Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: comb

22 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector

Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.

Keywords: exergy, energy balance, entropy balance, work potential, degradation, honey comb, flat plate collector

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21 Extracellular Laccase Production by Co-culture between Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and Filamentous Fungal Strains Isolated from Fungus Comb Using Natural Inducer

Authors: P. Chaijak, M. Lertworapreecha, C. Sukkasem

Abstract:

Extracellular laccases are copper-containing microbial enzymes with many industrial biotechnological applications. This study evaluated the ability of nutrients in coconut coir to enhance the yield of extracellular laccase of Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and develop a co-culture between this yeast and other filamentous fungi isolated from the fungus comb of Macrotermes sp. The co-culture between G. reesii IFO 10823 and M. indicus FJ-M-5 (G3) gave the highest activity at 580.20 U/mL. When grown in fermentation media prepared from coconut coir and distilled water at 70% of initial moisture without supplement addition, G3 produced extracellular laccase of 113.99 U/mL.

Keywords: extracellular laccase, production, yeast, natural inducer

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20 Morphological Study of Various Varieties of Aseel Chicken Breed Inhabiting District Hyderabad

Authors: Madiha Qureshi

Abstract:

The study was designed to explore the morphological variation of Aseel chicken varieties in district Hyderabad. A survey was conducted during 5th April 2017 to 23rd August 2017 in four localities of district Hyderabad including Tandojam, Goth karan khan shoro, tower market and railway line colony. A total number of 54 samples (20 males and 34 females) of six varieties of Aseel chicken breed (Sindhi, Mottled, Black, Lakha, Jawa, Kulang) were studied and identify with different morphological characters such as comb type, size of wattles and earlobes, plumage color, shank color, beak color and eye color. Great morphological diversity was observed among these varieties, and this study provides baseline information for future research in the area.

Keywords: Aseel, Hyderabad, wattle, earlobe, comb

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19 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng

Abstract:

A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
18 Alteration of Sex Steroid Hormone Levels in Sex Reversed Chickens

Authors: A. H. Shaikat, M. B. Hossain, S. K. M. A. Islam, M. M. Hassan, S. A. Khan, A. K. M. Saifuddin, M. N. Islam, M. A. Hoque

Abstract:

A total of eighteen (18) sex reversed chickens with unusual phenotypic characteristics of male birds were identified over 2000 Hyline layer chickens at Motaher Poultry Farm, Ramu, Cox’s Bazar. Chickens were subdivided into two groups (case = 18, control = 20) based on the appearance of sex-reversed secondary sexual characteristics. Phenotypic traits of studied chickens were measured with farm management details. Hormone assay using ELISA, autopsy followed by gross examination of viscera was performed. The study found higher body weight (gm) (1579.3; 95% CI: 1561.7-1596.8), comb length (cm) (12.2; 11.5-12.8), comb width (cm) (7.9; 7.7-8.2), wattle length (cm) (4.9; 4.8-5.1) distinct spur, and shortened pubic bones distance, suggesting decrease oviposition in sex-reversed chickens. Testosterone concentration (ng/ml) (8.5; 6.4-10.6) was significantly higher (p<0.001) along with decrease estrogen (pg/ml) (5.1; 4.9-5.5) and progesterone concentration (pg/ml) (310.9; 289.4-332.5) in sex-reversed chickens. Mass abdominal fat deposition with atrophied ovary was found upon exploration of viscera.

Keywords: ovary, phenotypic traits, sex hormone, sex reversal

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17 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: internet of things, weight, honey, bee

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16 Effects of Aromatase Inhibitor (Fadrozole) Induced Sex-Reversal in Chicken (Gimmizah strain) on Morphology

Authors: Hatem Shreha

Abstract:

Aromatase inhibitors administered before sexual differentiation of the gonads can induce sex reversal in female chickens (phenotypic male). To analyze the process of sex reversal, we have followed for several months the changes induced by Fadrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor on the morphology of female sex-reversed and female sex-reversed supplemented with L-tyrosine which was previously shown to stimulate the release of Gn Rh. Fadrozole (1mg/egg) was injected into eggs on day four of incubation, phenotypic males and phenotypic males treated with L-tyrosine and males hatched from eggs injected Fadrozole were sacrificed by slaughtering at 16 weeks old and the remaining chicks were sacrificed at 28 weeks old. Both sexes from control chickens were sacrificed at the same age (16 &28 weeks). Hatchability, behavior, body weight, shank length, comb weight, testes weight, blood cells count and wattle weight of sex reversal were tested at 16 and 28 weeks. The results showed that body weight, comb weight, wattles weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were significantly different from control female. Behavior of phenotypic males and phenotypic males fed on L- tyrosine showed aggressive sexual behavior like that of control males and absence of laying behavior. In conclusion our results confirm that Fedrazole injection in eggs before sex differentiation produce a male behavior and morphological index of male in female chicken.

Keywords: sex reversal, fadrozole, phenotypic male, L- tyrosine

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15 Effects of Aromatase Inhibitor on Morphology and Body Shape in Sex-Reversal Chicken: Gimmizah Strain

Authors: Hatem Ashur Masoud Shreha

Abstract:

Aromatase inhibitors administered before sexual differentiation of the gonads in chicken embryo can induce sex reversal in female layer chickens (phenotypic male). To analyze the process of sex reversal, we have followed for several months the changes induced by Fadrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor on morphology of female sex-reversed and female sex-reversed supplemented with L-tyrosine which was previously shown to stimulate release of Gn Rh. Fadrozole (1mg/egg) was injected into eggs on day four of incubation before sex differentiation. phenotypic males and phenotypic males treated with L-tyrosine and males hatched from eggs injected Fadrozole were sacrificed by slaughtering at 16 weeks old and the remaining chicks were sacrificed at 28 weeks old. Both sexes from control chickens were sacrificed at the same age (16 &28 weeks). Hatchability, behavior, body weight, shank length, comb weight, testes weight, blood cells count and wattle weight of sex reversal were tested at 16 and 28 weeks. The results showed that body weight, comb weight, wattles weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were significantly different from control female. Behavior of phenotypic males and phenotypic males fed on L-tyrosine showed aggressive sexual behavior like that of control males and absence of laying behavior. In conclusion our results confirm that Fadrazole injection in eggs before sex differentiation produce a male behavior and morphological index of male in female chicken.

Keywords: sex-reversal, fadrozole, phenotypic male, L-tyrosine

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14 Effects of Plumage Colour on Measurable Attributes of Indigenous Chickens in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Joseph J. Okoh, Samuel T. Mbap, Tahir Ibrahim, Yusuf P. Mancha

Abstract:

The influence of plumage colour on measurable attributes of 6176 adult indigenous chickens of mixed-sex from four states of the North Central Zone of Nigeria namely; Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Kogi and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja were assessed. The overall average body weight of the chickens was 1.95 ± 0.03kg. The body weights of black, white, black/white, brown, black/brown, grey and mottled chicken however were 1.87 ± 0.04, 1.94 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.03, 1.93 ± 0.03, 2.01 ± 0.04, 1.96 ± 0.04 and 1.94±0.14kg respectively. Only body length did not vary by plumage colour. The others; body weight and width, shank, comb and breast length, breast height (p < 0.001), beak and wing lengths (p < 0.001) varied significantly. Generally, no colour was outrightly superior to others in all body measurements. However, body weight and breast height were both highest in black/brown chickens which also had the second highest breast length. Body width, shank, beak, comb and wing lengths were highest in grey chickens but lowest in those with white colour and combinations. Egg quality was on the other hand mostly lowest in grey chickens. In selection for genetic improvement in body measurements, black/brown and grey chickens should be favoured. However, in view of the known negative relationship between body weight and egg attributes, selection in favour of grey plumage may result in chickens of poor egg attributes. Therefore, grey chickens should be selected against egg quality.

Keywords: body weight, indigenous chicken, measurements, plumage colour

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13 Recent Advancement in Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Authors: Savita, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh

Abstract:

Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG) is a widely used technique to assess the fetal well-being and identify any changes that might be with problems during pregnancy and to evaluate the health and conditions of the fetus. Various techniques or methods have been employed to diagnose the fECG from abdominal signal. This paper describes the facile approach for the estimation of the fECG known as Adaptive Comb. Filter (ACF). The ACF can adjust according to the temporal variations in fundamental frequency by itself that used for the estimation of the quasi periodic signal of ECG signal.

Keywords: aECG, ACF, fECG, mECG

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12 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

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11 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder

Abstract:

The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

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10 Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach), Celosia argentea (Cock's Comb) and Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade)

Authors: S. O. Oladeji, I. Saleh, A. U. Adamu, S. A. Fowotade

Abstract:

The proximate composition, trace metal level and amino acid composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea and Solanum nigrum were determined. These vegetables were high in their ash contents. Twelve elements were determined: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, nickel, phosphorous, potassium, sodium and zinc using flame photometer, atomic absorption and UV-Visible spectrophotometers. Calcium levels were highest ranged between 145.28±0.38 to 235.62±0.41mg/100g in all the samples followed by phosphorus. Quantitative chromatographic analysis of the vegetables hydrolysates revealed seventeen amino acids with concentration of leucine (6.51 to 6.66±0.21g/16gN) doubling that of isoleucine (2.99 to 3.33±0.21g/16gN) in all the samples while the limiting amino acids were cystine and methionine. The result showed that these vegetables were of high nutritive values and could be adequate used as supplement in diet.

Keywords: proximate, amino acids, Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, Solanum nigrum

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9 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: multi-wavelength Q-switched, multi-walled carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiber

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8 Survey on Prevalence of Endo and Ecto-Parasites of Rattus rattus in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Afsaneh Amouei, Iman Bakouei, Mahdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Ahmad Daryani

Abstract:

Background: Rodents act as reservoir host and important potential source for many zoonotic pathogens which pose a public health risk to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites among rodents. Materials and Methods: 118 Rattus rattus were captured using snap live traps. Each rat was combed with a fine tooth comb to dislodge ectoparasite and studied. Various samples were collected from feces, examined wet smear, formalin-ether method and stained with modified acid-fast staining and trichrome. Result: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of examined rats was 75.4%. Cryptosporidium 30.5%, was the most prevalent protozoan which was followed by Giardia 20.3% and Entamoeba muris 13.5%, Trichomonas muris 10.1% and Spironucleus muris 3.3%. The prevalence of helminth egg was as following Syphacia obvelata 24.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta 10.1% and Trichuris muris 9.3%. 86.4% rodents were found to be infested with ectoparasites including mite 35.6%, flea 28.4%, and lice 42.7%. A significant statistical difference was observed between prevalence and gender of infected individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites of collected rats in studied area is remarkably high. In addition, Rattus rattus can be considered as potential risk for human health.

Keywords: prevalence, rodent, intestinal parasites, ecto-parasites, zoonose

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7 Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization of Cisarua, Nanggung District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Asaga, N. I. Basuki

Abstract:

The research area is located in Cisarua, Bogor Regency, West Java, with 12,8 km2 wide. This area belongs to mining region of PT Aneka Tambang Tbk. The purpose of this research is to study geological condition, alteration type and pattern, and type of mineralization. Geomorphology of the research area is at young to mature stage, which can be divided into Ciparigi’s Parasite Volcanic Cone Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Valley Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Rim Hill Unit, and Pongkor Volcanic Hill. Stratigraphy of the research area consist of five units, they are Laharic Breccia (Pliocene), Pyroclastic Breccia, Lapilli Tuff, Flow Tuff, Fall Tuff, and Andesite Lava (Pleistocene). Based on mineral composition, it is interpreted that there is magma composition changing from rhyolite to andesitic. Geological structures in the research area are caused by NE-SW and N-S stress direction; they are Ciparay Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pliocene), Cisarua Right Strike-Slip Fault, G. Singa Left Strike-Slip Fault, and Cinyuncung Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pleistocene). Weak to strong hydrothermal alteration can be found in the research area.They are Chlorite ± Smectite ± Halloysite Zone, Smectite - Illite - Quartz Zone, Smectite - Kaolinite - Illite - Chlorite Zone, and Smectite - Chlorite - Calcite - Quartz Zone. The distribution and assemblage of alteration minerals is controlled by lithology and geological structures in Pleistocene. Mineralization produce ore minerals, those are pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcocite. There are calcite and quartz veins that show colloform, comb, and crystalline textures. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages, ore minerals, and cavity filling textures suggest that mineralization type in research area is epithermal low sulphidation.

Keywords: Pongkor, hydrothermal alteration, epithermal, geochemistry

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6 Ultrastructural Study of Surface Topography of Trematode Parasites of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India

Authors: Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis diseases have been prevalent due to presence of trematode parasites in the rumen and liver of domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India. The trematode parasites such as Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Orthocoelium scoliocoelium, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were collected from infected rumen and liver of the freshly slaughtered buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. Live trematodes were washed in normal saline, fixed in 0.2M cacodylate fixative, post fixed in osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated, dried, coated with gold sputter and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The surface tegument of Paramphistomum cervi was spineless with transverse folds, discontinuous with ridges and grooves. Two types of sensory papillae such as knob like and button shaped were also observed. The oral opening of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was surrounded by wrinkled and ridged tegument which formed concentric elevated rings. Tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum in acetabulum region was observed to be rough and bee-comb like structure. Genital sucker of this worm was surrounded by a tyre- shaped elevation of the tegument. Orthocoelium scoliocoelium showed circular and concentric rings of tegumental folds around the oral sucker. Genital pore had knob like papillae with radial tegumental folds. Surface topography of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were found to be rough due to occurrence of different types of spines, three types of sensory papillae, transverse folds and grooves. Oral and ventral suckers were spineless and covered with thick rims of transverse folds. Genital pore showed small scattered spines. Present research work would provide knowledge for ultrastructural characteristics of trematode parasites for chemotherapeutic measures and help us to evolve suitable strategy for the eradication of trematode parasites from the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

Keywords: Domestic buffalo, tegument, trematode parasites, ultrastructure

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5 Poultry in Motion: Text Mining Social Media Data for Avian Influenza Surveillance in the UK

Authors: Samuel Munaf, Kevin Swingler, Franz Brülisauer, Anthony O’Hare, George Gunn, Aaron Reeves

Abstract:

Background: Avian influenza, more commonly known as Bird flu, is a viral zoonotic respiratory disease stemming from various species of poultry, including pets and migratory birds. Researchers have purported that the accessibility of health information online, in addition to the low-cost data collection methods the internet provides, has revolutionized the methods in which epidemiological and disease surveillance data is utilized. This paper examines the feasibility of using internet data sources, such as Twitter and livestock forums, for the early detection of the avian flu outbreak, through the use of text mining algorithms and social network analysis. Methods: Social media mining was conducted on Twitter between the period of 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021 via the Twitter API in Python. The results were filtered firstly by hashtags (#avianflu, #birdflu), word occurrences (avian flu, bird flu, H5N1), and then refined further by location to include only those results from within the UK. Analysis was conducted on this text in a time-series manner to determine keyword frequencies and topic modeling to uncover insights in the text prior to a confirmed outbreak. Further analysis was performed by examining clinical signs (e.g., swollen head, blue comb, dullness) within the time series prior to the confirmed avian flu outbreak by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). Results: The increased search results in Google and avian flu-related tweets showed a correlation in time with the confirmed cases. Topic modeling uncovered clusters of word occurrences relating to livestock biosecurity, disposal of dead birds, and prevention measures. Conclusions: Text mining social media data can prove to be useful in relation to analysing discussed topics for epidemiological surveillance purposes, especially given the lack of applied research in the veterinary domain. The small sample size of tweets for certain weekly time periods makes it difficult to provide statistically plausible results, in addition to a great amount of textual noise in the data.

Keywords: veterinary epidemiology, disease surveillance, infodemiology, infoveillance, avian influenza, social media

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4 A Mathematical Model for Studying Landing Dynamics of a Typical Lunar Soft Lander

Authors: Johns Paul, Santhosh J. Nalluveettil, P. Purushothaman, M. Premdas

Abstract:

Lunar landing is one of the most critical phases of lunar mission. The lander is provided with a soft landing system to prevent structural damage of lunar module by absorbing the landing shock and also assure stability during landing. Presently available software are not capable to simulate the rigid body dynamics coupled with contact simulation and elastic/plastic deformation analysis. Hence a separate mathematical model has been generated for studying the dynamics of a typical lunar soft lander. Parameters used in the analysis includes lunar surface slope, coefficient of friction, initial touchdown velocity (vertical and horizontal), mass and moment of inertia of lander, crushing force due to energy absorbing material in the legs, number of legs and geometry of lander. The mathematical model is capable to simulate plastic and elastic deformation of honey comb, frictional force between landing leg and lunar soil, surface contact simulation, lunar gravitational force, rigid body dynamics and linkage dynamics of inverted tripod landing gear. The non linear differential equations generated for studying the dynamics of lunar lander is solved by numerical method. Matlab programme has been used as a computer tool for solving the numerical equations. The position of each kinematic joint is defined by mathematical equations for the generation of equation of motion. All hinged locations are defined by position vectors with respect to body fixed coordinate. The vehicle rigid body rotations and motions about body coordinate are only due to the external forces and moments arise from footpad reaction force due to impact, footpad frictional force and weight of vehicle. All these force are mathematically simulated for the generation of equation of motion. The validation of mathematical model is done by two different phases. First phase is the validation of plastic deformation of crushable elements by employing conservation of energy principle. The second phase is the validation of rigid body dynamics of model by simulating a lander model in ADAMS software after replacing the crushable elements to elastic spring element. Simulation of plastic deformation along with rigid body dynamics and contact force cannot be modeled in ADAMS. Hence plastic element of primary strut is replaced with a spring element and analysis is carried out in ADAMS software. The same analysis is also carried out using the mathematical model where the simulation of honeycomb crushing is replaced by elastic spring deformation and compared the results with ADAMS analysis. The rotational motion of linkages and 6 degree of freedom motion of lunar Lander about its CG can be validated by ADAMS software by replacing crushing element to spring element. The model is also validated by the drop test results of 4 leg lunar lander. This paper presents the details of mathematical model generated and its validation.

Keywords: honeycomb, landing leg tripod, lunar lander, primary link, secondary link

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3 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Tinatin Kuchukhidze

Abstract:

Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: synthesis, PMHS, membrane, electrolyte

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2 Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Prepared by Vapor Phase Polymerization for Stimuli-Responsive Ion-Exchange Drug Delivery

Authors: M. Naveed Yasin, Robert Brooke, Andrew Chan, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Drew Evans, Darren Svirskis, Ilva D. Rupenthal

Abstract:

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a robust conducting polymer (CP) exhibiting high conductivity and environmental stability. It can be synthesized by either chemical, electrochemical or vapour phase polymerization (VPP). Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (dexP) is an anionic drug molecule which has previously been loaded onto PEDOT as a dopant via electrochemical polymerisation; however this technique requires conductive surfaces from which polymerization is initiated. On the other hand, VPP produces highly organized biocompatible CP structures while polymerization can be achieved onto a range of surfaces with a relatively straight forward scale-up process. Following VPP of PEDOT, dexP can be loaded and subsequently released via ion-exchange. This study aimed at preparing and characterising both non-porous and porous VPP PEDOT structures including examining drug loading and release via ion-exchange. Porous PEDOT structures were prepared by first depositing a sacrificial polystyrene (PS) colloidal template on a substrate, heat curing this deposition and then spin coating it with the oxidant solution (iron tosylate) at 1500 rpm for 20 sec. VPP of both porous and non-porous PEDOT was achieved by exposing to monomer vapours in a vacuum oven at 40 mbar and 40 °C for 3 hrs. Non-porous structures were prepared similarly on the same substrate but without any sacrificial template. Surface morphology, compositions and behaviour were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) respectively. Drug loading was achieved by 50 CV cycles in a 0.1 M dexP aqueous solution. For drug release, each sample was exposed to 20 mL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) placed in a water bath operating at 37 °C and 100 rpm. Film was stimulated (continuous pulse of ± 1 V at 0.5 Hz for 17 mins) while immersed into PBS. Samples were collected at 1, 2, 6, 23, 24, 26 and 27 hrs and were analysed for dexP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC Agilent 1200 series). AFM and SEM revealed the honey comb nature of prepared porous structures. XPS data showed the elemental composition of the dexP loaded film surface, which related well with that of PEDOT and also showed that one dexP molecule was present per almost three EDOT monomer units. The reproducible electroactive nature was shown by several cycles of reduction and oxidation via CV. Drug release revealed success in drug loading via ion-exchange, with stimulated porous and non-porous structures exhibiting a proof of concept burst release upon application of an electrical stimulus. A similar drug release pattern was observed for porous and non-porous structures without any significant statistical difference, possibly due to the thin nature of these structures. To our knowledge, this is the first report to explore the potential of VPP prepared PEDOT for stimuli-responsive drug delivery via ion-exchange. The produced porous structures were ordered and highly porous as indicated by AFM and SEM. These porous structures exhibited good electroactivity as shown by CV. Future work will investigate porous structures as nano-reservoirs to increase drug loading while sealing these structures to minimize spontaneous drug leakage.

Keywords: PEDOT for ion-exchange drug delivery, stimuli-responsive drug delivery, template based porous PEDOT structures, vapour phase polymerization of PEDOT

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1 Nanocarriers Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers: Poly(Ester Amide) and Related Cationic and PEGylating Polymers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Temur Kantaria, Nina Kulikova, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Polymeric nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems and therapeutics have a great potential in the treatment of a numerous diseases, due to they are characterizing the flexible properties which is giving possibility to modify their structures with a complex definition over their structures, compositions and properties. Important characteristics of the polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) used as drug carriers are high particle’s stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, and feasibility of variable routes of administration, including oral application and inhalation; NPs are especially effective for intracellular drug delivery since they penetrate into the cells’ interior though endocytosis. A variety of PNPs based drug delivery systems including charged and neutral, degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been developed. Among these huge varieties the biodegradable PNPs which can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function could be considered as one of the most promising. For intracellular uptake it is highly desirable to have positively charged PNPs since they can penetrate deep into cell membranes. For long-lasting circulation of PNPs in the body it is important they have so called “stealth coatings” to protect them from the attack of immune system of the organism. One of the effective ways to render the PNPs “invisible” for immune system is their PEGylation which represent the process of pretreatment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the surface of PNPs. The present work deals with constructing PNPs from amino acid based biodegradable polymers – regular poly(ester amide) (PEA) composed of sebacic acid, leucine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as 8L6), cationic PEA composed of sebacic acid, arginine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as 8R6), and comb-like co-PEA composed of sebacic acid, malic acid, leucine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as PEG-PEA). The PNPs were fabricated using the polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method. The regular PEA 8L6 form stable negatively charged (zeta-potential within 2-12 mV) PNPs of desired size (within 150-200 nm) in the presence of various surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80, Brij 010, etc.). Blending the PEAs 8L6 and 8R6 gave the 130-140 nm sized positively charged PNPs having zeta-potential within +20 ÷ +28 mV depending 8L6/8R6 ratio. The PEGylating PEA PEG-PEA was synthesized by interaction of epoxy-co-PEA [8L6]0,5-[tES-L6]0,5 with mPEG-amine-2000 The stable and positively charged PNPs were fabricated using pure PEG-PEA as a surfactant. A firm anchoring of the PEG-PEA with 8L6/8R6 based PNPs (owing to a high afinity of the backbones of all three PEAs) provided good stabilization of the NPs. In vitro biocompatibility study of the new PNPs with four different stable cell lines: A549 (human), U-937 (human), RAW264.7 (murine), Hepa 1-6 (murine) showed they are biocompatible. Considering high stability and cell compatibility of the elaborated PNPs one can conclude that they are promising for subsequent therapeutic applications. This work was supported by the joint grant from the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia #6298 “New biodegradable cationic polymers composed of arginine and spermine-versatile biomaterials for various biomedical applications”.

Keywords: biodegradable poly(ester amide)s, cationic poly(ester amide), pegylating poly(ester amide), nanoparticles

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