Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1541

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

1481 Evolution of Microstructure through Phase Separation via Spinodal Decomposition in Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

Authors: Nipa Debnath, Harinarayan Das, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya

Abstract:

Nowadays spinel ferrite magnetic thin films have drawn considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties with enhanced chemical and thermal stability. Spinel ferrite magnetic films can be implemented in magnetic data storage, sensors, and spin filters or microwave devices. It is well established that the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the magnetic thin films are dependent on microstructure. Spinodal decomposition (SD) is a phase separation process, whereby a material system is spontaneously separated into two phases with distinct compositions. The periodic microstructure is the characteristic feature of SD. Thus, SD can be exploited to control the microstructure at the nanoscale level. In bulk spinel ferrites having general formula, MₓFe₃₋ₓ O₄ (M= Co, Mn, Ni, Zn), phase separation via SD has been reported only for cobalt ferrite (CFO); however, long time post-annealing is required to occur the spinodal decomposition. We have found that SD occurs in CoF thin film without using any post-deposition annealing process if we apply magnetic field during thin film growth. Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a specially designed PLD system through which in-situ magnetic field (up to 2000 G) can be applied during thin film growth. The in-situ magnetic field suppresses the recombination of ions in the plume. In addition, the peak’s intensity of the ions in the spectra of the plume also increases when magnetic field is applied to the plume. As a result, ions with high kinetic energy strike into the substrate. Thus, ion-impingement occurred under magnetic field during thin film growth. The driving force of SD is the ion-impingement towards the substrates that is induced by in-situ magnetic field. In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through SD and evolution of microstructure after phase separation in spinel ferrite thin films. The surface morphology of the phase separated films show checkerboard like domain structure. The cross-sectional microstructure of the phase separated films reveal columnar type phase separation. Herein, the decomposition wave propagates in lateral direction which has been confirmed from the lateral composition modulations in spinodally decomposed films. Large magnetic anisotropy has been found in spinodally decomposed nickel ferrite (NFO) thin films. This approach approves that magnetic field is also an important thermodynamic parameter to induce phase separation by the enhancement of up-hill diffusion in thin films. This thin film deposition technique could be a more efficient alternative for the fabrication of self-organized phase separated thin films and employed in controlling of the microstructure at nanoscale level.

Keywords: Magnetic Anisotropy, Dynamic Aurora PLD, spinodal decomposition, spinel ferrite thin film

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1480 Effect of Multilayered MnBi Films on Magnetic and Microstructural Properties

Authors: Hyun-Sook Lee, Hongjae Moon, Hwaebong Jung, Sumin Kim, Wooyoung Lee

Abstract:

Low-temperature phase (LTP) of MnBi has attracted much attention because it has a larger coercivity than that of Nd-Fe-B at high temperature, which gives high potential as a permanent magnet material that can be used at such high temperature. We present variation in magnetic properties of MnBi films by controlling the numbers of Bi/Mn bilayer. The thin films of LTP-MnBi were fabricated onto glass substrates by UHV sputtering, followed by in-situ annealing process at an optimized condition of 350 °C and 1.5 hours. The composition ratio of Bi/Mn was adjusted by varying the thickness of Bi and Mn layers. The highest value of (BH)max ~ 8.6 MGOe at room temperature was obtained in one Bi/Mn bilayer with 34 nm Bi and 16 nm Mn. To investigate the effect of Bi/Mn multilayers on the magnetic properties, we increased the numbers of Bi/Mn bilayer up to five at which the total film thicknesses of Bi and Mn were fixed with 34 nm and 16 nm. The increase of coercivity was observed up to three layers from 4.8 kOe to 15.3 kOe and then suppression was appeared. A reversed behavior was exhibited in the magnetization. We found that these were closely related to a microstructural change of LTP-MnBi and a reduction of growth rate of LTP-MnBi by analyzing XRD and TEM results. We will discuss how the multilayered MnBi affects the magnetic properties in details.

Keywords: permanent magnet, coercivity, MnBi, multilayer film

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1479 3D Structuring of Thin Film Solid State Batteries for High Power Demanding Applications

Authors: Alfonso Sepulveda, Brecht Put, Nouha Labyedh, Philippe M. Vereecken

Abstract:

High energy and power density are the main requirements of today’s high demanding applications in consumer electronics. Lithium ion batteries (LIB) have the highest energy density of all known systems and are thus the best choice for rechargeable micro-batteries. Liquid electrolyte LIBs present limitations in safety, size and design, thus thin film all-solid state batteries are predominantly considered to overcome these restrictions in small devices. Although planar all-solid state thin film LIBs are at present commercially available they have low capacity (<1mAh/cm2) which limits their application scenario. By using micro-or nanostructured surfaces (i.e. 3D batteries) and appropriate conformal coating technology (i.e. electrochemical deposition, ALD) the capacity can be increased while still keeping a high rate performance. The main challenges in the introduction of solid-state LIBs are low ionic conductance and limited cycle life time due to mechanical stress and shearing interfaces. Novel materials and innovative nanostructures have to be explored in order to overcome these limitations. Thin film 3D compatible materials need to provide with the necessary requirements for functional and viable thin-film stacks. Thin film electrodes offer shorter Li-diffusion paths and high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities which allow them to be used at ultra-fast charging rates while keeping their complete capacities. Thin film electrolytes with intrinsically high ion conductivity (~10-3 S.cm) do exist, but are not electrochemically stable. On the other hand, electronically insulating electrolytes with a large electrochemical window and good chemical stability are known, but typically have intrinsically low ionic conductivities (<10-6 S cm). In addition, there is the need for conformal deposition techniques which can offer pinhole-free coverage over large surface areas with large aspect ratio features for electrode, electrolyte and buffer layers. To tackle the scaling of electrodes and the conformal deposition requirements on future 3D batteries we study LiMn2O4 (LMO) and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO). These materials are among the most interesting electrode candidates for thin film batteries offering low cost, low toxicity, high voltage and high capacity. LMO and LTO are considered 3D compatible materials since they can be prepared through conformal deposition techniques. Here, we show the scaling effects on rate performance and cycle stability of thin film cathode layers of LMO created by RF-sputtering. Planar LMO thin films below 100 nm have been electrochemically characterized. The thinnest films show the highest volumetric capacity and the best cycling stability. The increased stability of the films below 50 nm allows cycling in both the 4 and 3V potential region, resulting in a high volumetric capacity of 1.2Ah/cm3. Also, the creation of LTO anode layers through a post-lithiation process of TiO2 is demonstrated here. Planar LTO thin films below 100 nm have been electrochemically characterized. A 70 nm film retains 85% of its original capacity after 100 (dis)charging cycles at 10C. These layers can be implemented into a high aspect ratio structures. IMEC develops high aspect Si pillars arrays which is the base for the advance of 3D thin film all-solid state batteries of future technologies.

Keywords: Nanostructures, thin film, Li-ion rechargeable batteries, rate performance, all-solid state

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1478 Graphene Transistor Employing Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride as Substrate and Gate Insulator

Authors: Bin Yu, Nikhil Jain

Abstract:

We explore the potential of using ultra-thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both supporting substrate and gate dielectric for graphene-channel field effect transistors (GFETs). Different from commonly used oxide-based dielectric materials which are typically amorphous, very rough in surface, and rich with surface traps, h-BN is layered insulator free of dangling bonds and surface states, featuring atomically smooth surface. In a graphene-channel-last device structure with local buried metal gate electrode (TiN), thin h-BN multilayer is employed as both supporting “substrate” and gate dielectric for graphene active channel. We observed superior carrier mobility and electrical conduction, significantly improved from that in GFETs with SiO2 as substrate/gate insulator. In addition, we report excellent dielectric behavior of layered h-BN, including ultra-low leakage current and high critical electric field for breakdown.

Keywords: Graphene, Tunneling, hexagonal boron nitride, field-effect transistors, dielectric strength

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1477 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina

Abstract:

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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1476 Low Voltage and High Field-Effect Mobility Thin Film Transistor Using Crystalline Polymer Nanocomposite as Gate Dielectric

Authors: Debabrata Bhadra, B. K. Chaudhuri

Abstract:

The operation of organic thin film transistors (OFETs) with low voltage is currently a prevailing issue. We have fabricated anthracene thin-film transistor (TFT) with an ultrathin layer (~450nm) of Poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/CuO nanocomposites as a gate insulator. We obtained a device with excellent electrical characteristics at low operating voltages (<1V). Different layers of the film were also prepared to achieve the best optimization of ideal gate insulator with various static dielectric constant (εr ). Capacitance density, leakage current at 1V gate voltage and electrical characteristics of OFETs with a single and multi layer films were investigated. This device was found to have highest field effect mobility of 2.27 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 0.34V, an exceptionally low sub threshold slope of 380 mV/decade and an on/off ratio of 106. Such favorable combination of properties means that these OFETs can be utilized successfully as voltages below 1V. A very simple fabrication process has been used along with step wise poling process for enhancing the pyroelectric effects on the device performance. The output characteristic of OFET after poling were changed and exhibited linear current-voltage relationship showing the evidence of large polarization. The temperature dependent response of the device was also investigated. The stable performance of the OFET after poling operation makes it reliable in temperature sensor applications. Such High-ε CuO/PVDF gate dielectric appears to be highly promising candidates for organic non-volatile memory and sensor field-effect transistors (FETs).

Keywords: organic field effect transistors, organic semiconductor, thin film transistor, gate dielectric

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1475 Development of Alpha Spectroscopy Method with Solid State Nuclear Track Detector Using Aluminium Thin Films

Authors: Nidal Dwaikat

Abstract:

This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 Mev, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 Mev) can penetrate the film and reach the detector’s surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 Mev and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source.

Keywords: Alpha Particles, aluminium thin film, copper substrate, CR-39 detector

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1474 Interbank Networks and the Benefits of Using Multilayer Structures

Authors: Danielle Sandler dos Passos, Helder Coelho, Flávia Mori Sarti

Abstract:

Complexity science seeks the understanding of systems adopting diverse theories from various areas. Network analysis has been gaining space and credibility, namely with the biological, social and economic systems. Significant part of the literature focuses only monolayer representations of connections among agents considering one level of their relationships, and excludes other levels of interactions, leading to simplistic results in network analysis. Therefore, this work aims to demonstrate the advantages of the use of multilayer networks for the representation and analysis of networks. For this, we analyzed an interbank network, composed of 42 banks, comparing the centrality measures of the agents (degree and PageRank) resulting from each method (monolayer x multilayer). This proved to be the most reliable and efficient the multilayer analysis for the study of the current networks and highlighted JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank as the most important banks of the analyzed network.

Keywords: Network Analysis, Complexity, multilayer networks, interbank networks

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1473 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: resistivity, evaporation, CuAlS2, sulfurisation, thickness, crystalline

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1472 Terahertz Surface Plasmon in Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Interface via Amplitude Modulated Laser

Authors: Monika Singh

Abstract:

A carbon nanotube thin film coated on dielectric interface is employed to produce THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The carbon nanotube has its plasmon frequency in the THz range. The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. An amplitude modulated laser pulse normally incident, from free space on slow wave structure, exert a modulation frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the CNT film and resonantly excite the THz surface plasma wave at the modulation frequency. Carbon nanotube based plasmonic nano-structure materials provides potentially more versatile approach to tightly confined surface modes in the THz range in comparison to noble metals.

Keywords: Thin Films, Surface Plasmons, surface waves, THz radiation

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1471 Magnetoelastically Induced Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Perpendicular Exchange Bias of CoO/CoPt Multilayer Films

Authors: Guo Lei, Wang Yue, Nakamura Yoshio, Shi Ji

Abstract:

Recently, perpendicular exchange bias (PEB) is introduced as an active topic attracting continuous efforts. Since its discovery, extrinsic control of PEB has been proposed, due to its scientific significance in spintronic devices and potential application in high density magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ). To our knowledge, the researches aiming to controlling PEB so far are focused mainly on enhancing the interfacial exchange coupling by adjusting the FM/AFM interface roughness, or optimizing the crystalline structures of FM or AFM layer by employing different seed layers. In present work, the effects of magnetoelastically induced PMA on PEB have been explored in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films. We find the PMA strength of FM layer also plays an important role on PEB at the FM/AFM interface and it is effective to control PEB of [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films by changing the magnetoelastically induced PMA of CoPt layer. [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrate at room temperature, then annealed at 100°C, 250°C, 300°C and 375°C for 3h, respectively. XRD results reveal that all the samples are well crystallized with preferred fcc CoPt (111) orientation. The continuous multilayer structure with sharp component transition at the CoO5nm/CoPt5nm interface are identified clearly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscope (AFM). CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress is calculated by sin2φ method, and we find it increases gradually upon annealing from 0.99 GPa (as-deposited) up to 3.02 GPa (300oC-annealed). As to the magnetic property, significant enhancement of PMA is achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films after annealing due to the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. With the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA, great improvement of PEB is also achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films, which increases from 130 Oe (as-deposited) up to 1060 Oe (300oC-annealed), showing the same change tendency as PMA and the strong correlation with CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. We consider it is the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress that leads to the enhancement of PMA, and thus the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA results in the improvement of PEB in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films.

Keywords: perpendicular exchange bias, magnetoelastically induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer film with in-plane stress, perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction

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1470 Dynamic Thin Film Morphology near the Contact Line of a Condensing Droplet: Nanoscale Resolution

Authors: Hao Wang, Abbasali Abouei Mehrizi

Abstract:

The thin film region is so important in heat transfer process due to its low thermal resistance. On the other hand, the dynamic contact angle is crucial boundary condition in numerical simulations. While different modeling contains different assumption of the microscopic contact angle, none of them has experimental evidence for their assumption, and the contact line movement mechanism still remains vague. The experimental investigation in complete wetting is more popular than partial wetting, especially in nanoscale resolution when there is sharp variation in thin film profile in partial wetting. In the present study, an experimental investigation of water film morphology near the triple phase contact line during the condensation is performed. The state-of-the-art tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used to get the high-resolution film profile goes down to 2 nm from the contact line. The droplet was put in saturated chamber. The pristine silicon wafer was used as a smooth substrate. The substrate was heated by PI film heater. So the chamber would be over saturated by droplet evaporation. By turning off the heater, water vapor gradually started condensing on the droplet and the droplet advanced. The advancing speed was less than 20 nm/s. The dominant results indicate that in contrast to nonvolatile liquid, the film profile goes down straightly to the surface till 2 nm from the substrate. However, small bending has been observed below 20 nm, occasionally. So, it can be claimed that for the low condensation rate the microscopic contact angle equals to the optically detectable macroscopic contact angle. This result can be used to simplify the heat transfer modeling in partial wetting. The experimental result of the equality of microscopic and macroscopic contact angle can be used as a solid evidence for using this boundary condition in numerical simulation.

Keywords: Condensation, advancing, microscopic contact angle, partial wetting

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1469 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

Abstract:

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, thin film, heterojunction, Tcad Silvaco

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1468 In situ Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Study of Permalloy Thin Film Growth on Nanorippled Si

Authors: Peng Zhang, Sarathlal Koyiloth Vayalil, Stephan V. Roth, Gonzalo Santoro, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Bjoern Beyersdorff

Abstract:

Nanostructured magnetic thin films have gained significant relevance due to its applications in magnetic storage and recording media. Self-organized arrays of nanoparticles and nanowires can be produced by depositing metal thin films on nano-rippled substrates. The substrate topography strongly affects the film growth giving rise to anisotropic properties (optical, magnetic, electronic transport). Ion-beam erosion (IBE) method can provide large-area patterned substrates with the valuable possibility to widely modify pattern length scale by simply acting on ion beam parameters (i.e. energy, ions, geometry, etc.). In this work, investigation of the growth mechanism of Permalloy thin films on such nano-rippled Si (100) substrates using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering measurements (GISAXS) have been done. In situ GISAXS measurements during the deposition of thin films have been carried out at the P03/MiNaXS beam line of PETRA III storage ring of DESY, Hamburg. Nanorippled Si substrates prepared by low energy ion beam sputtering with an average wavelength of 33 nm and 1 nm have been used as templates. It has been found that the film replicates the morphology up to larger thickness regimes and also the growth is highly anisotropic along and normal to the ripple wave vectors. Various growth regimes have been observed. Further, magnetic measurements have been done using magneto-optical Kerr effect by rotating the sample in the azimuthal direction. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with its easy axis in a direction normal to the ripple wave vector has been observed. The strength of the magnetic anisotropy is found to be decreasing with increasing thin film thickness values. The mechanism of the observed strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and its depends on the thickness of the film has been explained by correlating it with the GISAXS results. In conclusion, we have done a detailed growth analysis of Permalloy thin films deposited on nanorippled Si templates and tried to explain the correlation between structure, morphology to the observed magnetic properties.

Keywords: Nanoripples, Magnetic Anisotropy, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, magnetic thin films

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1467 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn

Abstract:

Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

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1466 Organic Thin-Film Transistors with High Thermal Stability

Authors: Sibani Bisoyi, Ute Zschieschang, Alexander Hoyer, Hagen Klauk

Abstract:

Abstract— Organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential to be used for various applications such as flexible displays or sensors. For some of these applications, the TFTs must be able to withstand temperatures in excess of 100 °C, for example to permit the integration with devices or components that require high process temperatures, or to make it possible that the devices can be subjected to the standard sterilization protocols required for biomedical applications. In this work, we have investigated how the thermal stability of low-voltage small-molecule semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2’,3’-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) TFTs is affected by the encapsulation of the TFTs and by the ambient in which the thermal stress is performed. We also studied to which extent the thermal stability of the TFTs depends on the channel length. Some of the TFTs were encapsulated with a layer of vacuum-deposited Teflon, while others were left without encapsulation, and the thermal stress was performed either in nitrogen or in air. We found that the encapsulation with Teflon has virtually no effect on the thermal stability of our TFTs. In contrast, the ambient in which the thermal stress is conducted was found to have a measurable effect, but in a surprising way: When the thermal stress is carried out in nitrogen, the mobility drops to 70% of its initial value at a temperature of 160 °C and to close to zero at 170 °C, whereas when the stress is performed in air, the mobility remains at 75% of its initial value up to a temperature of 160 °C and at 60% up to 180 °C. To understand this behavior, we studied the effect of the thermal stress on the semiconductor thin-film morphology by scanning electron microscopy. While the DNTT films remain continuous and conducting when the heating is carried out in air, the semiconductor morphology undergoes a dramatic change, including the formation of large, thick crystals of DNTT and a complete loss of percolation, when the heating is conducted in nitrogen. We also found that when the TFTs are heated to a temperature of 200 °C in air, all TFTs with a channel length greater than 50 µm are destroyed, while TFTs with a channel length of less than 50 µm survive, whereas when the TFTs are heated to the same temperature (200 °C) in nitrogen, only the TFTs with a channel smaller than 8 µm survive. This result is also linked to the thermally induced changes in the semiconductor morphology.

Keywords: encapsulation, Thermal Stability, organic thin-film transistors, thin-film morphology

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1465 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga

Abstract:

The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: Electronics, Electropolymerization, carbazole, layer by layer assembly, optical thin film

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1464 pH and Temperature Triggered Release of Doxorubicin from Hydogen Bonded Multilayer Films of Polyoxazolines

Authors: Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe, Meltem Haktaniyan

Abstract:

Polymers that change their properties in response to different stimuli (e.g. light, temperature, pH, ionic strength or magnetic field) are called ‘smart’ or ‘stimuli-responsive polymers’. These polymers have been widely used in biomedical applications such as sensors, gene delivery, drug delivery or tissue engineering. Temperature-responsive polymers have been studied extensively for controlled drug delivery applications. As regard of pseudo-peptides, poly (2-alky-2-oxazoline)s are considered as good candidates for delivery systems due to their stealth behavior and nontoxicity. In order to build responsive multilayer films for controlled drug release applications from surface, Layer by layer technique (LBL) is a powerful technique with an advantage of nanometer scale control over spatial architecture and morphology. Multilayers can be constructed on surface where non-covalent interactions including electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and charge-transfer or hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. In the present study, hydrogen bounded multilayer films of poly (2-alky-2-oxazoline) s with tannic acid were prepared in order to use as a platform to release Doxorubicin (DOX) from surface with pH and thermal triggers. For this purpose, poly (2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOX) and poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PETOX) were synthesized via cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) with hydroxyl end groups. Two polymeric multilayer systems ((PETOX)/(DOX)-(TA) complexes and (PIPOX)/(DOX)-(TA) complexes) were designed to investigate of controlled release of Doxorubicin (DOX) from surface with pH and thermal triggers. The drug release profiles from the multilayer thin films with alterations of pH and temperature will been examined with UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

Keywords: Drug Release, temperature responsive polymers, h-bonded multilayer films, polyoxazoline

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1463 Encapsulation of Flexible OLED with an Auxiliary Sealing Line

Authors: Hanjun Yun, Gun Bae, Nabin Paul, Cheolhee Moon

Abstract:

Flexible OLED is an important technology for the next generation display over various kinds of applications. However, the organic materials of OLEDs degrade rapidly under the invasion of oxygen and water moisture. The degradation causes the formation of non-emitting areas which gradually suppress the device brightness, ultimately the lifetime of the device decreasing rapidly. Until now, the most suitable sealing process of the flexible OLED devices is a thin film encapsulation (TFE). However, TFE consists of a multilayer thin-film structure with organic-inorganic materials, so the cost is expensive and the process time is long. Another problem is that the blocking characteristics from the moisture and oxygen are not perfect. Therefore, the encapsulation of the flexible OLED device is a still key technical issue for the successful market entry. In this study, we are to introduce an auxiliary sealing line between the two flexible substrates. The electrode lines were formed on the substrates which have a SiNx barrier coating layer. To induce the solid phase diffusion process between the SiNx layer and the electrode lines, the electrode materials were determined as Al-Si composition. Thermal energy was supplied for both the SiNx layer and Al-Si electrode lines within the furnace to induce the interfacial bonding through the solid phase diffusion of Si. We printed a test pattern for the edge of the flexible PET substrate of 3cm*3cm size. Experimental conditions such as heating temperature, heating time were optimized to get enough adhesion strength which was estimated through the competitive bending test. Finally, OLED devices with flexible PET substrate of 3cm*3cm size were manufactured to investigate the blocking characteristics as an encapsulation layer.

Keywords: barrier, OLED, encapsulation, solid phase diffusion

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1462 SnSₓ, Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Nanostructured Thin Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells

Authors: Elena A. Outkina, Marina V. Meledina, Aliaksandr A. Khodin

Abstract:

Nanostructured thin films of SnSₓ, Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) semiconductors were fabricated by chemical processing to produce thin-film photoactive layers for photocells as a prospective lowest-cost and environment-friendly alternative to Si, Cu(In, Ga)Se₂, and other traditional solar cells materials. To produce SnSₓ layers, the modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique were investigated, including successive cyclic dipping into Na₂S solution and SnCl₂, NaCl, triethanolamine solution. To fabricate CZTS layers, the cyclic dipping into CuSO₄ with ZnSO₄, SnCl₂, and Na₂S solutions was used with intermediate rinsing in distilled water. The nano-template aluminum/alumina substrate was used to control deposition processes. Micromorphology and optical characteristics of the fabricated layers have been investigated. Analysis of 2D-like layers deposition features using nano-template substrate is presented, including the effect of nanotips in a template on surface charge redistribution and transport.

Keywords: Solar Cell, Kesterite, nanotemplate, SILAR, tin sulphide

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1461 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, MEB, thin disulfide, ultrasonic spray, UV spectroscopy visible

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1460 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Shyankay Jou, Hsin-Ping Huang

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: Thin Films, aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching

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1459 Structural, Optical and Electrical Thin-Film Characterization Using Graphite-Bioepoxy Composite Materials

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, Nur Munirah Abdullah, M. F. L. Abdullah

Abstract:

The fabrication and characterization of composite films of graphite- bioepoxy is described. Free-standing thin films of ~0.1 mm thick are prepared using a simple solution mixing with mass proportion of 7/3 (bioepoxy/graphite) and drop casting at room temperature. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer are performed to evaluate the changes in chemical structure and adsorption spectra arising with the increasing of graphite weight loading (wt.%) into the biopolymer matrix. The morphologic study shows a homogeneously dispersed and strong particle bonding between the graphite and the bioepoxy, with conductivity of the film 103 S/m, confirming the efficiency of the processes.

Keywords: biopolymer, absorbance peak, graphite- bioepoxy composites, particle bonding

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1458 Imaging 255nm Tungsten Thin Film Adhesion with Picosecond Ultrasonics

Authors: A. Abbas, X. Tridon, J. Michelon

Abstract:

In the electronic or in the photovoltaic industries, components are made from wafers which are stacks of thin film layers of a few nanometers to serval micrometers thickness. Early evaluation of the bounding quality between different layers of a wafer is one of the challenges of these industries to avoid dysfunction of their final products. Traditional pump-probe experiments, which have been developed in the 70’s, give a partial solution to this problematic but with a non-negligible drawback. In fact, on one hand, these setups can generate and detect ultra-high ultrasounds frequencies which can be used to evaluate the adhesion quality of wafer layers. But, on the other hand, because of the quiet long acquisition time they need to perform one measurement, these setups remain shut in punctual measurement to evaluate global sample quality. This last point can lead to bad interpretation of the sample quality parameters, especially in the case of inhomogeneous samples. Asynchronous Optical Sampling (ASOPS) systems can perform sample characterization with picosecond acoustics up to 106 times faster than traditional pump-probe setups. This last point allows picosecond ultrasonic to unlock the acoustic imaging field at the nanometric scale to detect inhomogeneities regarding sample mechanical properties. This fact will be illustrated by presenting an image of the measured acoustical reflection coefficients obtained by mapping, with an ASOPS setup, a 255nm thin-film tungsten layer deposited on a silicone substrate. Interpretation of the coefficient reflection in terms of bounding quality adhesion will also be exposed. Origin of zones which exhibit good and bad quality bounding will be discussed.

Keywords: Adhesion, thin film, picosecond ultrasonics, pump-probe

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1457 Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Ultra-Thin Titanium Oxynitride Films Deposited by ALD

Authors: Farzan Gity, Lida Ansari, Ian M. Povey, Roger E. Nagle, James C. Greer

Abstract:

Titanium nitride (TiN) films have been widely used in variety of fields, due to its unique electrical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties, including low electrical resistivity, chemical stability, and high thermal conductivity. In microelectronic devices, thin continuous TiN films are commonly used as diffusion barrier and metal gate material. However, as the film thickness decreases below a few nanometers, electrical properties of the film alter considerably. In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of 1.5nm to 22nm thin films deposited by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PE-ALD) using Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV), (TDMAT) chemistry and Ar/N2 plasma on 80nm SiO2 capped in-situ by 2nm Al2O3 are investigated. ALD technique allows uniformly-thick films at monolayer level in a highly controlled manner. The chemistry incorporates low level of oxygen into the TiN films forming titanium oxynitride (TiON). Thickness of the films is characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which confirms the uniformity of the films. Surface morphology of the films is investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) indicating sub-nanometer surface roughness. Hall measurements are performed to determine the parameters such as carrier mobility, type and concentration, as well as resistivity. The >5nm-thick films exhibit metallic behavior; however, we have observed that thin film resistivity is modulated significantly by film thickness such that there are more than 5 orders of magnitude increment in the sheet resistance at room temperature when comparing 5nm and 1.5nm films. Scattering effects at interfaces and grain boundaries could play a role in thickness-dependent resistivity in addition to quantum confinement effect that could occur at ultra-thin films: based on our measurements the carrier concentration is decreased from 1.5E22 1/cm3 to 5.5E17 1/cm3, while the mobility is increased from < 0.1 cm2/V.s to ~4 cm2/V.s for the 5nm and 1.5nm films, respectively. Also, measurements at different temperatures indicate that the resistivity is relatively constant for the 5nm film, while for the 1.5nm film more than 2 orders of magnitude reduction has been observed over the range of 220K to 400K. The activation energy of the 2.5nm and 1.5nm films is 30meV and 125meV, respectively, indicating that the TiON ultra-thin films are exhibiting semiconducting behaviour attributing this effect to a metal-semiconductor transition. By the same token, the contact is no longer Ohmic for the thinnest film (i.e., 1.5nm-thick film); hence, a modified lift-off process was developed to selectively deposit thicker films allowing us to perform electrical measurements with low contact resistance on the raised contact regions. Our atomic scale simulations based on molecular dynamic-generated amorphous TiON structures with low oxygen content confirm our experimental observations indicating highly n-type thin films.

Keywords: Activation Energy, resistivity, ALD, metal-semiconductor transition, titanium oxynitride, ultra-thin film

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1456 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Crystal Structural and Transport Properties of Bi₂Te₃ Thin Films Grown by Thermal Evaporation

Authors: Shoroog Alraddadi

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and transport properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi₂Te₃) thin films was investigated. Bi₂Te₃ thin films with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 500 nm were grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum 10⁻⁵ Torr. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (50, 200, and 500 kGy). The crystal structure of Bi₂Te₃ thin films was studied by XRD diffraction. It was showed that the degree of crystallinity of films increases as the doses increase. Furthermore, it was found that the electrical conductivity of Bi₂Te₃ increase as the doses increase. From these results, it can be concluding that the effect of radiation on the structural and transport properties was positive at the levels of irradiation used.

Keywords: Transport Properties, thin film, gamma irradiation, Bismuth telluride

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1455 Sol-Gel Synthesis and Optical Characterisation of TiO2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Arabi Nour El Houda, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui, Iratni Aicha

Abstract:

TiO2 thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique in order to elaborate antireflective thin films for monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si). The titanium isopropoxyde was chosen as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyser for preparing a stable solution. The optical properties have been tailored with varying the solution concentration, the withdrawn speed, and the heat-treatment. We showed that using a TiO2 single layer with 64.5 nm in thickness, heat-treated at 450°C or 300°C reduces the mono-Si reflection at a level lower than 3% over the broadband spectral do mains [669-834] nm and [786-1006] nm respectively. Those latter performances are similar to the ones obtained with double layers of low and high refractive index glasses respectively.

Keywords: thin film, titanium oxide, dip-coating, mono-crystalline silicon

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1454 Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of a Third-Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer and Slip Boundary Condition Down an Inclined Plane

Authors: Y. M. Aiyesimi, G. T. Okedayo, O. W. Lawal

Abstract:

An investigation is made for unsteady MHD thin film flow of a third grade fluid down an inclined plane with slip boundary condition. The non-linear partial differential equation governing the flow and heat transfer are evaluated numerically using computer software called Maple to obtain velocity and temperature profile. The effect of slip and other various physical parameter on both velocity and temperature profile obtained are studied through several graphs.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, non-Newtonian fluid, MHD flow, slip boundary condition, third-grade fluid, Maple

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1453 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, K. U. Isah

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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1452 Supercomputer Simulation of Magnetic Multilayers Films

Authors: Vitalii Yu. Kapitan, Aleksandr V. Perzhu, Konstantin V. Nefedev

Abstract:

The necessity of studying magnetic multilayer structures is explained by the prospects of their practical application as a technological base for creating new storages medium. Magnetic multilayer films have many unique features that contribute to increasing the density of information recording and the speed of storage devices. Multilayer structures are structures of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. In frame of the classical Heisenberg model, lattice spin systems with direct short- and long-range exchange interactions were investigated by Monte Carlo methods. The thermodynamic characteristics of multilayer structures, such as the temperature behavior of magnetization, energy, and heat capacity, were investigated. The processes of magnetization reversal of multilayer structures in external magnetic fields were investigated. The developed software is based on the new, promising programming language Rust. Rust is a new experimental programming language developed by Mozilla. The language is positioned as an alternative to C and C++. For the Monte Carlo simulation, the Metropolis algorithm and its parallel implementation using MPI and the Wang-Landau algorithm were used. We are planning to study of magnetic multilayer films with asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction, interfacing effects and skyrmions textures. This work was supported by the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia # 3.7383.2017/8.9

Keywords: The Monte Carlo methods, Heisenberg model, multilayer structures, magnetic skyrmion

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