Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: immunophenotype

5 Cytology Is a Promising Tool for the Diagnosis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma from Ascites

Authors: Miceska Simona, Škof Erik, Frković Grazio Snježana, Jeričević Anja, Smrkolj Špela, Cvjetićanin Branko, Novaković Srdjan, Grčar Kuzmanov Biljana, Kloboves-Prevodnik Veronika

Abstract:

Objectives: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by the dissemination of the tumor cells (TC) in the peritoneal cavity forming malignant ascites at the time of diagnosis or recurrence. Still, cytology itself has been underutilized as a modality for the diagnosis of HGSOC from ascites, and histological examination from the tumor tissue is yet the only validated method used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cytology in the diagnosis of HGSOC in relation to the histopathological examination. Methods: The study included 42 patients with histologically confirmed HGSOC, accompanied by malignant ascites. To confirm the malignancy of the TC in the ascites and to define their immunophenotype, immunohistochemical reaction (IHC) of the following antigens: Calretinin, MOC, WT1, PAX8, p53, p16 & Ki-67 was evaluated on ascites cytospins and tissue blocks. For complete cytological determination of HGSOC, BRCA 1/2 gene mutation was determined from ascites, tissue block, and blood. BRCA1/2 mutation from blood was performed to define the type of mutation, somatic vs germline. Results: Among 42 patients, the immunophenotype of HGSOC from ascites was confirmed in 36 cases (86%). For more profound analysis, the patients were divided in 3 groups regarding the number of TC present in the ascites: patients with less than 10% TC, 10% TC, and more than 10% TC. From all included patients, in the group with less than 10% TC, there were 10 cases, and only 5 of them(50%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 12 cases had equally 10% of TC, and 11 cases (92%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 20 cases had more than 10% TC and all of them (100%) confirmed the HGSOC immunophenotype from ascites. Only 33 patients were eligible for further BRCA1/2 analysis. Eleven BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from thetissue block: 6 germline and 5 somatic. In 2 cases with less than 10% TC, BRCA1/2 mutation was not detected; 4 cases had 10% TC, and 2 of them (50%) confirmed the mutation; 4 cases had more than 10% TC, and all showed 100% reliability with the tumor tissue. Conclusions: Cytology is a highly reliable method for determining the immunophenotype of HGSOC and BRCA1/2 mutation if more than 10% of tumor cells are present in the ascites. This may present an additional non-invasive clinical approach for fast and effective diagnose in the future, especially in inoperable conditions or relapses.

Keywords: cytology, ascites, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, immunophenotype, BRCA1/2

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4 Temporal Changes of Heterogeneous Subpopulations of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells in vitro

Authors: Qiuyue Peng, Vladimir Zachar

Abstract:

The application of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine is gaining more awareness due to their advanced translational potential and abundant source preparations. However, ASC-based translation has been confounded by high subpopulation heterogeneity, causing ambiguity about its precise therapeutic value. Some phenotypes defined by a unique combination of positive and negative surface markers have been found beneficial to the required roles. Therefore, the immunophenotypic repertoires of cultured ASCs and temporal changes of distinct subsets were investigated in this study. ASCs from three donors undergoing cosmetic liposuction were cultured in standard culturing methods, and the co-expression patterns based on the combination of selected markers at passages 1, 4, and 8 were analyzed by multi-chromatic flow cytometry. The results showed that the level of heterogeneity of subpopulations of ASCs became lower by in vitro expansion. After a few passages, most of the CD166⁺/CD274⁺/CD271⁺ based subpopulations converged to CD166 single positive cells. Meanwhile, these CD29⁺CD201⁺ double-positive cells, in combination with CD36/Stro-1 expression or without, feathered only the major epitopes and maintained prevailing throughout the whole process. This study suggested that, upon in vitro expansion, the phenotype repertoire of ASCs redistributed and stabilized in a way that cells co-expressing exclusively the strong markers remained dominant. These preliminary findings provide a general overview of the distribution of heterogeneous subsets residents within human ASCs during expansion in vitro. It is a critical step to fully characterize ASCs before clinical application, although the biological effects of heterogeneous subpopulations still need to be clarified.

Keywords: adipose-derived stromal/stem cells, heterogeneity, immunophenotype, subpopulations

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3 Superiority of Bone Marrow Derived-Osteoblastic Cells (ALLOB®) over Bone Marrow Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Sandra Pietri, Helene Dubout, Sabrina Ena, Candice Hoste, Enrico Bastianelli

Abstract:

Bone Therapeutics is a bone cell therapy company addressing high unmet medical needs in the field of bone fracture repair, more specifically in non-union and delayed-union fractures where the bone repair process is impaired. The company has developed a unique allogeneic osteoblastic cell product (ALLOB®) derived from bone marrow which is currently tested in humans in the indication of delayed-union fractures. The purpose of our study was to directly compare ALLOB® vs. non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for their in vitro osteogenic characteristics and their in vivo osteogenic potential in order to determine which cellular type would be the most adapted for bone fracture repair. Methods: Healthy volunteers’ bone marrow aspirates (n=6) were expended (i) into BM-MSCs using a complete MSC culture medium or (ii) into ALLOB® cells according to its manufacturing process. Cells were characterized in vitro by morphology, immunophenotype, gene expression and differentiation potential. Additionally, their osteogenic potential was assessed in vivo in the subperiosteal calvaria bone formation model in nude mice. Results: The in vitro side-by-side comparison studies showed that although ALLOB® and BM-MSC shared some common general characteristics such as the 3 minimal MSC criteria, ALLOB® expressed significantly higher levels of chondro/osteoblastic genes such as BMP2 (fold change (FC) > 100), ALPL (FC > 12), CBFA1 (FC > 3) and differentiated significantly earlier than BM-MSC toward the osteogenic lineage. Moreover the bone formation model in nude mice demonstrated that used at the same cellular concentration, ALLOB® was able to induce significantly more (160% vs.107% for control animals) bone formation than BM-MSC (118% vs. 107 % for control animals) two weeks after administration. Conclusion: Our side-by-side comparison studies demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo, ALLOB® displays superior osteogenic capacity to BM-MScs and is therefore a better candidate for the treatment of bone fractures.

Keywords: gene expression, histomorphometry, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic differentiation potential, preclinical

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2 Molecular Detection of mRNA bcr-abl and Circulating Leukemic Stem Cells CD34+ in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Its Association with Clinical Parameters

Authors: B. Gonzalez-Yebra, H. Barajas, P. Palomares, M. Hernandez, O. Torres, M. Ayala, A. L. González, G. Vazquez-Ortiz, M. L. Guzman

Abstract:

Leukemia arises by molecular alterations of the normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transforming it into a leukemic stem cell (LSC) with high cell proliferation, self-renewal, and cell differentiation. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) originates from an LSC-leading to elevated proliferation of myeloid cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) originates from an LSC development leading to elevated proliferation of lymphoid cells. In both cases, LSC can be identified by multicolor flow cytometry using several antibodies. However, to date, LSC levels in peripheral blood (PB) are not established well enough in ALL and CML patients. On the other hand, the detection of the minimal residue disease (MRD) in leukemia is mainly based on the identification of the mRNA bcr-abl gene in CML patients and some other genes in ALL patients. There is no a properly biomarker to detect MDR in both types of leukemia. The objective of this study was to determine mRNA bcr-abl and the percentage of LSC in peripheral blood of patients with CML and ALL and identify a possible association between the amount of LSC in PB and clinical data. We included in this study 19 patients with Leukemia. A PB sample was collected per patient and leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll gradient. The immunophenotype for LSC CD34+ was done by flow cytometry analysis with CD33, CD2, CD14, CD16, CD64, HLA-DR, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD38, CD71, CD90, CD117, CD123 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, to identify the presence of the mRNA bcr-abl by RT-PCR, the RNA was isolated using TRIZOL reagent. Molecular (presence of mRNA bcr-abl and LSC CD34+) and clinical results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant association. In total, 19 patients (8 patients with ALL and 11 patients with CML) were analyzed, 9 patients with de novo leukemia (ALL = 6 and CML = 3) and 10 under treatment (ALL = 5 and CML = 5). The overall frequency of mRNA bcr-abl was 31% (6/19), and it was negative in ALL patients and positive in 80% in CML patients. On the other hand, LSC was determined in 16/19 leukemia patients (%LSC= 0.02-17.3). The Novo patients had higher percentage of LSC (0.26 to 17.3%) than patients under treatment (0 to 5.93%). The amount of LSC was significantly associated with the amount of LSC were: absence of treatment, the absence of splenomegaly, and a lower number of leukocytes, negative association for the clinical variables age, sex, blasts, and mRNA bcr-abl. In conclusion, patients with de novo leukemia had a higher percentage of circulating LSC than patients under treatment, and it was associated with clinical parameters as lack of treatment, absence of splenomegaly and a lower number of leukocytes. The mRNA bcr-abl detection was only possible in the series of patients with CML, and molecular detection of LSC could be identified in the peripheral blood of all leukemia patients, we believe the identification of circulating LSC may be used as biomarker for the detection of the MRD in leukemia patients.

Keywords: stem cells, leukemia, biomarkers, flow cytometry

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1 Mirna Expression Profile is Different in Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Obese Respect to Normal Weight Women

Authors: Carmela Nardelli, Laura Iaffaldano, Valentina Capobianco, Antonietta Tafuto, Maddalena Ferrigno, Angela Capone, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Maddalena Raia, Rosa Di Noto, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Lucio Pastore, Lucia Sacchetti

Abstract:

Maternal obesity and nutrient excess in utero increase the risk of future metabolic diseases in the adult life. The mechanisms underlying this process are probably based on genetic, epigenetic alterations and changes in foetal nutrient supply. In mammals, the placenta is the main interface between foetus and mother, it regulates intrauterine development, modulates adaptive responses to sub optimal in uterus conditions and it is also an important source of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs). We previously highlighted a specific microRNA (miRNA) profiling in amnion from obese (Ob) pregnant women, here we compared the miRNA expression profile of hA-MSCs isolated from (Ob) and control (Co) women, aimed to search for any alterations in metabolic pathways that could predispose the new-born to the obese phenotype. Methods: We isolated, at delivery, hA-MSCs from amnion of 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women with pre-pregnancy body mass index (mean/SEM) 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Globally, 384 miRNAs were evaluated by the TaqMan Array Human MicroRNA Panel v 1.0 (Applied Biosystems). By the TargetScan program we selected the target genes of the miRNAs differently expressed in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs; further, by KEGG database, we selected the statistical significant biological pathways. Results: The immunophenotype characterization confirmed the mesenchymal origin of the isolated hA-MSCs. A large percentage of the tested miRNAs, about 61.4% (232/378), was expressed in hA-MSCs, whereas 38.6% (146/378) was not. Most of the expressed miRNAs (89.2%, 207/232) did not differ between Ob- and Co-hA-MSCs and were not further investigated. Conversely, 4.8% of miRNAs (11/232) was higher and 6.0% (14/232) was lower in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs. Interestingly, 7/232 miRNAs were obesity-specific, being expressed only in hA-MSCs isolated from obese women. Bioinformatics showed that these miRNAs significantly regulated (P<0.001) genes belonging to several metabolic pathways, i.e. MAPK signalling, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, axon guidance, insulin signaling, etc. Conclusions: Our preliminary data highlight an altered miRNA profile in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs and suggest that an epigenetic miRNA-based mechanism of gene regulation could affect pathways involved in placental growth and function, thereby potentially increasing the newborn’s risk of metabolic diseases in the adult life.

Keywords: hA-MSCs, obesity, miRNA, biosystem

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