Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2517

Search results for: ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)

2517 Methyl Red Adsorption and Photodegradation on TiO₂ Modified Mesoporous Carbon Photocatalyst

Authors: Seyyed Ershad Moradi, Javad Khodaveisi, Atefeh Nasrollahpour

Abstract:

In this study, the highly ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with high surface area and pore volume have been synthesized and modified by TiO₂ doping. The titanium oxide modified mesoporous carbon (Ti-OMC) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area, DRS also XRD analysis (low and wide angle). Degradation experiments were conducted in batch mode with the variables such as amount of contact time, initial solution concentration, and solution pH. The optimal conditions for the degradation of methyl red (MR) were 100 mg/L dye concentration, pH of 7, and 0.12 mg/L of TiO₂ modified mesoporous carbon photocatalyst dosage.

Keywords: mesoporous carbon, photodegradation, surface modification, titanium oxide

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2516 Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction by N-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao

Abstract:

The development of ordered mesoporous carbon materials with controllable structures and improved physicochemical properties by doping heteroatoms such as nitrogen into the carbon framework has attracted a lot of attention, especially in relation to energy storage and conversion. Herein, a series of Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres (NMC) was synthesized via a facile dual soft-templating procedure by tuning the nitrogen content and carbonization temperature. Various physical and (electro) chemical properties of the NMCs have been comprehensively investigated to pave the way for feasible design of nitrogen-containing porous carbon materials. The optimized sample showed a favorable electrocatalytic activity as evidenced by high kinetic current and positive onset potential for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its large surface area, high pore volume, good conductivity and high nitrogen content, which make it as a highly efficient ORR metal-free catalyst in alkaline solutions.

Keywords: porous carbon, N-doping, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template

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2515 Ordered Mesoporous WO₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites for Enhanced Xylene Gas Detection

Authors: Vijay K. Tomer, Ritu Malik, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Sharma

Abstract:

Highly ordered mesoporous WO₃-TiO₂ nanohybrids with large intrinsic surface area and highly ordered pore channels were synthesized using mesoporous silica, KIT-6 as hard template using a nanocasting strategy. The nanohybrid samples were characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques including X-ray diffraction, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The nanohybrids were tested for detection of important indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including acetone, ethanol, n-butanol, toluene, and xylene. The sensing result illustrates that the nanocomposite sensor was highly responsive towards xylene gas at relatively lower operating temperature. A rapid response and recovery time, highly linear response and excellent stability in the concentration ranges from 1 to 100 ppm was observed for xylene gas. It is believed that the promising results of this study can be utilized in the synthesis of ordered mesoporous nanostructures which can extend its configuration for the development of new age e-nose type sensors with enhanced gas-sensing performance.

Keywords: nanohybrids, response, sensor, VOCs, xylene

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2514 Ordered Mesoporous Carbons of Different Morphology for Loading and Controlled Release of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Aleksandra Galarda, Joanna Goscianska

Abstract:

Smart porous carriers with defined structure and physicochemical properties are required for releasing the therapeutic drug with precise control of delivery time and location in the body. Due to their non-toxicity, ordered structure, chemical, and thermal stability, mesoporous carbons can be considered as modern carriers for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) whose effectiveness needs frequent dosing algorithms. Such an API-carrier system, if programmed precisely, may stabilize the pharmaceutical and increase its dissolution leading to enhanced bioavailability. The substance conjugated with the material, through its prior adsorption, can later be successfully applied internally to the organism, as well as externally if the API release is feasible under these conditions. In the present study, ordered mesoporous carbons of different morphologies and structures, prepared by hard template method, were applied as carriers in the adsorption and controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In the first stage, the carbon materials were synthesized and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation using ammonium persulfate solution and then with amine groups. Materials obtained were thoroughly characterized with respect to morphology (scanning electron microscopy), structure (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy), characteristic functional groups (FT-IR spectroscopy), acid-base nature of surface groups (Boehm titration), parameters of the porous structure (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption) and thermal stability (TG analysis). This was followed by a series of tests of adsorption and release of paracetamol, benzocaine, and losartan potassium. Drug release experiments were performed in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 or 6.8 at 37.0 °C. The XRD patterns in the small-angle range and TEM images revealed that functionalization of mesoporous carbons with carboxylic or amine groups leads to the decreased ordering of their structure. Moreover, the modification caused a considerable reduction of the carbon-specific surface area and pore volume, but it simultaneously resulted in changing their acid-base properties. Mesoporous carbon materials exhibit different morphologies, which affect the host-guest interactions during the adsorption process of active pharmaceutical ingredients. All mesoporous carbons show high adsorption capacity towards drugs. The sorption capacity of materials is mainly affected by BET surface area and the structure/size matching between adsorbent and adsorbate. Selected APIs are linked to the surface of carbon materials mainly by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic interactions. The release behavior of API is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous carbons. The release rate of APIs could be regulated by the introduction of functional groups and by changing the pH of the receptor medium. Acknowledgments—This research was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (project SONATA-12 no: 2016/23/D/NZ7/01347).

Keywords: ordered mesoporous carbons, sorption capacity, drug delivery, carbon nanocarriers

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2513 Synthesis of Bimetallic Ti-Fe-SBA-15 Using Silatrane

Authors: Ratchadaporn Kaewmuang, Hussaya Maneesuwan, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Mesoporous materials have been used in many applications, such as adsorbent and catalyst. SBA-15, a 2D hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica material, has not only high specific surface area, but also thicker wall, larger pore size, better hydrothermal stability, and mechanical properties than M41s. However, pure SBA-15 still lacks of redox properties. Therefore, bimetallic incorporation into framework is of interest since it can create new active sites. In this work, Ti-Fe-SBA-15 is studied and successfully synthesized via sol-gel process, using silatrane, FeCl3, and titanium (VI) isopropoxide as silica, iron, and titanium sources, respectively. The products are characterized by SAXD, FE-SEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption, DR-UV, and XRF.

Keywords: SBA-15, mesoporous silica, bimetallic, titanium, iron, silatrane

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2512 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan

Abstract:

Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3-ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered [1]. Furthermore, based on computer experimental results in [1], it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular

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2511 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres and Their Electrochemical Properties for Glucose Detection

Authors: Ali Akbar Kazemi Asl, Mansour Rahsepar

Abstract:

Mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) with uniform particle size distribution having an average of 290 nm and large specific surface area (274.4 m²/g) were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method followed by the calcination process and then utilized as an enzyme-free glucose biosensor. Morphology, crystal structure, and porous nature of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. Also, the electrochemical performance of the [email protected] electrode for the measurement of glucose concentration in alkaline media was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA). [email protected] electrode shows good sensing performance, including a rapid glucose oxidation response within 3.1 s, a wide linear range of 0.026-12 mM, a sensitivity of 212.34 μA.mM⁻¹.cm⁻², and a detection limit of 25.7 μM with excellent selectivity.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemical, glucose, mesoporous carbon, non-enzymatic

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2510 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins

Authors: Ying Weiyong

Abstract:

The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.

Keywords: core-shell, mesoporous silica, methanol to olefins, SSZ-13

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2509 Copper and Aminosilane Functionalized Mesoporous Silicas as Carriers for Hydroxychloroquine Antiviral Drug

Authors: Anna Olejnik, Joanna Goscianska

Abstract:

Currently, great attention has been paid to hydroxychloroquine that showed promising antiviral activity against the Ebola virus, HIV-1, poliovirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2. This drug is applied to treat malaria, discoid lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and antiphospholipid syndrome. However, it was proved that hydroxychloroquine exhibits several side effects, including gastrointestinal disorders, myopathy, retinopathy, and hepatic failure. In order to reduce them and to minimize the frequency of drug daily dosage, it is proposed to apply nanocarriers such as ordered mesoporous silicas. These materials can be recommended as ideal candidates for hosting active compounds due to their nontoxicity, high stability, well-developed surface area, and great pore volume. The main aim of this study was to apply mesoporous silicas as novel nanocarriers for hydroxychloroquine. The SBA-15 and SBA-16 materials were modified with3-aminopropyltriethoxysilaneand copper(II) chloride. The amino-functional groups were applied to enhance the sorption abilities of mesoporous silica towards the drug, while copper was selected because it exhibits antiviral and antibacterial activity. The non-modified and copper and amino silane functionalized mesoporous silica were obtained and characterized by various methods such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, low-temperature nitrogen sorption infrared spectroscopy, laser diffraction, and zeta potential measurement. Afterward, the influence of physicochemical parameters of materials synthesized on the adsorption and release processes of hydroxychloroquine was studied. The results proved that the mesoporous silicas were successfully obtained. Unmodified SBA-15 and SBA-16 materials had high surface area, ranging from 703 to 727 m²/g, respectively. The functionalization of materials with aminosilane and copper(II) chloride led to a significant decrease in the specific surface area and pore volume. Based on XRD diffractograms and transmission electron microscopy images, it was identified that pristine SBA-15 and SBA-16 had highly ordered mesoporous structure, while for the modified materials, the degree of mesostructure ordering decreased. The results proved that the adsorption process of hydroxychloroquine was more efficient on the surface of copper and aminosilane modified materials only at low drug concentrations. It was found that pore volume is the crucial parameter that had an influence on the sorption capacity. The mechanism of drug binding to non-modified silicas (SBA-15 and SBA-16) was based mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonds, while in the case of copper and aminosilane functionalized materials, the complexes with hydroxychloroquine molecules were formed. The obtained data proved that the release behavior of drug from mesoporous silica carriers was determined by various factors such as pH conditions, textural parameters, surface charge, and the presence of surface functional groups. Based on these studies, it is expected that functionalized mesoporous silica could be used as a smart vehicle for hydroxychloroquine that will enable the release of the antiviral drug at the chosen location of the body in a controlled manner.

Keywords: drug adsorption, mesoporous materials, release studies, surface modification

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2508 Aging Time Effect of 58s Microstructure

Authors: Nattawipa Pakasri

Abstract:

58S (60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5), three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method using dual templating methods. non-ionic surfactant Brij56 used as templates component produced mesoporous and the spherical PMMA colloidal crystals as one template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered microporous products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The bioactive glass with aging step for 12 h at room temperature, no structure transformation occurred and the 3DOM structure was produced (Figure a) due to no shrinkage process between the aging step. After 48 h time of o 3DOM structure remained and, nanocube with ∼120 nm edge lengths and nanosphere particle with ∼50 nm was obtained (Figure c, d). PMMA packing templates have octahedral and tetrahedral holes to make 2 final shapes of 3DOM-BGs which is rounded and cubic, respectively. The ageing time change from 12h, 24h and 48h affected to the thickness of interconnecting macropores network. The wall thickness was gradually decrease after increase aging time.

Keywords: three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glasses, sol-gel method, PMMA, bioactive glass

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2507 Mesoporous Tussah Silk Fibroin Microspheres for Drug Delivery

Authors: Weitao Zhou, Qing Wang, Jianxin He, Shizhong Cui

Abstract:

Mesoporous Tussah silk fibroin (TSF) spheres were fabricated via the self-assembly of TSF molecules in aqueous solutions. The results showed that TSF particles were approximately three-dimensional spheres with the diameter ranging from 500nm to 6μm without adherence. More importantly, the surface morphology is mesoporous structure with nano-pores of 20nm - 200nm in size. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that mesoporous TSF spheres mainly contained beta-sheet conformation (44.1 %) as well as slight amounts of random coil (13.2 %). Drug release test was performed with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug and the result indicated the mesoporous TSF microspheres had a good capacity of sustained drug release. It is expected that these stable and high-crystallinity mesoporous TSF sphere produced without organic solvents, which have significantly improved drug release properties, is a very promising material for controlled gene medicines delivery.

Keywords: Tussah silk fibroin, porous materials, microsphere, drug release

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2506 Mesoporous Carbon Ceramic SiO2/C Prepared by Sol-Gel Method and Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine and Used as an Electrochemical Sensor for Nitrite

Authors: Abdur Rahim, Lauro Tatsuo Kubota, Yoshitaka Gushikem

Abstract:

Carbon ceramic mesoporous SiO2/50wt%C (SBET= 170 m2g-1), where C is graphite, was prepared by the sol gel method. Scanning electron microscopy images and the respective element mapping showed that, within the magnification used, no phase segregation was detectable. It presented the electric conductivities of 0.49 S cm-1. This material was used to support cobalt phthalocyanine, prepared in situ, to assure a homogeneous dispersion of the electro active complex in the pores of the matrix. The surface density of cobalt phthalocyanine, on the matrix surfaces was 0.015 mol cm-2. Pressed disk, made with SiO2/50wt%C/CoPc, was used to fabricate an electrode and tested as sensors for nitrite determination by electro chemical technique. A linear response range between 0.039 and 0.42 mmol l−1,and correlation coefficient r=0.9996 was obtained. The electrode was chemically very stable and presented very high sensitivity for this analyte, with a limit of detection, LOD = 1.087 x 10-6 mol L-1.

Keywords: SiO2/C/CoPc, sol-gel method, electrochemical sensor, nitrite oxidation, carbon ceramic material, cobalt phthalocyanine

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2505 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos

Abstract:

Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO₂ / In₂O₃ bilayer

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2504 Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim

Abstract:

The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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2503 Carbon Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: Yu. Mateyshina, A. Ulihin, N. Uvarov

Abstract:

Supercapacitors are one of the most promising devices for energy storage applications as they can provide higher power density than batteries and higher energy density than conventional dielectric capacitors. Carbon materials with various microtextures are considered as main candidates for supercapacitors in terms of high surface area, interconnected pore structure, controlled pore size, high electrical conductivity and environmental friendliness. The specific capacitance (C) of the electrode material of the Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) is known to depend on the specific surface area (Ss) and the pore structure. Activated carbons are most commonly used in supercapacitors because of their high surface area (Ss ≥ 1000 m2/g), good adhesion to electrolytes and low cost. In this work, electrochemical properties of new microporous and mesoporous carbon electrode materials were studied. The aim of the work was to investigate the relationship between the specific capacitance and specific surface area in a series of materials prepared from different organic precursors.. As supporting matrixes different carbon samples with Ss = 100-2000 m2/g were used. The materials were modified by treatment in acids (H2SO4, HNO3, acetic acid) in order to enable surface hydrophilicity. Then nanoparticles of transition metal oxides (for example NiO) were deposited on the carbon surfaces using methods of salts impregnation, mechanical treatment in ball mills and the precursors decomposition. The electrochemical characteristics of electrode hybrid materials were investigated in a symmetrical two-electrode cell using an impedance spectroscopy, voltammetry in both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic modes. It was shown that the value of C for the materials under study strongly depended on the preparation method of the electrode and the type of electrolyte (1 M H2SO4, 6 M KOH, 1 M LiClO4 in acetonitryl). Specific capacity may be increased by the introduction of nanoparticles from 50-100 F/g for initial carbon materials to 150-300 F/g for nanocomposites which may be used in supercapacitors. The work is supported by the по SC-14.604.21.0013.

Keywords: supercapacitors, carbon electrode, mesoporous carbon, electrochemistry

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2502 FT-IR Investigation of the Influence of Acid-Base Sites on Cr-Incorporated MCM-41 Nanoparticle in C-C Bond Formation

Authors: Dilip K. Paul

Abstract:

The most popular mesoporous molecular sieves, Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM) are keenly studied by researchers because of these materials possess amorphous silica wall and have a long range of ordered framework with uniform mesopores. These materials also possess large surface area, which can be up to more than 1000 m2g−1. Herein the investigation is focused upon the synthesis and characterization of chromium and aluminum doped MCM-41 using XRD and FTIR. Acid-base properties of Cr-Al-MCM 41 was investigated by molecularly sensitive transmission FT-IR spectroscopy by adsorbing pyridine. In addition, these MCM nanomaterial was used to catalyze C-C bond formation from acetaldehyde adsorption. The assignment of all infrared peaks during adsorption of pyridine provided detail information on the presence of acid-base sites which in turn helped us to explain the roles of these in the condensation reaction of aldehyde. Reaction mechanisms of C-C bond formation is therefore explored to shed some light on this elusive reaction detail.

Keywords: mesoporous nanomaterial, MCM 41, FTIR studies, acid-base studies

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2501 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion

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2500 Application of the Mesoporous Silica Oxidants on Immunochromatography Detections

Authors: Chang, Ya-Ju, Hsieh, Pei-Hsin, Wu, Jui-Chuang, Chen-Yang, Yui Whei

Abstract:

A mesoporous silica material was prepared to apply to the lateral-flow immunochromatography for detecting a model biosample. The probe antibody is immobilized on the silica surface as the test line to capture its affinity antigen, which laterally flows through the chromatography strips. The antigen is labeled with nano-gold particles, such that the detection can be visually read out from the test line without instrument aids. The result reveals that the mesoporous material provides a vast area for immobilizing the detection probes. Biosening surfaces corresponding with a positive proportion of detection signals is obtained with the biosample loading.

Keywords: mesoporous silica, immunochromatography, lateral-flow strips, biosensors, nano-gold particles

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2499 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao

Abstract:

Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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2498 A Cheap Mesoporous Silica from Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Sulfate in Water

Authors: Ximena Castillo, Jaime Pizarro

Abstract:

This research describes the development of a very cheap mesoporous silica material similar to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) and using a silicate extract as precursor. This precursor is obtained from cheap fly ash by an easy calcination process at 850 °C and a green extraction with water. The obtained mesoporous fly ash material had a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a pore size of 5.7 nm. It was functionalized with ethylene diamino moieties via the well-known SAMMS method, followed by a DRIFT analysis that clearly showed the successful functionalization. An excellent adsorbent was obtained for the adsorption of sulfate anions by the solid’s modification with copper forming a copper-ethylenediamine complex. The adsorption of sulfates was studied in a batch system ( experimental conditions: pH=8.0; 5 min). The kinetics data were adjusted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model. The maximum sulfate adsorption capacity of this very cheap fly ash based adsorbent was 146.1 mg g-1, 3 times greater than the values reported in literature and commercial adsorbent materials.

Keywords: fly ash, mesoporous materials, SAMMS, sulfate

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2497 Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Nano Sized Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Ateeq Ur Rehman

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electrocatalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physicochemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), nano particles, formic acid fuel cell

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2496 Enhanced Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Binary Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Azeem Ur Rehman, Asma Tayyaba

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electro catalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physico chemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), electro catalyst, formic acid fuel cell

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2495 Preparation of Nanocrystalline Mesoporous ThO2 Via Surfactant Assisted Sol-gel Procedure

Authors: N. Mohseni, S. Janitabar, S.J. Ahmadi, M. Roshanzamir, M. Thaghizadeh

Abstract:

There has been proposed a technique for getting thorium dioxide mesoporous nanocrystalline. In this paper thorium dioxide powder was synthesized through the sol-gel method using hydrated thorium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide as starting materials and Triton X100 as surfactant. ThO2 gel was characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), and prepared ThO2 powder was subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) analyses studies. Detailed analyses show that prepared powder consisted of phase with the space group Fm3m of thoria and its crystalline size was 27 nm. The thoria possesses 16.7 m2/g surface area and the pore volume and size calculated to be 0.0423 cc/g and 1.947 nm, respectively.

Keywords: mesoporous, nanocrystalline, sol-gel, thoria

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2494 Development and Characterization of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles of Quercetin in Skin Cancer

Authors: Khusboo Agrawal, S. Saraf

Abstract:

Quercetin, a flavonol provides a cellular protection against UV induced oxidative damages due to its excellent free radical scavenging activity and direct pro-apoptopic effect on tumor cells. However, its topical use is limited due to its unfavorable physicochemical properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as topical carrier system for quercetin delivery. Complexes of quercetin with mesoporous silica was prepared with different weight ratios and characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, high resolution TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry The protective effect of this vehicle on UV-induced degradation of the quercetin was investigated revealing a certain positive influence of the inclusion on the photostability over time. Epidermal accumulation and transdermal permeation of this molecule were ex vivo evaluated by using Franz diffusion cells. The immobilization of Quercetin in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) increased the stability without undermining the antioxidant efficacy.

Keywords: cancer, MSNs, quercetin, topical delivery

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2493 Investigation on the Kinetic Mechanism of the Reduction of Fe₂O₃/CoO-Decorated Carbon Xerogel

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Michele Catti

Abstract:

The reduction of CoO/Fe₂O₃ oxides supported on carbon xerogels was studied to elucidate the effect of nano-size distribution of the catalyst in carbon matrices. Resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels were synthesized, impregnated with iron and cobalt nitrates, and subsequently heated to obtain the oxides. The mechanism of oxide reduction to metal was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction in dynamic, non-isothermal conditions. Kinetic profiles of the reactions were obtained by plotting the diffraction intensities of selected Bragg peaks vs. temperature. The extracted Temperature-Programmed-Reduction (TPR) diagrams were analyzed by appropriate kinetic models, leading to best results with the Avrami-Erofeev model for all reduction reactions considered. The activation energies for the two-step reduction of iron oxide were 65 and 37 kJmol⁻¹, respectively. The average value for the reduction of CoO to Co was found to be around 21 kJ mol⁻¹. Such results may contribute to develop efficient and inexpensive non-noble metal-based catalysts in element form, e.g., Fe, Co, via heterogenization of metal complexes on mesoporous supports.

Keywords: non-isothermal kinetics, carbon aerogel, in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reduction mechanisms

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2492 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

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2491 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

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2490 Synthesis of Mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites as Efficient Photocatalyst for Treatment Industrial Wastewater under Visible Light and UV Illumination

Authors: Ibrahim Abdelfattah, Adel Ismail, Ahmed Helal, Mohamed Faisal

Abstract:

Advanced oxidation technologies are an environment friendly approach for the remediation of industrial wastewaters. Here, one pot synthesis of mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites at different In₂O₃ contents (0-3 wt%) have been synthesized through a facile sol-gel method to evaluate their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide and phenol under visible light and UV illumination compared with commercially available either Degussa P-25 or UV-100 Hombikat. The prepared mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, STEM, XRD, Raman FT-IR, Raman spectra and diffuse reflectance UV-visible. The bandgap energy of the prepared photocatalysts was derived from the diffuse reflectance spectra. XRD Raman's spectra confirmed that highly crystalline anatase TiO₂ phase was formed. TEM images show TiO₂ particles are quite uniform with 10±2 nm sizes with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO₂ exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267 cm³g⁻¹ and high surface areas of 178 m²g⁻¹, but they become reduced to 0.211 cm³g⁻¹ and 112 m²g⁻¹, respectively upon In₂O₃ incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5 - 7 nm. The 0.5% In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade 90% of imazapyr herbicide and phenol along 180 min and 60 min respectively. The proposed mechanism of this system and the role of In₂O₃ are explained by details.

Keywords: In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites, sol-gel method, visible light illumination, UV illumination, herbicide and phenol wastewater, removal

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2489 Carbon Nitride Growth on ZnO Architectures for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Application

Authors: Špela Hajduk, Sean P. Berglund, Matejka Podlogar, Goran Dražić, Fatwa F. Abdi, Zorica C. Orel, Menny Shalom

Abstract:

Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap. Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. Two different deposition methods of carbon nitride were investigated and will be presented. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as X-ray powder spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), high-resolution scanning microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: carbon nitride, photoanode, solar water splitting, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2488 Influence of Deposition Temperature on Supercapacitive Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Carbon Cloth: New Generation of Wearable Energy Storage Electrode Material

Authors: Snehal L. Kadam, Shriniwas B. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Flexible electrode material with high surface area and good electrochemical properties is the current trend captivating the researchers across globe for application in the next generation energy storage field. In the present work, crumpled sheet like reduced graphene oxide grown on carbon cloth by the hydrothermal method with a series of different deposition temperatures at fixed time. The influence of the deposition temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and supercapacitive properties of the electrode material was investigated by XRD, RAMAN, XPS, TEM, FE-SEM, UV-VISIBLE and electrochemical characterization techniques.The results show that the hydrothermally synthesized reduced graphene oxide on carbon cloth has sheet like mesoporous structure. The reduced graphene oxide material at 160°C exhibits the best supercapacitor performance, with a specific capacitance of 443 F/g at scan rate 5mV/sec. Moreover, stability studies show 97% capacitance retention over 1000 CV cycles. This result shows that hydrothermally synthesized RGO on carbon cloth is the potential electrode material and would be used in the next-generation wearable energy storage systems. The detailed analysis and results will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, carbon cloth, deposition temperature, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 101