Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6242

Search results for: single detection

6242 Mutiple Medical Landmark Detection on X-Ray Scan Using Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Vijaya Yuvaram Singh V M, Kameshwar Rao J V


The challenge with development of neural network based methods for medical is the availability of data. Anatomical landmark detection in the medical domain is a process to find points on the x-ray scan report of the patient. Most of the time this task is done manually by trained professionals as it requires precision and domain knowledge. Traditionally object detection based methods are used for landmark detection. Here, we utilize reinforcement learning and query based method to train a single agent capable of detecting multiple landmarks. A deep Q network agent is trained to detect single and multiple landmarks present on hip and shoulder from x-ray scan of a patient. Here a single agent is trained to find multiple landmark making it superior to having individual agents per landmark. For the initial study, five images of different patients are used as the environment and tested the agents performance on two unseen images.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, medical landmark detection, multi target detection, deep neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
6241 Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.

Keywords: glass transition, molecular motion, polymer materials, single molecule

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
6240 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung


Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
6239 An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Oracet Blue as a Label for Detection of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Saeedeh Hajihosseini, Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh


An innovative method of a DNA electrochemical biosensor based on Oracet Blue (OB) as an electroactive label and gold electrode (AuE) for detection of Helicobacter pylori, was offered. A single–stranded DNA probe with a thiol modification was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuE by forming an Au–S bond. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of reduction of the OB binding to double– stranded DNA (ds–DNA). Our results showed that OB–based DNA biosensor has a decent potential for detection of single–base mismatch in target DNA. Selectivity of the proposed DNA biosensor was further confirmed in the presence of non–complementary and complementary DNA strands. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal had a linear relationship with the concentration of the target DNA ranging from 0.3 nmol L-1 to 240.0 nmol L-1, and the detection limit was 0.17 nmol L-1, whit a promising reproducibility and repeatability.

Keywords: DNA biosensor, oracet blue, Helicobacter pylori, electrode (AuE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
6238 Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques

Authors: John Onyima, Ikechukwu Ezepue


Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.

Keywords: anomaly-based detection, cloud computing, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, signature-based detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
6237 Incorporating Multiple Supervised Learning Algorithms for Effective Intrusion Detection

Authors: Umar Albalawi, Sang C. Suh, Jinoh Kim


As internet continues to expand its usage with an enormous number of applications, cyber-threats have significantly increased accordingly. Thus, accurate detection of malicious traffic in a timely manner is a critical concern in today’s Internet for security. One approach for intrusion detection is to use Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Several methods based on ML algorithms have been introduced over the past years, but they are largely limited in terms of detection accuracy and/or time and space complexity to run. In this work, we present a novel method for intrusion detection that incorporates a set of supervised learning algorithms. The proposed technique provides high accuracy and outperforms existing techniques that simply utilizes a single learning method. In addition, our technique relies on partial flow information (rather than full information) for detection, and thus, it is light-weight and desirable for online operations with the property of early identification. With the mid-Atlantic CCDC intrusion dataset publicly available, we show that our proposed technique yields a high degree of detection rate over 99% with a very low false alarm rate (0.4%).

Keywords: intrusion detection, supervised learning, traffic classification, computer networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6236 Medical Image Augmentation Using Spatial Transformations for Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Trupti Chavan, Ramachandra Guda, Kameshwar Rao


The lack of data is a pain problem in medical image analysis using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This work uses various spatial transformation techniques to address the medical image augmentation issue for knee detection and localization using an enhanced single shot detector (SSD) network. The spatial transforms like a negative, histogram equalization, power law, sharpening, averaging, gaussian blurring, etc. help to generate more samples, serve as pre-processing methods, and highlight the features of interest. The experimentation is done on the OpenKnee dataset which is a collection of knee images from the openly available online sources. The CNN called enhanced single shot detector (SSD) is utilized for the detection and localization of the knee joint from a given X-ray image. It is an enhanced version of the famous SSD network and is modified in such a way that it will reduce the number of prediction boxes at the output side. It consists of a classification network (VGGNET) and an auxiliary detection network. The performance is measured in mean average precision (mAP), and 99.96% mAP is achieved using the proposed enhanced SSD with spatial transformations. It is also seen that the localization boundary is comparatively more refined and closer to the ground truth in spatial augmentation and gives better detection and localization of knee joints.

Keywords: data augmentation, enhanced SSD, knee detection and localization, medical image analysis, openKnee, Spatial transformations

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6235 Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism

Authors: Zhen Peng, Baifeng Wu


Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: data parallelism, collision detection, single instruction multiple data, building information modeling, continuous scalability

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6234 Signal Amplification Using Graphene Oxide in Label Free Biosensor for Pathogen Detection

Authors: Agampodi Promoda Perera, Yong Shin, Mi Kyoung Park


The successful detection of pathogenic bacteria in blood provides important information for early detection, diagnosis and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Silicon microring resonators are refractive-index-based optical biosensors that provide highly sensitive, label-free, real-time multiplexed detection of biomolecules. We demonstrate the technique of using GO (graphene oxide) to enhance the signal output of the silicon microring optical sensor. The activated carboxylic groups in GO molecules bind directly to single stranded DNA with an amino modified 5’ end. This conjugation amplifies the shift in resonant wavelength in a real-time manner. We designed a capture probe for strain Staphylococcus aureus of 21 bp and a longer complementary target sequence of 70 bp. The mismatched target sequence we used was of Streptococcus agalactiae of 70 bp. GO is added after the complementary binding of the probe and target. GO conjugates to the unbound single stranded segment of the target and increase the wavelength shift on the silicon microring resonator. Furthermore, our results show that GO could successfully differentiate between the mismatched DNA sequences from the complementary DNA sequence. Therefore, the proposed concept could effectively enhance sensitivity of pathogen detection sensors.

Keywords: label free biosensor, pathogenic bacteria, graphene oxide, diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
6233 Anthraquinone Labelled DNA for Direct Detection and Discrimination of Closely Related DNA Targets

Authors: Sarah A. Goodchild, Rachel Gao, Philip N. Bartlett


A novel detection approach using immobilized DNA probes labeled with Anthraquinone (AQ) as an electrochemically active reporter moiety has been successfully developed as a new, simple, reliable method for the detection of DNA. This method represents a step forward in DNA detection as it can discriminate between multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within target DNA strands without the need for any additional reagents, reporters or processes such as melting of DNA strands. The detection approach utilizes single-stranded DNA probes immobilized on gold surfaces labeled at the distal terminus with AQ. The effective immobilization has been monitored using techniques such as AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Simple voltammetry techniques (Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Cyclic Voltammetry) are then used to monitor the reduction potential of the AQ before and after the addition of complementary strand of target DNA. A reliable relationship between the shift in reduction potential and the number of base pair mismatch has been established and can be used to discriminate between DNA from highly related pathogenic organisms of clinical importance. This indicates that this approach may have great potential to be exploited within biosensor kits for detection and diagnosis of pathogenic organisms in Point of Care devices.

Keywords: Anthraquinone, discrimination, DNA detection, electrochemical biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
6232 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum


This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6231 CsPbBr₃@MOF-5-Based Single Drop Microextraction for in-situ Fluorescence Colorimetric Detection of Dechlorination Reaction

Authors: Yanxue Shang, Jingbin Zeng


Chlorobenzene homologues (CBHs) are a category of environmental pollutants that can not be ignored. They can stay in the environment for a long period and are potentially carcinogenic. The traditional degradation method of CBHs is dechlorination followed by sample preparation and analysis. This is not only time-consuming and laborious, but the detection and analysis processes are used in conjunction with large-scale instruments. Therefore, this can not achieve rapid and low-cost detection. Compared with traditional sensing methods, colorimetric sensing is simpler and more convenient. In recent years, chromaticity sensors based on fluorescence have attracted more and more attention. Compared with sensing methods based on changes in fluorescence intensity, changes in color gradients are easier to recognize by the naked eye. Accordingly, this work proposes to use single drop microextraction (SDME) technology to solve the above problems. After the dechlorination reaction was completed, the organic droplet extracts Cl⁻ and realizes fluorescence colorimetric sensing at the same time. This method was integrated sample processing and visual in-situ detection, simplifying the detection process. As a fluorescence colorimetric sensor material, CsPbBr₃ was encapsulated in MOF-5 to construct CsPbBr₃@MOF-5 fluorescence colorimetric composite. Then the fluorescence colorimetric sensor was constructed by dispersing the composite in SDME organic droplets. When the Br⁻ in CsPbBr₃ exchanges with Cl⁻ produced by the dechlorination reactions, it is converted into CsPbCl₃. The fluorescence color of the single droplet of SDME will change from green to blue emission, thereby realizing visual observation. Therein, SDME can enhance the concentration and enrichment of Cl⁻ and instead of sample pretreatment. The fluorescence color change of CsPbBr₃@MOF-5 can replace the detection process of large-scale instruments to achieve real-time rapid detection. Due to the absorption ability of MOF-5, it can not only improve the stability of CsPbBr₃, but induce the adsorption of Cl⁻. Simultaneously, accelerate the exchange of Br- and Cl⁻ in CsPbBr₃ and the detection process of Cl⁻. The absorption process was verified by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This method exhibits exceptional linearity for Cl⁻ in the range of 10⁻² - 10⁻⁶ M (10000 μM - 1 μM) with a limit of detection of 10⁻⁷ M. Whereafter, the dechlorination reactions of different kinds of CBHs were also carried out with this method, and all had satisfactory detection ability. Also verified the accuracy by gas chromatography (GC), and it was found that the SDME we developed in this work had high credibility. In summary, the in-situ visualization method of dechlorination reaction detection was a combination of sample processing and fluorescence colorimetric sensing. Thus, the strategy researched herein represents a promising method for the visual detection of dechlorination reactions and can be extended for applications in environments, chemical industries, and foods.

Keywords: chlorobenzene homologues, colorimetric sensor, metal halide perovskite, metal-organic frameworks, single drop microextraction

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6230 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/cas9-Based Lateral Flow and Fluorescence Diagnostics for Rapid Pathogen Detection

Authors: Mark Osborn


Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas) proteins can be designed to bind specified DNA and RNA sequences and hold great promise for the accurate detection of nucleic acids for diagnostics. Commercially available reagents were integrated into a CRISPR/Cas9-based lateral flow assay that can detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences with single-base specificity. This approach requires minimal equipment and represents a simplified platform for field-based deployment. A rapid, multiplex fluorescence CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease cleavage assay capable of detecting and differentiating SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus in a single reaction was also developed. These findings provide proof of principle for CRISPR/Cas9 point-of-care diagnosis that can detect specific SARS-CoV-2 strain(s). Further, Cas9 cleavage allows for a scalable fluorescent platform for identifying respiratory viral pathogens with overlapping symptomology. Collectively, this approach is a facile platform for diagnostics with broad application to user-defined sequence interrogation and detection.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, lateral flow assay, SARS-Co-V2, single-nucleotide resolution

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6229 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

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6228 Multi-Spectral Deep Learning Models for Forest Fire Detection

Authors: Smitha Haridasan, Zelalem Demissie, Atri Dutta, Ajita Rattani


Aided by the wind, all it takes is one ember and a few minutes to create a wildfire. Wildfires are growing in frequency and size due to climate change. Wildfires and its consequences are one of the major environmental concerns. Every year, millions of hectares of forests are destroyed over the world, causing mass destruction and human casualties. Thus early detection of wildfire becomes a critical component to mitigate this threat. Many computer vision-based techniques have been proposed for the early detection of forest fire using video surveillance. Several computer vision-based methods have been proposed to predict and detect forest fires at various spectrums, namely, RGB, HSV, and YCbCr. The aim of this paper is to propose a multi-spectral deep learning model that combines information from different spectrums at intermediate layers for accurate fire detection. A heterogeneous dataset assembled from publicly available datasets is used for model training and evaluation in this study. The experimental results show that multi-spectral deep learning models could obtain an improvement of about 4.68 % over those based on a single spectrum for fire detection.

Keywords: deep learning, forest fire detection, multi-spectral learning, natural hazard detection

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6227 Isothermal Solid-Phase Amplification System for Detection of Yersinia pestis

Authors: Olena Mayboroda, Angel Gonzalez Benito, Jonathan Sabate Del Rio, Marketa Svobodova, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, Ioanis Katakis


DNA amplification is required for most molecular diagnostic applications but conventional PCR has disadvantages for field testing. Isothermal amplification techniques are being developed to respond to this problem. One of them is the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) that operates at isothermal conditions without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity in easy-to-use formats. In this work RPA was used for the optical detection of solid-phase amplification of the potential biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Thiolated forward primers were immobilized on the surface of maleimide-activated microtitre plates for the quantitative detection of synthetic and genomic DNA, with elongation occurring only in the presence of the specific template DNA and solution phase reverse primers. Quantitative detection was achieved via the use of biotinylated reverse primers and post-amplification addition of streptavidin-HRP conjugate. The overall time of amplification and detection was less than 1 hour at a constant temperature of 37oC. Single-stranded and double-stranded DNA sequences were detected achieving detection limits of 4.04*10-13 M and 3.14*10-16 M, respectively. The system demonstrated high specificity with negligible responses to non-specific targets.

Keywords: recombinase polymerase amplification, Yersinia pestis, solid-phase detection, ELONA

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6226 Ultrasensitive Detection and Discrimination of Cancer-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Using Poly-Enzyme Polymer Bead Amplification

Authors: Lorico D. S. Lapitan Jr., Yihan Xu, Yuan Guo, Dejian Zhou


The ability of ultrasensitive detection of specific genes and discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms is important for clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Herein, we report the development of a new ultrasensitive approach for label-free DNA detection using magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) assisted rapid target capture/separation in combination with signal amplification using poly-enzyme tagged polymer nanobead. The sensor uses an MNP linked capture DNA and a biotin modified signal DNA to sandwich bind the target followed by ligation to provide high single-nucleotide polymorphism discrimination. Only the presence of a perfect match target DNA yields a covalent linkage between the capture and signal DNAs for subsequent conjugation of a neutravidin-modified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme through the strong biotin-nuetravidin interaction. This converts each captured DNA target into an HRP which can convert millions of copies of a non-fluorescent substrate (amplex red) to a highly fluorescent product (resorufin), for great signal amplification. The use of polymer nanobead each tagged with thousands of copies of HRPs as the signal amplifier greatly improves the signal amplification power, leading to greatly improved sensitivity. We show our biosensing approach can specifically detect an unlabeled DNA target down to 10 aM with a wide dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 0.001 fM to 100.0 fM). Furthermore, our approach has a high discrimination between a perfectly matched gene and its cancer-related single-base mismatch targets (SNPs): It can positively detect the perfect match DNA target even in the presence of 100 fold excess of co-existing SNPs. This sensing approach also works robustly in clinical relevant media (e.g. 10% human serum) and gives almost the same SNP discrimination ratio as that in clean buffers. Therefore, this ultrasensitive SNP biosensor appears to be well-suited for potential diagnostic applications of genetic diseases.

Keywords: DNA detection, polymer beads, signal amplification, single nucleotide polymorphisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
6225 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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6224 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

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6223 Ultra-Sensitive and Real Time Detection of ZnO NW Using QCM

Authors: Juneseok You, Kuewhan Jang, Chanho Park, Jaeyeong Choi, Hyunjun Park, Sehyun Shin, Changsoo Han, Sungsoo Na


Nanomaterials occur toxic effects to human being or ecological systems. Some sensors have been developed to detect toxic materials and the standard for toxic materials has been established. Zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) is known for toxic material. By ionizing in cell body, ionized Zn ions are overexposed to cell components, which cause critical damage or death. In this paper, we detected ZnO NW in water using QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) and ssDNA (single strand DNA). We achieved 30 minutes of response time for real time detection and 100 pg/mL of limit of detection (LOD).

Keywords: zinc oxide nanowire, QCM, ssDNA, toxic material, biosensor

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6222 A Character Detection Method for Ancient Yi Books Based on Connected Components and Regressive Character Segmentation

Authors: Xu Han, Shanxiong Chen, Shiyu Zhu, Xiaoyu Lin, Fujia Zhao, Dingwang Wang


Character detection is an important issue for character recognition of ancient Yi books. The accuracy of detection directly affects the recognition effect of ancient Yi books. Considering the complex layout, the lack of standard typesetting and the mixed arrangement between images and texts, we propose a character detection method for ancient Yi books based on connected components and regressive character segmentation. First, the scanned images of ancient Yi books are preprocessed with nonlocal mean filtering, and then a modified local adaptive threshold binarization algorithm is used to obtain the binary images to segment the foreground and background for the images. Second, the non-text areas are removed by the method based on connected components. Finally, the single character in the ancient Yi books is segmented by our method. The experimental results show that the method can effectively separate the text areas and non-text areas for ancient Yi books and achieve higher accuracy and recall rate in the experiment of character detection, and effectively solve the problem of character detection and segmentation in character recognition of ancient books.

Keywords: CCS concepts, computing methodologies, interest point, salient region detections, image segmentation

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6221 Nano-Plasmonic Diagnostic Sensor Using Ultraflat Single-Crystalline Au Nanoplate and Cysteine-Tagged Protein G

Authors: Hwang Ahreum, Kang Taejoon, Kim Bongsoo


Nanosensors for high sensitive detection of diseases have been widely studied to improve the quality of life. Here, we suggest robust nano-plasmonic diagnostic sensor using cysteine tagged protein G (Cys3-protein G) and ultraflat, ultraclean and single-crystalline Au nanoplates. Protein G formed on an ultraflat Au surface provides ideal background for dense and uniform immobilization of antibodies. The Au is highly stable in diverse biochemical environment and can immobilize antibodies easily through Au-S bonding, having been widely used for various biosensing applications. Especially, atomically smooth single-crystalline Au nanomaterials synthesized using chemical vapor transport (CVT) method are very suitable to fabricate reproducible sensitive sensors. As the C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific biomarker of inflammation and infection, it can be used as a predictive or prognostic marker for various cardiovascular diseases. Cys3-protein G immobilized uniformly on the Au nanoplate enable CRP antibody (anti-CRP) to be ordered in a correct orientation, making their binding capacity be maximized for CRP detection. Immobilization condition for the Cys3-protein G and anti-CRP on the Au nanoplate is optimized visually by AFM analysis. Au nanoparticle - Au nanoplate (NPs-on-Au nanoplate) assembly fabricated from sandwich immunoassay for CRP can reduce zero-signal extremely caused by nonspecific bindings, providing a distinct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement still in 10-18 M of CRP concentration. Moreover, the NP-on-Au nanoplate sensor shows an excellent selectivity against non-target proteins with high concentration. In addition, comparing with control experiments employing a Au film fabricated by e-beam assisted deposition and linker molecule, we validate clearly contribution of the Au nanoplate for the attomolar sensitive detection of CRP. We expect that the devised platform employing the complex of single-crystalline Au nanoplates and Cys3-protein G can be applied for detection of many other cancer biomarkers.

Keywords: Au nanoplate, biomarker, diagnostic sensor, protein G, SERS

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6220 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

Authors: Peter U. Eze, P. Udaya, Robin J. Evans


Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Keywords: Constant Correlation, Medical Image, Spread Spectrum, Tamper Detection, Watermarking

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6219 Vibration Measurements of Single-Lap Cantilevered SPR Beams

Authors: Xiaocong He


Self-pierce riveting (SPR) is a new high-speed mechanical fastening technique which is suitable for point joining dissimilar sheet materials, as well as coated and pre-painted sheet materials. Mechanical structures assembled by SPR are expected to possess a high damping capacity. In this study, experimental measurement techniques were proposed for the prediction of vibration behavior of single-lap cantilevered SPR beams. The dynamic test software and the data acquisition hardware were used in the experimental measurement of the dynamic response of the single-lap cantilevered SPR beams. Free and forced vibration behavior of the single-lap cantilevered SPR beams was measured using the LMS CADA-X experimental modal analysis software and the LMS-DIFA Scadas II data acquisition hardware. The frequency response functions of the SPR beams of different rivet number were compared. The main goal of the paper is to provide a basic measuring method for further research on vibration based non-destructive damage detection in single-lap cantilevered SPR beams.

Keywords: self-piercing riveting, dynamic response, experimental measurement, frequency response functions

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6218 Reduction of False Positives in Head-Shoulder Detection Based on Multi-Part Color Segmentation

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park


The paper presents a method that utilizes figure-ground color segmentation to extract effective global feature in terms of false positive reduction in the head-shoulder detection. Conventional detectors that rely on local features such as HOG due to real-time operation suffer from false positives. Color cue in an input image provides salient information on a global characteristic which is necessary to alleviate the false positives of the local feature based detectors. An effective approach that uses figure-ground color segmentation has been presented in an effort to reduce the false positives in object detection. In this paper, an extended version of the approach is presented that adopts separate multipart foregrounds instead of a single prior foreground and performs the figure-ground color segmentation with each of the foregrounds. The multipart foregrounds include the parts of the head-shoulder shape and additional auxiliary foregrounds being optimized by a search algorithm. A classifier is constructed with the feature that consists of a set of the multiple resulting segmentations. Experimental results show that the presented method can discriminate more false positive than the single prior shape-based classifier as well as detectors with the local features. The improvement is possible because the presented approach can reduce the false positives that have the same colors in the head and shoulder foregrounds.

Keywords: pedestrian detection, color segmentation, false positive, feature extraction

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6217 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman


The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

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6216 An Intrusion Detection Systems Based on K-Means, K-Medoids and Support Vector Clustering Using Ensemble

Authors: A. Mohammadpour, Ebrahim Najafi Kajabad, Ghazale Ipakchi


Presently, computer networks’ security rise in importance and many studies have also been conducted in this field. By the penetration of the internet networks in different fields, many things need to be done to provide a secure industrial and non-industrial network. Fire walls, appropriate Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), encryption protocols for information sending and receiving, and use of authentication certificated are among things, which should be considered for system security. The aim of the present study is to use the outcome of several algorithms, which cause decline in IDS errors, in the way that improves system security and prevents additional overload to the system. Finally, regarding the obtained result we can also detect the amount and percentage of more sub attacks. By running the proposed system, which is based on the use of multi-algorithmic outcome and comparing that by the proposed single algorithmic methods, we observed a 78.64% result in attack detection that is improved by 3.14% than the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: intrusion detection systems, clustering, k-means, k-medoids, SV clustering, ensemble

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
6215 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg


Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6214 A Single-Channel BSS-Based Method for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure under Environmental Variations

Authors: Yanjie Zhu, André Jesus, Irwanda Laory


Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), involving data acquisition, data interpretation and decision-making system aim to continuously monitor the structural performance of civil infrastructures under various in-service circumstances. The main value and purpose of SHM is identifying damages through data interpretation system. Research on SHM has been expanded in the last decades and a large volume of data is recorded every day owing to the dramatic development in sensor techniques and certain progress in signal processing techniques. However, efficient and reliable data interpretation for damage detection under environmental variations is still a big challenge. Structural damages might be masked because variations in measured data can be the result of environmental variations. This research reports a novel method based on single-channel Blind Signal Separation (BSS), which extracts environmental effects from measured data directly without any prior knowledge of the structure loading and environmental conditions. Despite the successful application in audio processing and bio-medical research fields, BSS has never been used to detect damage under varying environmental conditions. This proposed method optimizes and combines Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together to separate structural responses due to different loading conditions respectively from a single channel input signal. The ICA is applying on dimension-reduced output of EEMD. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge, inspired from New Joban Line Arakawa Railway Bridge, is used to validate this method. All results demonstrate that the single-channel BSS-based method can recover temperature effects from mixed structural response recorded by a single sensor with a convincing accuracy. This will be the foundation of further research on direct damage detection under varying environment.

Keywords: damage detection, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), environmental variations, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), structural health monitoring (SHM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
6213 Intrusion Detection Techniques in NaaS in the Cloud: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood


The network as a service (NaaS) usage has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the NaaS, prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in NaaS. The authentication and encryption are considered the first solution of the NaaS problem whereas now these are not sufficient as NaaS use is increasing. In this paper, we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in NaaS and aim to compare in some important fields.

Keywords: IDS, cloud, naas, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 203