Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: A. J. Salifu

3 Adsorption of Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions Using Chitosan Obtained from a Mixture of Littorina littorea and Achatinoidea Shells

Authors: E. D. Paul, O. F. Paul, J. E. Toryila, A. J. Salifu, C. E. Gimba

Abstract:

Adsorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution by Chitosan, a natural polymer, obtained from a mixture of the exoskeletons of Littorina littorea (Periwinkle) and Achatinoidea (Snail) was studied at varying adsorbent dose, contact time, metal ion concentrations, temperature and pH using batch adsorption method. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined between 298 K and 345 K. The adsorption data were adjusted to Langmuir, Freundlich and the pseudo second order kinetic models. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm model most fitted the experimental data, with a maximum monolayer adsorption of 35.1 mgkg⁻¹ at 308 K. The entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were -0.1121 kJmol⁻¹K⁻¹ and -11.43 kJmol⁻¹ respectively. The Freundlich adsorption model, gave Kf and n values consistent with good adsorption. The pseudo-second order reaction model gave a straight line plot with rate constant of 1.291x 10⁻³ kgmg⁻¹ min⁻¹. The qe value was 21.98 mgkg⁻¹, indicating that the adsorption of Cadmium ion by the chitosan composite followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, littorina littorea, achatinoidea, natural polymer

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2 Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, H. Otanwa, O. F. Paul, A. J. Salifu, J. E. Toryila, C. E. Gimba

Abstract:

The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.

Keywords: AAS, heavy metals, mechanic workshops, soil, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1 Drug-Based Nanoparticles: Comparative Study of the Effect Drug Type on Release Kinetics and Cell Viability

Authors: Chukwudalu C. Nwazojie, Wole W. Soboyejo, John Obayemi, Ali Salifu Azeko, Sandra M. Jusu, Chinyerem M. Onyekanne

Abstract:

The conventional methods for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer include bulk systematic mammography, ultrasound, dynamic contrast-enhanced fast 3D gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymer microspheres for disease (cancer) targeting and treatment have enormous potential to enhance the approaches that are used today. The goal is to produce an implantable biomedical device for localized breast cancer drug delivery within Africa and the world. The main advantage of localized delivery is that it reduces the amount of drug that is needed to have a therapeutic effect. Polymer blends of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), which are biodegradable, is used as a drug excipient. This work focuses on the development of PLGA-PCL (poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blended with based injectable drug microspheres and are loaded with anticancer drugs (prodigiosin (PG), and paclitaxel (PTX) control) and also the conjugated forms of the drug functionalized with LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) (PG-LHRH, and PTX- LHRH control), using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA-PCL (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). Comparative study of the various drugs release kinetics and degradation mechanisms of the PLGA-PCL with an encapsulated drug is achieved, and the implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-PCL loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple-negative breast tumor.

Keywords: cancer, polymers, drug kinetics, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 12