytolan Yildirim

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Practices voluntarily performed by organizations for their employees well-being, create an emotional imperative for employees in accordance with reciprocity norm. Changes in desired course occur in organizational outputs and attitudes towards organization among employees perceiving their organizations as virtuous and supportive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of organizational virtuousness on performance and organizational identification levels of employees and mediating role of perceived organizational support in this relationship. The data of this descriptive and methodological study were collected from 336 nurses working in a public university hospital in 2015. Participant information form, Organizational Virtuousness, Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Identification, and Employee Performance scales were used to collect the data. Descriptive, correlative, psychometric analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were performed for the data analysis. Most of the participants were female, under 30 years of age, graduated degrees and staff nurse. Mean scores obtained by the participants from scales were calculated as 3.43(SD=.99) for organizational virtuousness, 2.99 (SD=1.16) for perceived organizational support, 3.18 (SD=1.03) for organizational identification and 3.84 (SD=0.66) for employee performance. It was found that correlation between organizational virtuousness and employee performance regressed from r=0.64 to r=-0.01 and correlation between organizational virtuousness and organizational identification regressed from r=0.55 to r=-0.16 and became statistically non-significant (p < 0.05) via mediating role of perceived organizational support. According to the results, perceived organizational support assumes full mediation on the impact of organizational virtues of employee performance and organizational identification levels. Therefore, organizations, which intend to positively affect employees attitudes towards organization and their performance, should both extend organizational virtuous activities and affect perceptions of employees; whereas, employees should perceive that they are supported by their organization.

Keywords: employee performance, organizational identification, organizational virtuousness, perceived organizational support

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4477 The Whole Is Greater than ‘Them’ and ‘Us’: The Effect of a Shared Workplace of Israeli-Jews and Non-Israeli Palestinians Physicians on Mutual Attitudes

Authors: Idit Miller

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This paper examines the effect of a common organizational identity on intergroup relations of Israeli-Jews and non-Israeli Palestinians medical interns who are employed together within the Israeli hospitals, while asymmetrical relationships and ongoing conflict between the two groups still exist. Using mixed theory, which included the Intergroup contact, Othering, and the Common social identity theories, the study examines the intra-organizational identities dynamic involved within the hospital department and its effects on intergroup relations. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with the Palestinian and Jews physicians were conducted. Findings show three social identity responses are being constructed during the shared employment: Them vs. Us construction, Them vs. Us deconstruction, and an 'Organizational Us' reconstruction. Despite the inequality inherent within the intergroup relations, by holding a universal identity and using a deconstruction pattern, positive emotions are demonstrated by both sides. The adoption of a shared professional super-identity is found as an essential component for fostering and maintaining positive attitudes between the parties. This finding strengthens the significance of a long-term continuous intergroup contact inside the organization and especially between two polarized groups.

Keywords: common social identity theory, intergroup contact theory, inequality, intergroup conflict, othering theory

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4476 The Effect of Contextual Factors on Degree of Trust in Kuwaiti Business Organization

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The study investigates the effect of a number of contextual on the degree of trust within Kuwaiti business organizations. The model used in this study suggests that degree of trust within the organization is determined by four contextual variables, namely, centralization, formalization, role ambiguity, and procedural justice. Organizational trust refers to employee’ positive assumptions in regard to the goal and behaviors of other members in the organization according to organizational duties, relationships, experiences, and interrelatedness. According to the norm of reciprocity, individuals with high perceived organizational justice will be compelled to react positively to the organization in the form of higher degree of trust. The duty to exchange kindness for kindness. Based on the exchange theory, this research proposes that procedural justice, role clarity, and voice in the organization will lead to the perception of an organization’s discretionary positive treatment of employees and, in return enhances their trust in the organization. Survey data were collected from a sample of 206 employees working in Kuwaiti business organizations. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that both organizational justice and formalization have positive effects on organizational trust. Furthermore, results indicate that lower degree of role ambiguity leads to higher degree of organizational trust. On the other hand, centralization was not found to have a significant effect on organizational trust. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: centralization, formalization, organizational justice, organizational trust, role ambiguity

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4475 Organizational Innovations of the 20th Century as High Tech of the 21st: Evidence from Patent Data

Authors: Valery Yakubovich, Shuping wu

Abstract:

Organization theorists have long claimed that organizational innovations are nontechnological, in part because they are unpatentable. The claim rests on the assumption that organizational innovations are abstract ideas embodied in persons and contexts rather than in context-free practical tools. However, over the last three decades, organizational knowledge has been increasingly embodied in digital tools which, in principle, can be patented. To provide the first empirical evidence regarding the patentability of organizational innovations, we trained two machine learning algorithms to identify a population of 205,434 patent applications for organizational technologies (OrgTech) and, among them, 141,285 applications that use organizational innovations accumulated over the 20th century. Our event history analysis of the probability of patenting an OrgTech invention shows that ideas from organizational innovations decrease the probability of patent allowance unless they describe a practical tool. We conclude that the present-day digital transformation places organizational innovations in the realm of high tech and turns the debate about organizational technologies into the challenge of designing practical organizational tools that embody big ideas about organizing. We outline an agenda for patent-based research on OrgTech as an emerging phenomenon.

Keywords: organizational innovation, organizational technology, high tech, patents, machine learning

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4474 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

Abstract:

The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: banks, Jordan, knowledge, organizational factors, sharing

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