Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Amadou Banda Ndione

18 Economic Development Process: A Compartmental Analysis of a Model with Two Delays

Authors: Amadou Banda Ndione, Charles Awono Onana

Abstract:

In this paper the compartmental approach is applied to build a macroeconomic model characterized by countries. We consider a total of N countries that are subdivided into three compartments according to their economic status: D(t) denotes the compartment of developing countries at time t, E(t) stands for the compartment of emerging countries at time t while A(t) represents advanced countries at time t. The model describes the process of economic development and includes the notion of openness through collaborations between countries. Two delays appear in this model to describe the average time necessary for collaborations between countries to become efficient for their development process. Our model represents the different stages of development. It further gives the conditions under which a country can change its economic status and demonstrates the short-term positive effect of openness on economic growth. In addition, we investigate bifurcation by considering the delay as a bifurcation parameter and examine the onset and termination of Hopf bifurcations from a positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate the theoretical part and to support discussion.

Keywords: compartmental systems, delayed dynamical system, economic development, fiscal policy, hopf bifurcation

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17 Effectiveness of Qanun Number 14 of 2013 on Khalwat, Nasty in the Enforcement of Islamic Shari'a in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province

Authors: Muhadam Labolo, Mughny Ibtisyam Mukhlis, Zulkarnaen, Safira Maulida Rahman Soulisa

Abstract:

This research is motivated by one of the functions of government is a regulatory function. Aceh Province, especially in Banda Aceh City has special autonomy, one of them is in the application of Islamic law, but when the law implemented to the citizen, there are many problems happens. One of the problems faced by the Government and people of Banda Aceh was Seclusion. Seclusion/nasty silent act between two people mukallafor more of the opposite sex who is not mahram or without marriage. This study aims to determine and analyze how the effectiveness of the policy as well as enabling and inhibiting factors of Qanun Number 14 of 2003 On Khalwat (nasty) in sharia Islam Islamic law in the city of Banda Aceh. This type of research is qualitative research method is a descriptive and inductive approach. The source of data used is People, Problem, Phenomenon, and programs, while the data collection through field studies and literature such as interviews, observation, and documentation. The results of this study were analyzed by using data reduction, display data, conclusions, and verification. The results showed that the Qanun Number 14 of 2003 on Khalwat (nasty) in the establishment of Islamic law in Banda Aceh is still not effective. It is seen from the high number of violations seclusion committed by Banda Aceh citizen, especially among teenagers, lack of socialization, as well as a lack of budgetary support for the implementation of Islamic Law in Banda Aceh. The supporting factors are 1) Coordination and communication among agencies had been walking steadily. 2) Facilities and infrastructure Syar'iah Court of Banda Aceh and the Office of Sharia Islam Banda Aceh that very good. 3) The Cultural majority of the people of Banda Aceh that support. Inhibiting factors: 1) There are no written duties of each institution for the prosecution case Seclusion. 2) The lack of socialization programs. 3) Lack of facilities and infrastructure Municipal Police Unit and the WH less. 4) Lack of control by the family. 5) The absence of training for officials Municipal Police Units and the Wilayatul Hisbah Banda Aceh.

Keywords: effectiveness, Islamic Sharia, Khalwat, Qanun

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16 Classification Earthquake Distribution in the Banda Sea Collision Zone with Point Process Approach

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno

Abstract:

Banda Sea collision zone (BSCZ) of is the result of the interaction and convergence of Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate and Pacific plate. This location in the eastern part of Indonesia. This zone has a very high seismic activity. In this research, we will be calculated rate (λ) and Mean Square Eror (MSE). By this result, we will identification of Poisson distribution of earthquakes in the BSCZ with the point process approach. Chi-square test approach and test Anscombe made in the process of identifying a Poisson distribution in the partition area. The data used are earthquakes with Magnitude ≥ 6 SR and its period 1964-2013 and sourced from BMKG Jakarta. This research is expected to contribute to the Moluccas Province and surrounding local governments in performing spatial plan document related to disaster management.

Keywords: molluca banda sea collision zone, earthquakes, mean square error, poisson distribution, chi-square test, anscombe test

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15 The Historical Background of Physical Changing Towards Ancient Mosques in Aceh, Indonesia

Authors: Karima Adilla

Abstract:

Aceh province, into which Islam convinced to have entered Indonesia in the 12th Century before spreading throughout the archipelago and the rest of Southeast Asia, has several early Islamic mosques that still exist until today. However, due to some circumstances, the restoration and rehabilitation towards those mosques have been made in some periods, while the background was diverse. Concerning this, the research will examine the physical changing aspects of 3 prominent historical mosques in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh; those are, Indrapuri Mosque, Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, and Baiturrahim Mosque built coincided with the beginning of Islam’s development in Aceh and regarded as eventful mosques. The existence of Indrapuri Mosque built on the remains of the Lamuri Kingdom’s temple is a historical trace that there was Hindu-Buddhist civilization in Aceh before Islam entered and became the majority religion about 98% from Aceh total population. Also, there was the Dutch who colonialized Aceh behind the existence of two famous mosques in Aceh, namely Baiturrahman Grand Mosque and Baiturrahim Mosque, as the colonizer also assisted to rebuild those 2 sacred Mosques to quell the anger of the Acehnese people because their mosque was burnt by the Dutch. Interestingly, despite underwent a long history successively since the rise of Islam after the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom had collapsed, colonialization, conflict, in Aceh, and even experienced the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2004, those mosques still exist. Therefore, those mosques have been considered as historical silent witnesses. However, it was not merely those reasons that led the mosques underwent several physical changes, otherwise economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors were also highly influential. Instead of directly illustrating the physical changing of those three mosques, this research intends to identify under what condition the physical appearance continuously changing during the sultanate era, the colonial period until post-independent in terms of the architectural style, detail elements, design philosophy, and how the remnants buildings act as medium to bridge the history. A framework will use qualitative research methods by collecting actual data of the mosque's physical change figures through field studies, investigations, library studies and interviews. This research aims to define every trace of historical issues embedded in the physical changing of those mosques as they are intertwined in collecting historical proof. Thus, the result will reveal the characteristic interrelation between history, the mosque architectural style in a certain period, the physical changes background and its impact. Eventually, this research will also explicate a clear inference of each mosque’s role in representing history in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh specifically, as well as Aceh generally through architectural design concepts.

Keywords: Aceh ancient mosques, Aceh history, Islamic architecture, physical changing

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14 The Effect of Human Relation on Employee Performance at Faculty of Economics of Syiah Kuala University

Authors: Yurnalis Usman

Abstract:

In an organization, institution or enterprise, human resource is very important aspect since many human skills cannot be replaced by technology tools even though technology has advanced rapidly now. The relationship among people is very necessary to create a subordinate and leader relation in the assumption that human beings are creatures who have feeling, desires, needs, aspirations and ideas differing from one another. This study on human relation was conducted at the Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, while the research object is associated with human relations and employee performance in Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH. To determine the extent of employee relations in Faculty of Economics with fellow employees or superiors, the employees are given some questions. The result shows that human relations influence the employee performance at Faculty of Economics UNSYIAH strongly.

Keywords: human relation, employee performance, communication, Syiah Kuala

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13 Study of Anti-Symmetric Flexural Mode Propagation along Wedge Tip with a Crack

Authors: Manikanta Prasad Banda, Che Hua Yang

Abstract:

Anti-symmetric wave propagation along the particle motion of the wedge waves is known as anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes which travel along the wedge tips of the mid-plane apex with a small truncation. This paper investigates the characteristics of the ASF modes propagation with the wedge tip crack. The simulation and experimental results obtained by a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model explained the contact acoustic non-linear (CAN) behavior in explicit dynamics in ABAQUS and the ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method is used for defect detection. The effect of various parameters on its high and low-level conversion modes are known for complex reflections and transmissions involved with direct reflections and transmissions. The results are used to predict the location of crack through complex transmission and reflection coefficients.

Keywords: ASF mode, crack detection, finite elements method, laser ultrasound technique, wedge waves

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12 Understanding Cruise Passengers’ On-board Experience throughout the Customer Decision Journey

Authors: Sabina Akter, Osiris Valdez Banda, Pentti Kujala, Jani Romanoff

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This paper examines the relationship between on-board environmental factors and customer overall satisfaction in the context of the cruise on-board experience. The on-board environmental factors considered are ambient, layout/design, social, product/service and on-board enjoyment factors. The study presents a data-driven framework and model for the on-board cruise experience. The data are collected from 893 respondents in an application of a self-administered online questionnaire of their cruise experience. This study reveals the cruise passengers’ on-board experience through the customer decision journey based on the publicly available data. Pearson correlation and regression analysis have been applied, and the results show a positive and a significant relationship between the environmental factors and on-board experience. These data help understand the cruise passengers’ on-board experience, which will be used for the ultimate decision-making process in cruise ship design.

Keywords: cruise behavior, customer activities, on-board environmental factors, on-board experience, user or customer satisfaction

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11 Enhancing Police Accountability through the Malawi Independent Police Complaints Commission: Prospects and Challenges That Lie Ahead

Authors: Esther Gumboh

Abstract:

The police play a critical role in society and are an integral aspect of the rule of law. Equally, respect for human rights is an integral part of professional policing. In view of the vast powers that the police enjoy and the attendant risk of abuse and resulting human rights violations, the need for police accountability and civilian police oversight is internationally and regionally recognised. Policing oversight springs from the duty to investigate human rights violations. Those implicated in perpetrating or covering up violations must be disciplined or prosecuted to ensure effective accountability. Police accountability is particularly important in Malawi given the dark history of policing in the country during the 30-year dictatorial era under President Kamuzu Banda. Described as one of the most repressive regimes in Africa, the Banda administration was characterised by gross state-sponsored violence, repressive policing and human rights violations. Indeed, the police were involved in various forms of human rights abuse including arbitrary arrests and unlawful detentions, torture, and excessive use of force in conducting arrests and public order policing. This situation flourished within a culture of police impunity bolstered in part by the absence of clear oversight mechanisms for police accountability. In turn, there was immense public mistrust of the police. Unsurprisingly, the criminal justice system was one of the priority areas for reform when Malawi adopted its first democratic Constitution in 1994. Section 153 of the Constitution envisions a police service that is, for all intents and purposes, there to provide for the protection of public safety and the rights of persons in Malawi according to the prescriptions of the Constitution and any other law. This position reflects the view that the duty to protect and promote human rights is not incompatible with effective policing. Despite this, the police continue to engage in questionable behaviour in public order policing, excessive use of force, deaths in police custody, ill-treatment, torture and other forms of abuse including sexual abuse. Perpetrators of abuses are occasionally punished, but investigations are often delayed, abandoned, or remain inconclusive. Police accountability remains largely elusive. Commendably, the law does subject the police to significant oversight both internally and externally. However, until 2010, Malawi lacked a wholly independent civilian oversight mechanism specifically mandated to monitor the activities of the Malawi Police Service and held it accountable. This void has since been filled by the Independent Complaints Commission established under the Police Act. This is a positive development that reiterates Malawi’s commitment to the investigation of human rights violations by the police and to ending police impunity. This contribution examines the legal framework for this Commission to project the effectiveness of the Commission. While the framework looks promising on various fronts, there are potential challenges that lie ahead. Malawi must pre-emptively deal with these challenges carefully if the Commission is to have any practical significance in transforming police accountability in the country. Drawing on lessons from other jurisdictions like South Africa, the paper makes recommendations for legislative reform to strengthen the Commission’s framework.

Keywords: civilian policing oversight, Malawi, police, police accountability, policing, policing oversight

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10 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais

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Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

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9 Effort-Reward-Imbalance and Self-Rated Health Among Healthcare Professionals in the Gambia

Authors: Amadou Darboe, Kuo Hsien-Wen

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Background/Objective: The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model by Siegrist et al (1986) have been widely used to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and health. It claimed that failed reciprocity in terms of high efforts and low rewards elicits strong negative emotions in combination with sustained autonomic activation and is hazardous to health. The aim of this study is to identify the association between Self-rated Health and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) among Nurses and Environmental Health officers in the Gambia. Method: a cross-sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage random sampling of 296 healthcare professionals (206 nurses and 90 environmental health officers) working in public health facilities. The 22 items Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI-L version 22.11.2012) will be used to collect data on the psychosocial factors defined by the model. In addition, self-rated health will be assessed by using structured questionnaires containing Likert scale items. Results: We found that self-rated health among environmental health officers has a significant negative correlation with extrinsic effort and a positive significant correlations with occupational reward and job satisfaction. However, among the nurses only job satisfaction was significantly correlated with self-rated health and was positive. Overall, Extrinsic effort has a significant negative correlation with reward and job satisfaction but a positive correlation with over-commitment. Conclusion: Because low reward and high over-commitment among the nursing group, It is necessary to modify working conditions through improving psychosocial factors, such as reasonable allocation of resources to increase pay or rewards from government.

Keywords: effort-reward imbalance model, healthcare professionals, self-rated health

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8 Geographical Indication Protection for Agricultural Products: Contribution for Achieving Food Security in Indonesia

Authors: Mas Rahmah

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Indonesia is the most populous Southeast Asian nations, as Indonesia`s population is constantly growing, food security has become a crucial trending issue. Although Indonesia has more than enough natural resources and agricultural products to ensure food security for all, Indonesia is still facing the problem of food security because of adverse weather conditions, increasing population, political instability, economic factors (unemployment, rising food prices), and the dependent system of agriculture. This paper will analyze that Geographical Indication (GI) can aid in transforming Indonesian agricultural-dependent system by tapping the unique product attributes of their quality products since Indonesia has a lot of agricultural products with unique quality and special characteristic associated with geographical factors such as Toraja Coffee, Alor Vanili, Banda Nutmeg, Java Tea, Deli Tobacco, Cianjur Rise etc. This paper argues that the reputation and agricultural products and their intrinsic quality should be protected under GI because GI will provide benefit supporting the food security program. Therefore, this paper will expose the benefit of GI protection such as increasing productivity, improving the exports of GI products, creating employment, adding economic value to products, and increasing the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products, etc. that can contribute to food security. The analysis will finally conclude that the scenario of promoting GI may indirectly contribute to food security through adding value by incorporating territory specific cultural, environmental and social qualities into production, processing and developing of unique local, niche and special agricultural products.

Keywords: geographical indication, food security, agricultural product, Indonesia

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7 A Study on the Impact of Perceived Benefits and Switching Costs of Consumers When Shifting from Brick and Mortar Store to Online Shopping of Apparels

Authors: Havisha Banda

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Recent advancements in technology have facilitated commerce around the globe. The online medium of commerce has provided and will continue to provide great opportunities for consumers and businesses. Advancements in technology enable apparel stores, for instance, to improve their online services by using personalized virtual models allowing consumers to visualize the product on the model to determine correct sizing and fit. In addition to many advantages in online shopping the consumers will also have to undergo many types of switching costs in this process of buying apparel online. This study is to identify such switching costs and switching benefits from traditional shopping to online shopping and to understand what the consumers value the most. The scope of this study is to understand the types of switching costs and the factors that actually allow the consumers to shift from brick and mortar to online shopping and also to understand why a certain set of customers consider to purchase offline. Hence this study helps to understand the perceived cost and perceived benefit relation that the consumer draws in purchasing the garments online. This will help the upcoming e-commerce sites and brick and mortar store to understand the various factors and formulate new policies and implement strategies in their own ways to attract the customers and to retain them. A sample of 35 is considered for the process of laddered interviews. In the era of e-commerce there are people who feel comfortable to shop in a retail store rather than online purchase. Few respondents who shop online do not prefer to shop apparel online. Few respondents said that they shop online only for apparels. Most of the variables match in terms of switching costs and also in regard to benefits.

Keywords: e-commerce, switching costs, switching benefits, apparel shopping

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6 Check Red Blood Cells Concentrations of a Blood Sample by Using Photoconductive Antenna

Authors: Ahmed Banda, Alaa Maghrabi, Aiman Fakieh

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Terahertz (THz) range lies in the area between 0.1 to 10 THz. The process of generating and detecting THz can be done through different techniques. One of the most familiar techniques is done through a photoconductive antenna (PCA). The process of generating THz radiation at PCA includes applying a laser pump in femtosecond and DC voltage difference. However, photocurrent is generated at PCA, which its value is affected by different parameters (e.g., dielectric properties, DC voltage difference and incident power of laser pump). THz radiation is used for biomedical applications. However, different biomedical fields need new technologies to meet patients’ needs (e.g. blood-related conditions). In this work, a novel method to check the red blood cells (RBCs) concentration of a blood sample using PCA is presented. RBCs constitute 44% of total blood volume. RBCs contain Hemoglobin that transfers oxygen from lungs to body organs. Then it returns to the lungs carrying carbon dioxide, which the body then gets rid of in the process of exhalation. The configuration has been simulated and optimized using COMSOL Multiphysics. The differentiation of RBCs concentration affects its dielectric properties (e.g., the relative permittivity of RBCs in the blood sample). However, the effects of four blood samples (with different concentrations of RBCs) on photocurrent value have been tested. Photocurrent peak value and RBCs concentration are inversely proportional to each other due to the change of dielectric properties of RBCs. It was noticed that photocurrent peak value has dropped from 162.99 nA to 108.66 nA when RBCs concentration has risen from 0% to 100% of a blood sample. The optimization of this method helps to launch new products for diagnosing blood-related conditions (e.g., anemia and leukemia). The resultant electric field from DC components can not be used to count the RBCs of the blood sample.

Keywords: biomedical applications, photoconductive antenna, photocurrent, red blood cells, THz radiation

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5 Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying

Authors: James Banda, Jupiter Simbeye, Essau Chisale, Geoffrey Kanyerere, Kings Kamtambe

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Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.

Keywords: diplotaxodon, Malawi, open sun drying, solar tent drying

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4 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga

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Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, coastline, color, sea-land segmentation

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3 Inventory of Local Forages in Indonesia That Potentially Reduce Methane (CH4) Emissions and Increase Productivity in Ruminants

Authors: Amriana Hifizah, Philip Edward Vercoe, Graeme Bruce Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasy, Muhammad Hambal

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Many native forage plant species have been used in Indonesia as feed for ruminants. However, less information is available about how these plants affect productivity, let alone methane emissions. In the province of Aceh, where the traditional practice is to feed local forages to small ruminants, the farmers are not satisfied with the productivity of their livestock, and they attribute this problem to poor availability and too few options for good quality forages. Forage quality is reduced by high environmental temperatures which increase the amount of lignification. In addition to reducing productivity, these factors also increase enteric methane production. A preliminary survey about potential forage species was completed in three different districts, two of low elevation and one of high elevation: Syiah Kuala (05°30’5.08” N to 095°24’7.35” E), elevation 29 m MSL; Kajhu (05°32’34.6” N to 095°21’17.7” E), elevation 30 m MSL; Lembah Seulawah (05°28'06.4" N to 095°43' 14.2" E), elevation 254 m MSL. Information about local plants was collected in a semi-structured interview with scientists, government field officers and local farmers, in the city of Banda Aceh and in those three districts. The outcome was a list 40 species that could be useful, of which 21 were selected for further study. The selection process was based on several criteria: high availability, high protein content, low toxicity, and evidence of secondary metabolites (eg, history of medicinal plants for both human and animals). For some of the selected medicinal plants, there is experimental evidence of effects on methane production during rumen fermentation. Subsequently, the selected forages were tested for their effects on rumen fermentation in vitro, using batch culture. The data produced will be used to identify forages with the potential to reduce CH4 emissions. These candidates will then be assessed for their benefits (fermentability and productivity) and potential deleterious side-effects.

Keywords: batch culture, forage, methane, rumen

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2 Perception, Knowledge and Practices on Balanced Diet among Adolescents, Their Parents and Frontline Functionaries in Rural Sites of Banda, Varanasi and Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh,India

Authors: Gunjan Razdan, Priyanka Sreenath, Jagannath Behera, S. K. Mishra, Sunil Mehra

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Uttar Pradesh is one of the poor performing states with high Malnutrition and Anaemia among adolescent girls resulting in high MMR, IMR and low birth weight rate. The rate of anaemia among adolescent girls has doubled in the past decade. Adolescents gain around 15-20% of their optimum height, 25-50% of the ideal adult weight and 45% of the skeletal mass by the age of 19. Poor intake of energy, protein and other nutrients is one of the factors for malnutrition and anaemia. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey using a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) was adopted in this study. The respondents (adolescents, parents and frontline health workers) were selected randomly from 30 villages and surveyed through a semi-structured questionnaire for qualitative information and FGDs and IDIs for qualitative information. A 24 hours dietary recall method was adopted to estimate their dietary practices. A total of 1069 adolescent girls, 1067 boys, 1774 parents and 69 frontline functionaries were covered under the study. Percentages and mean were calculated for quantitative variable, and content analysis was carried out for qualitative data. RESULTS: Over 80 % of parents provided assertions that they understood the term balanced diet and strongly felt that their children were having balanced diet. However, only negligible 1.5 % of parents could correctly recount essential eight food groups and 22% could tell about four groups which was the minimum response expected to say respondents had fair knowledge on a balanced diet. Only 10 percent of parents could tell that balanced diet helps in physical and mental growth and only 2% said it has a protective role. Besides, qualitative data shows that the perception regarding balanced diet is having costly food items like nuts and fruits. The dietary intake of adolescents is very low despite the increased iron needs associated with physical growth and puberty.The consumption of green leafy vegetables (less than 35 %) and citrus fruits (less than 50%) was found to be low. CONCLUSIONS: The assertions on an understanding of term balanced diet are contradictory to the actual knowledge and practices. Knowledge on essential food groups and nutrients is crucial to inculcate healthy eating practices among adolescents. This calls for comprehensive communication efforts to improve the knowledge and dietary practices among adolescents.

Keywords: anemia, knowledge, malnutrition, perceptions

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1 Safety Assessment of Traditional Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Vended at Retail Outlets in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Authors: M. I. Ribah, M. Jibir, Y. A. Bashar, S. S. Manga

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Food safety is a significant and growing public health problem in the world and Nigeria as a developing country, since food-borne diseases are important contributors to the huge burden of sickness and death of humans. In Nigeria, traditional ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MPs) like balangu, tsire, guru and dried meat products like kilishi, dambun nama, banda, were reported to be highly appreciated because of their eating qualities. The consumption of these products was considered as safe due to the treatments that are usually involved during their production process. However, during processing and handling, the products could be contaminated by pathogens that could cause food poisoning. Therefore, a hazard identification for pathogenic bacteria on some traditional RTE-MPs was conducted in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria. A total of 116 RTE-MPs (balangu-38, kilishi-39 and tsire-39) samples were obtained from retail outlets and analyzed using standard cultural microbiological procedures in general and selective enrichment media to isolate the target pathogens. A six-fold serial dilution was prepared and using the pour plating method, colonies were counted. Serial dilutions were selected based on the prepared pre-labeled Petri dishes for each sample. A volume of 10-12 ml of molten Nutrient agar cooled to 42-45°C was poured into each Petri dish and 1 ml each from dilutions of 102, 104 and 106 for every sample was respectively poured on a pre-labeled Petri plate after which colonies were counted. The isolated pathogens were identified and confirmed after series of biochemical tests. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the presence of pathogens. The General Linear Model was used to analyze data on pathogen presence according to RTE-MPs and means were separated using the Tukey test at 0.05 confidence level. Of the 116 RTE-MPs samples collected, 35 (30.17%) samples were found to be contaminated with some tested pathogens. Prevalence results showed that Escherichia coli, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were present in the samples. Mean total bacterial count was 23.82×106 cfu/g. The frequency of individual pathogens isolated was; Staphylococcus aureus 18 (15.51%), Escherichia coli 12 (10.34%) and Salmonella 5 (4.31%). Also, among the RTE-MPs tested, the total bacterial counts were found to differ significantly (P < 0.05), with 1.81, 2.41 and 2.9×104 cfu/g for tsire, kilishi, and balangu, respectively. The study concluded that the presence of pathogenic bacteria in balangu could pose grave health risks to consumers, and hence, recommended good manufacturing practices in the production of balangu to improve the products’ safety.

Keywords: ready-to-eat meat products, retail outlets, public health, safety assessment

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