Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: wattle

7 A Study on Soil Micro-Arthropods Assemblage in Selected Plantations in The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu

Authors: J. Dharmaraj, C. Gunasekaran

Abstract:

Invertebrates are the reliable ecological indicators of disturbance of the forest ecosystems and they respond to environment changes more quickly than other fauna. Among these the terrestrial invertebrates are vital to functioning ecosystems, contributing to processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and soil fertility. The natural ecosystems of the forests have been subject to various types of disturbances, which lead to decline of flora and fauna. The comparative diversity of micro-arthropods in natural forest, wattle plantation and eucalyptus plantations were studied in Nilgiris. The study area was divided in to five major sites (Emerald (Site-I), Thalaikundha (Site-II), Kodapmund (Site-III), Aravankad (Site-IV), Kattabettu (Site-V). The research was conducted during period from March 2014 to August 2014. The leaf and soil samples were collected and isolated by using Berlese funnel extraction methods. Specimens were isolated and identified according to their morphology (Balogh 1972). In the present study results clearly showed the variation in soil pH, NPK (Major Nutrients) and organic carbon among the study sites. The chemical components of the leaf litters of the plantation decreased the diversity of micro-arthropods and decomposition rate leads to low amount of carbon and other nutrients present in the soil. Moreover eucalyptus and wattle plantations decreases the availability of the ground water source to other plantations and micro-arthropods and hences affects the soil fertility. Hence, the present study suggests to minimize the growth of wattle and eucalyptus tree plantations in the natural areas which may help to reduce the decline of forests.

Keywords: micro-arthropods, assemblage, berlese funnel, morphology, NPK, nilgiris

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6 Evaluation of Invasive Tree Species for Production of Phosphate Bonded Composites

Authors: Stephen Osakue Amiandamhen, Schwaller Andreas, Martina Meincken, Luvuyo Tyhoda

Abstract:

Invasive alien tree species are currently being cleared in South Africa as a result of the forest and water imbalances. These species grow wildly constituting about 40% of total forest area. They compete with the ecosystem for natural resources and are considered as ecosystem engineers by rapidly changing disturbance regimes. As such, they are harvested for commercial uses but much of it is wasted because of their form and structure. The waste is being sold to local communities as fuel wood. These species can be considered as potential feedstock for the production of phosphate bonded composites. The presence of bark in wood-based composites leads to undesirable properties, and debarking as an option can be cost implicative. This study investigates the potentials of these invasive species processed without debarking on some fundamental properties of wood-based panels. Some invasive alien tree species were collected from EC Biomass, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. They include Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle), A. longifolia (Long-leaved wattle), A. cyclops (Red-eyed wattle), A. saligna (Golden-wreath wattle) and Eucalyptus globulus (Blue gum). The logs were chipped as received. The chips were hammer-milled and screened through a 1 mm sieve. The wood particles were conditioned and the quantity of bark in the wood was determined. The binding matrix was prepared using a reactive magnesia, phosphoric acid and class S fly ash. The materials were mixed and poured into a metallic mould. The composite within the mould was compressed at room temperature at a pressure of 200 KPa. After initial setting which took about 5 minutes, the composite board was demoulded and air-cured for 72 h. The cured product was thereafter conditioned at 20°C and 70% relative humidity for 48 h. Test of physical and strength properties were conducted on the composite boards. The effect of binder formulation and fly ash content on the properties of the boards was studied using fitted response surface technology, according to a central composite experimental design (CCD) at a fixed wood loading of 75% (w/w) of total inorganic contents. The results showed that phosphate/magnesia ratio of 3:1 and fly ash content of 10% was required to obtain a product of good properties and sufficient strength for intended applications. The proposed products can be used for ceilings, partitioning and insulating wall panels.

Keywords: invasive alien tree species, phosphate bonded composites, physical properties, strength

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5 Morphological Study of Various Varieties of Aseel Chicken Breed Inhabiting District Hyderabad

Authors: Madiha Qureshi

Abstract:

The study was designed to explore the morphological variation of Aseel chicken varieties in district Hyderabad. A survey was conducted during 5th April 2017 to 23rd August 2017 in four localities of district Hyderabad including Tandojam, Goth karan khan shoro, tower market and railway line colony. A total number of 54 samples (20 males and 34 females) of six varieties of Aseel chicken breed (Sindhi, Mottled, Black, Lakha, Jawa, Kulang) were studied and identify with different morphological characters such as comb type, size of wattles and earlobes, plumage color, shank color, beak color and eye color. Great morphological diversity was observed among these varieties, and this study provides baseline information for future research in the area.

Keywords: Aseel, Hyderabad, wattle, earlobe, comb

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4 Alteration of Sex Steroid Hormone Levels in Sex Reversed Chickens

Authors: A. H. Shaikat, M. B. Hossain, S. K. M. A. Islam, M. M. Hassan, S. A. Khan, A. K. M. Saifuddin, M. N. Islam, M. A. Hoque

Abstract:

A total of eighteen (18) sex reversed chickens with unusual phenotypic characteristics of male birds were identified over 2000 Hyline layer chickens at Motaher Poultry Farm, Ramu, Cox’s Bazar. Chickens were subdivided into two groups (case = 18, control = 20) based on the appearance of sex-reversed secondary sexual characteristics. Phenotypic traits of studied chickens were measured with farm management details. Hormone assay using ELISA, autopsy followed by gross examination of viscera was performed. The study found higher body weight (gm) (1579.3; 95% CI: 1561.7-1596.8), comb length (cm) (12.2; 11.5-12.8), comb width (cm) (7.9; 7.7-8.2), wattle length (cm) (4.9; 4.8-5.1) distinct spur, and shortened pubic bones distance, suggesting decrease oviposition in sex-reversed chickens. Testosterone concentration (ng/ml) (8.5; 6.4-10.6) was significantly higher (p<0.001) along with decrease estrogen (pg/ml) (5.1; 4.9-5.5) and progesterone concentration (pg/ml) (310.9; 289.4-332.5) in sex-reversed chickens. Mass abdominal fat deposition with atrophied ovary was found upon exploration of viscera.

Keywords: ovary, phenotypic traits, sex hormone, sex reversal

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3 Effects of Aromatase Inhibitor (Fadrozole) Induced Sex-Reversal in Chicken (Gimmizah strain) on Morphology

Authors: Hatem Shreha

Abstract:

Aromatase inhibitors administered before sexual differentiation of the gonads can induce sex reversal in female chickens (phenotypic male). To analyze the process of sex reversal, we have followed for several months the changes induced by Fadrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor on the morphology of female sex-reversed and female sex-reversed supplemented with L-tyrosine which was previously shown to stimulate the release of Gn Rh. Fadrozole (1mg/egg) was injected into eggs on day four of incubation, phenotypic males and phenotypic males treated with L-tyrosine and males hatched from eggs injected Fadrozole were sacrificed by slaughtering at 16 weeks old and the remaining chicks were sacrificed at 28 weeks old. Both sexes from control chickens were sacrificed at the same age (16 &28 weeks). Hatchability, behavior, body weight, shank length, comb weight, testes weight, blood cells count and wattle weight of sex reversal were tested at 16 and 28 weeks. The results showed that body weight, comb weight, wattles weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were significantly different from control female. Behavior of phenotypic males and phenotypic males fed on L- tyrosine showed aggressive sexual behavior like that of control males and absence of laying behavior. In conclusion our results confirm that Fedrazole injection in eggs before sex differentiation produce a male behavior and morphological index of male in female chicken.

Keywords: sex reversal, fadrozole, phenotypic male, L- tyrosine

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2 Effects of Aromatase Inhibitor on Morphology and Body Shape in Sex-Reversal Chicken: Gimmizah Strain

Authors: Hatem Ashur Masoud Shreha

Abstract:

Aromatase inhibitors administered before sexual differentiation of the gonads in chicken embryo can induce sex reversal in female layer chickens (phenotypic male). To analyze the process of sex reversal, we have followed for several months the changes induced by Fadrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor on morphology of female sex-reversed and female sex-reversed supplemented with L-tyrosine which was previously shown to stimulate release of Gn Rh. Fadrozole (1mg/egg) was injected into eggs on day four of incubation before sex differentiation. phenotypic males and phenotypic males treated with L-tyrosine and males hatched from eggs injected Fadrozole were sacrificed by slaughtering at 16 weeks old and the remaining chicks were sacrificed at 28 weeks old. Both sexes from control chickens were sacrificed at the same age (16 &28 weeks). Hatchability, behavior, body weight, shank length, comb weight, testes weight, blood cells count and wattle weight of sex reversal were tested at 16 and 28 weeks. The results showed that body weight, comb weight, wattles weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were significantly different from control female. Behavior of phenotypic males and phenotypic males fed on L-tyrosine showed aggressive sexual behavior like that of control males and absence of laying behavior. In conclusion our results confirm that Fadrazole injection in eggs before sex differentiation produce a male behavior and morphological index of male in female chicken.

Keywords: sex-reversal, fadrozole, phenotypic male, L-tyrosine

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1 Status of Alien Invasive Trees on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park

Authors: Andrew Kanzunguze, Sopani Sichinga, Paston Simkoko, George Nxumayo, Cosmas, V. B. Dambo

Abstract:

Early detection of plant invasions is a necessary prerequisite for effective invasive plant management in protected areas. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of alien invasive trees in Nyika National Park (NNP). Data on species' presence and abundance were collected from belt transects (n=31) in a 100 square kilometer area on the central plateau. The data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test; Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare frequencies and abundances between the species, and geographical information systems were used for spatial analyses. Results revealed that Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii), Mexican Pine (Pinus patula) and Himalayan Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus) were the main alien invasive trees on the plateau. A. mearnsii was localized in the areas where it was first introduced, whereas P. patula and R. ellipticus were spread out beyond original points of introduction. R. ellipticus occurred as dense, extensive (up to 50 meters) thickets on the margins of forest patches and pine stands, whilst P. patula trees were frequent in the valleys, occurring most densely (up to 39 stems per 100 square meters) south-west of Chelinda camp on the central plateau with high variation in tree heights. Additionally, there were no significant differences in abundance between R. ellipticus (48) and P. patula (48) in the study area (p > 0.05) It was concluded that R. ellipticus and P. patula require more attention as compared to A. mearnsii. Howbeit, further studies into the invasion ecology of both P. patula and R. ellipticus on the Nyika plateau are highly recommended so as to assess the threat posed by the species on biodiversity, and recommend appropriate conservation measures in the national park.

Keywords: alien-invasive trees, Himalayan raspberry, Nyika National Park, Mexican pine

Procedia PDF Downloads 80