Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6912

Search results for: SCADA systems

6912 Basics of SCADA Security: A Technical Approach

Authors: Michał Witas

Abstract:

This paper presents a technical approach to analysis of security of SCADA systems. Main goal of the paper is to make SCADA administrators aware of risks resulting from SCADA systems usage and to familiarize with methods that can be adopt to existing or planned system, to increase overall system security level. Because SCADA based systems become a industrial standard, more attention should be paid to the security of that systems. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) like SCADA are responsible for controlling crucial aspects of wide range of industrial processes. In pair with that responsibility, goes a lot of money that can be earned or lost – this fact is main reason of increased interest of attackers. Additionally ICS are often responsible for maintaining resources strategic from the point of view of national economy, like electricity (including nuclear power plants), heating, water resources or military facilities, so they can be targets of terrorist cybernetic attacks. Without proper risk analysis and management, vulnerabilities resulting from the usage of SCADA can be easily exploited by potential attacker. Paper is based mostly on own experience in systems security, gathered during academic studies and professional work in international company. As title suggests, it will cover only basics of topic, because every of points mentioned in the document can be base for additional research and papers.

Keywords: denial of service, SCADA, security policy, distributed network

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6911 Integration GIS–SCADA Power Systems to Enclosure Air Dispersion Model

Authors: Ibrahim Shaker, Amr El Hossany, Moustafa Osman, Mohamed El Raey

Abstract:

This paper will explore integration model between GIS–SCADA system and enclosure quantification model to approach the impact of failure-safe event. There are real demands to identify spatial objects and improve control system performance. Nevertheless, the employed methodology is predicting electro-mechanic operations and corresponding time to environmental incident variations. Open processing, as object systems technology, is presented for integration enclosure database with minimal memory size and computation time via connectivity drivers such as ODBC:JDBC during main stages of GIS–SCADA connection. The function of Geographic Information System is manipulating power distribution in contrast to developing issues. In other ward, GIS-SCADA systems integration will require numerical objects of process to enable system model calibration and estimation demands, determine of past events for analysis and prediction of emergency situations for response training.

Keywords: air dispersion model, environmental management, SCADA systems, GIS system, integration power system

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6910 [Keynote]: No-Trust-Zone Architecture for Securing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Authors: Michael Okeke, Andrew Blyth

Abstract:

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) as the state of the art Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are used in many different critical infrastructures, from smart home to energy systems and from locomotives train system to planes. Security of SCADA systems is vital since many lives depend on it for daily activities and deviation from normal operation could be disastrous to the environment as well as lives. This paper describes how No-Trust-Zone (NTZ) architecture could be incorporated into SCADA Systems in order to reduce the chances of malicious intent. The architecture is made up of two distinctive parts which are; the field devices such as; sensors, PLCs pumps, and actuators. The second part of the architecture is designed following lambda architecture, which is made up of a detection algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Hadoop framework for data processing and storage. Apache Spark will be a part of the lambda architecture for real-time analysis of packets for anomalies detection.

Keywords: industrial control system (ics, no-trust-zone (ntz), particle swarm optimisation (pso), supervisory control and data acquisition (scada), swarm intelligence (SI)

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6909 Optimizing SCADA/RTU Control System Alarms for Gas Wells

Authors: Mohammed Ali Faqeeh

Abstract:

SCADA System Alarms Optimization Process has been introduced recently and applied accordingly in different implemented stages. First, MODBUS communication protocols between RTU/SCADA were improved at the level of I/O points scanning intervals. Then, some of the technical issues related to manufacturing limitations were resolved. Afterward, another approach was followed to take a decision on the configured alarms database. So, a couple of meetings and workshops were held among all system stakeholders, which resulted in an agreement of disabling unnecessary (Diagnostic) alarms. Moreover, a leap forward step was taken to segregate the SCADA Operator Graphics in a way to show only process-related alarms while some other graphics will ensure the availability of field alarms related to maintenance and engineering purposes. This overall system management and optimization have resulted in a huge effective impact on all operations, maintenance, and engineering. It has reduced unneeded open tickets for maintenance crews which led to reduce the driven mileages accordingly. Also, this practice has shown a good impression on the operation reactions and response to the emergency situations as the SCADA operators can be staying much vigilant on the real alarms rather than gets distracted by noisy ones. SCADA System Alarms Optimization process has been executed utilizing all applicable in-house resources among engineering, maintenance, and operations crews. The methodology of the entire enhanced scopes is performed through various stages.

Keywords: SCADA, RTU Communication, alarm management system, SCADA alarms, Modbus, DNP protocol

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6908 Integration Network ASI in Lab Automation and Networks Industrial in IFCE

Authors: Jorge Fernandes Teixeira Filho, André Oliveira Alcantara Fontenele, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

Abstract:

The constant emergence of new technologies used in automated processes makes it necessary for teachers and traders to apply new technologies in their classes. This paper presents an application of a new technology that will be employed in a didactic plant, which represents an effluent treatment process located in a laboratory of a federal educational institution. At work were studied in the first place, all components to be placed on automation laboratory in order to determine ways to program, parameterize and organize the plant. New technologies that have been implemented to the process are basically an AS-i network and a Profinet network, a SCADA system, which represented a major innovation in the laboratory. The project makes it possible to carry out in the laboratory various practices of industrial networks and SCADA systems.

Keywords: automation, industrial networks, SCADA systems, lab automation

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6907 Intrusion Detection in SCADA Systems

Authors: Leandros A. Maglaras, Jianmin Jiang

Abstract:

The protection of the national infrastructures from cyberattacks is one of the main issues for national and international security. The funded European Framework-7 (FP7) research project CockpitCI introduces intelligent intrusion detection, analysis and protection techniques for Critical Infrastructures (CI). The paradox is that CIs massively rely on the newest interconnected and vulnerable Information and Communication Technology (ICT), whilst the control equipment, legacy software/hardware, is typically old. Such a combination of factors may lead to very dangerous situations, exposing systems to a wide variety of attacks. To overcome such threats, the CockpitCI project combines machine learning techniques with ICT technologies to produce advanced intrusion detection, analysis and reaction tools to provide intelligence to field equipment. This will allow the field equipment to perform local decisions in order to self-identify and self-react to abnormal situations introduced by cyberattacks. In this paper, an intrusion detection module capable of detecting malicious network traffic in a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is presented. Malicious data in a SCADA system disrupt its correct functioning and tamper with its normal operation. OCSVM is an intrusion detection mechanism that does not need any labeled data for training or any information about the kind of anomaly is expecting for the detection process. This feature makes it ideal for processing SCADA environment data and automates SCADA performance monitoring. The OCSVM module developed is trained by network traces off line and detects anomalies in the system real time. The module is part of an IDS (intrusion detection system) developed under CockpitCI project and communicates with the other parts of the system by the exchange of IDMEF messages that carry information about the source of the incident, the time and a classification of the alarm.

Keywords: cyber-security, SCADA systems, OCSVM, intrusion detection

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6906 Adopting Flocks of Birds Approach to Predator for Anomalies Detection on Industrial Control Systems

Authors: M. Okeke, A. Blyth

Abstract:

Industrial Control Systems (ICS) such as Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) can be seen in many different critical infrastructures, from nuclear management to utility, medical equipment, power, waste and engine management on ships and planes. The role SCADA plays in critical infrastructure has resulted in a call to secure them. Many lives depend on it for daily activities and the attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated. Hence, the security of ICS is vital as malfunction of it might result in huge risk. This paper describes how the application of Prey Predator (PP) approach in flocks of birds could enhance the detection of malicious activities on ICS. The PP approach explains how these animals in groups or flocks detect predators by following some simple rules. They are not necessarily very intelligent animals but their approach in solving complex issues such as detection through corporation, coordination and communication worth emulating. This paper will emulate flocking behavior seen in birds in detecting predators. The PP approach will adopt six nearest bird approach in detecting any predator. Their local and global bests are based on the individual detection as well as group detection. The PP algorithm was designed following MapReduce methodology that follows a Split Detection Convergence (SDC) approach.

Keywords: artificial life, industrial control system (ICS), IDS, prey predator (PP), SCADA, SDC

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6905 Integrating the Modbus SCADA Communication Protocol with Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: Despoina Chochtoula, Aristidis Ilias, Yannis Stamatiou

Abstract:

Modbus is a protocol that enables the communication among devices which are connected to the same network. This protocol is, often, deployed in connecting sensor and monitoring units to central supervisory servers in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, or SCADA, systems. These systems monitor critical infrastructures, such as factories, power generation stations, nuclear power reactors etc. in order to detect malfunctions and ignite alerts and corrective actions. However, due to their criticality, SCADA systems are vulnerable to attacks that range from simple eavesdropping on operation parameters, exchanged messages, and valuable infrastructure information to malicious modification of vital infrastructure data towards infliction of damage. Thus, the SCADA research community has been active over strengthening SCADA systems with suitable data protection mechanisms based, to a large extend, on cryptographic methods for data encryption, device authentication, and message integrity protection. However, due to the limited computation power of many SCADA sensor and embedded devices, the usual public key cryptographic methods are not appropriate due to their high computational requirements. As an alternative, Elliptic Curve Cryptography has been proposed, which requires smaller key sizes and, thus, less demanding cryptographic operations. Until now, however, no such implementation has been proposed in the SCADA literature, to the best of our knowledge. In order to fill this gap, our methodology was focused on integrating Modbus, a frequently used SCADA communication protocol, with Elliptic Curve based cryptography and develop a server/client application to demonstrate the proof of concept. For the implementation we deployed two C language libraries, which were suitably modify in order to be successfully integrated: libmodbus (https://github.com/stephane/libmodbus) and ecc-lib https://www.ceid.upatras.gr/webpages/faculty/zaro/software/ecc-lib/). The first library provides a C implementation of the Modbus/TCP protocol while the second one offers the functionality to develop cryptographic protocols based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography. These two libraries were combined, after suitable modifications and enhancements, in order to give a modified version of the Modbus/TCP protocol focusing on the security of the data exchanged among the devices and the supervisory servers. The mechanisms we implemented include key generation, key exchange/sharing, message authentication, data integrity check, and encryption/decryption of data. The key generation and key exchange protocols were implemented with the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography primitives. The keys established by each device are saved in their local memory and are retained during the whole communication session and are used in encrypting and decrypting exchanged messages as well as certifying entities and the integrity of the messages. Finally, the modified library was compiled for the Android environment in order to run the server application as an Android app. The client program runs on a regular computer. The communication between these two entities is an example of the successful establishment of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography based, secure Modbus wireless communication session between a portable device acting as a supervisor station and a monitoring computer. Our first performance measurements are, also, very promising and demonstrate the feasibility of embedding Elliptic Curve Cryptography into SCADA systems, filling in a gap in the relevant scientific literature.

Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography, ICT security, modbus protocol, SCADA, TCP/IP protocol

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6904 RS Based SCADA System for Longer Distance Powered Devices

Authors: Harkishen Singh, Gavin Mangeni

Abstract:

This project aims at building an efficient and automatic power monitoring SCADA system, which is capable of monitoring the electrical parameters of high voltage powered devices in real time for example RMS voltage and current, frequency, energy consumed, power factor etc. The system uses RS-485 serial communication interface to transfer data over longer distances. Embedded C programming is the platform used to develop two hardware modules namely: RTU and Master Station modules, which both use the CC2540 BLE 4.0 microcontroller configured in slave / master mode. The Si8900 galvanic ally isolated microchip is used to perform ADC externally. The hardware communicates via UART port and sends data to the user PC using the USB port. Labview software is used to design a user interface to display current state of the power loads being monitored as well as logs data to excel spreadsheet file. An understanding of the Si8900’s auto baud rate process is key to successful implementation of this project.

Keywords: SCADA, RS485, CC2540, labview, Si8900

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6903 Management of Non-Revenue Municipal Water

Authors: Habib Muhammetoglu, I. Ethem Karadirek, Selami Kara, Ayse Muhammetoglu

Abstract:

The problem of non-revenue water (NRW) from municipal water distribution networks is common in many countries such as Turkey, where the average yearly water losses are around 50% . Water losses can be divided into two major types namely: 1) Real or physical water losses, and 2) Apparent or commercial water losses. Total water losses in Antalya city, Turkey is around 45%. Methods: A research study was conducted to develop appropriate methodologies to reduce NRW. A pilot study area of about 60 thousands inhabitants was chosen to apply the study. The pilot study area has a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the monitoring and control of many water quantity and quality parameters at the groundwater drinking wells, pumping stations, distribution reservoirs, and along the water mains. The pilot study area was divided into 18 District Metered Areas (DMAs) with different number of service connections that ranged between a few connections to less than 3000 connections. The flow rate and water pressure to each DMA were on-line continuously measured by an accurate flow meter and water pressure meter that were connected to the SCADA system. Customer water meters were installed to all billed and unbilled water users. The monthly water consumption as given by the water meters were recorded regularly. Water balance was carried out for each DMA using the well-know standard IWA approach. There were considerable variations in the water losses percentages and the components of the water losses among the DMAs of the pilot study area. Old Class B customer water meters at one DMA were replaced by more accurate new Class C water meters. Hydraulic modelling using the US-EPA EPANET model was carried out in the pilot study area for the prediction of water pressure variations at each DMA. The data sets required to calibrate and verify the hydraulic model were supplied by the SCADA system. It was noticed that a number of the DMAs exhibited high water pressure values. Therefore, pressure reducing valves (PRV) with constant head were installed to reduce the pressure up to a suitable level that was determined by the hydraulic model. On the other hand, the hydraulic model revealed that the water pressure at the other DMAs cannot be reduced when complying with the minimum pressure requirement (3 bars) as stated by the related standards. Results: Physical water losses were reduced considerably as a result of just reducing water pressure. Further physical water losses reduction was achieved by applying acoustic methods. The results of the water balances helped in identifying the DMAs that have considerable physical losses. Many bursts were detected especially in the DMAs that have high physical water losses. The SCADA system was very useful to assess the efficiency level of this method and to check the quality of repairs. Regarding apparent water losses reduction, changing the customer water meters resulted in increasing water revenue by more than 20%. Conclusions: DMA, SCADA, modelling, pressure management, leakage detection and accurate customer water meters are efficient for NRW.

Keywords: NRW, water losses, pressure management, SCADA, apparent water losses, urban water distribution networks

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6902 Methodology of Automation and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Restructuring Industrial Systems

Authors: Lakhoua Najeh

Abstract:

Introduction: In most situations, an industrial system already existing, conditioned by its history, its culture and its context are in difficulty facing the necessity to restructure itself in an organizational and technological environment in perpetual evolution. This is why all operations of restructuring first of all require a diagnosis based on a functional analysis. After a presentation of the functionality of a supervisory system for complex processes, we present the concepts of industrial automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Methods: This global analysis exploits the various available documents on the one hand and takes on the other hand in consideration the various testimonies through investigations, the interviews or the collective workshops; otherwise, it also takes observations through visits as a basis and even of the specific operations. The exploitation of this diagnosis enables us to elaborate the project of restructuring thereafter. Leaving from the system analysis for the restructuring of industrial systems, and after a technical diagnosis based on visits, an analysis of the various technical documents and management as well as on targeted interviews, a focusing retailing the various levels of analysis has been done according a general methodology. Results: The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the restructuring of industrial systems by its participative and systemic character and leaning on a large consultation a lot of human resources that of the documentary resources, various innovating actions has been proposed. These actions appear in the setting of the TQM gait requiring applicable parameter quantification and a treatment valorising some information. The new management environment will enable us to institute an information and communication system possibility of migration toward an ERP system. Conclusion: Technological advancements in process monitoring, control and industrial automation over the past decades have contributed greatly to improve the productivity of virtually all industrial systems throughout the world. This paper tries to identify the principles characteristics of a process monitoring, control and industrial automation in order to provide tools to help in the decision-making process.

Keywords: automation, supervision, SCADA, TQM

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6901 Design and Development of an 'Optimisation Controller' and a SCADA Based Monitoring System for Renewable Energy Management in Telecom Towers

Authors: M. Sundaram, H. R. Sanath Kumar, A. Ramprakash

Abstract:

Energy saving is a key sustainability focus area for the Indian telecom industry today. This is especially true in rural India where energy consumption contributes to 70 % of the total network operating cost. In urban areas, the energy cost for network operation ranges between 15-30 %. This expenditure on energy as a result of the lack of grid power availability highlights a potential barrier to telecom industry growth. As a result of this, telecom tower companies switch to diesel generators, making them the second largest consumer of diesel in India, consuming over 2.5 billion litres per annum. The growing cost of energy due to increasing diesel prices and concerns over rising greenhouse emissions have caused these companies to look at other renewable energy options. Even the TRAI (Telecom Regulation Authority of India) has issued a number of guidelines to implement Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in the telecom towers as part of its ‘Implementation of Green Technologies in Telecom Sector’ initiative. Our proposal suggests the implementation of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’ that can not only efficiently utilize the energy from RETs but also help to conserve the power used in the telecom towers. When there are multiple RETs available to supply energy, this controller will pick the optimum amount of energy from each RET based on the availability and feasibility at that point of time, reducing the dependence on diesel generators. For effective maintenance of the towers, we are planing to implement a SCADA based monitoring system along with the ‘optimization controller’.

Keywords: operation costs, consumption of fuel and carbon footprint, implementation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’, efficient SCADA based monitoring system

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6900 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli

Abstract:

State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: convergence, monitoring, state estimator, performance, troubleshooting, tuning, power systems

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6899 Application of IED to Condition Based Maintenance of Medium Voltage GCB/VCB

Authors: Ming-Ta Yang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Chun-Wei Huang, Jin-Lung Guan

Abstract:

Time base maintenance (TBM) is conventionally applied by the power utilities to maintain circuit breakers (CBs), transformers, bus bars and cables, which may result in under maintenance or over maintenance. As information and communication technology (ICT) industry develops, the maintenance policies of many power utilities have gradually changed from TBM to condition base maintenance (CBM) to improve system operating efficiency, operation cost and power supply reliability. This paper discusses the feasibility of using intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) to construct a CB CBM management platform. CBs in power substations can be monitored using IEDs with additional logic configuration and wire connections. The CB monitoring data can be sent through intranet to a control center and be analyzed and integrated by the Elipse Power Studio software. Finally, a human-machine interface (HMI) of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can be designed to construct a CBM management platform to provide maintenance decision information for the maintenance personnel, management personnel and CB manufacturers.

Keywords: circuit breaker, condition base maintenance, intelligent electronic device, time base maintenance, SCADA

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6898 PLC Based Automatic Railway Crossing System for India

Authors: Tapan Upadhyay, Aqib Siddiqui, Sameer Khan

Abstract:

Railway crossing system in India is a manually operated level crossing system, either manned or unmanned. The main aim is to protect pedestrians and vehicles from colliding with trains, which pass at regular intervals, as India has the largest and busiest railway network. But because of human error and negligence, every year thousands of lives are lost due to accidents at railway crossings. To avoid this, we suggest a solution, by using Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) based automatic system, which will automatically control the barrier as well as roadblocks to stop people from crossing while security warning is given. Often people avoid security warning, and pass two-wheelers from beneath the barrier, while the train is at a distance away. This paper aims at reducing the fatality and accident rate by controlling barrier and roadblocks using sensors which sense the incoming train and vehicles and sends a signal to PLC. The PLC in return sends a signal to barrier and roadblocks. Once the train passes, the barrier and roadblocks retrieve back, and the passage is clear for vehicles and pedestrians to cross. PLC’s are used because they are very flexible, cost effective, space efficient, reduces complexity and minimises errors. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used to monitor the functioning.

Keywords: level crossing, PLC, sensors, SCADA

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6897 Hybrid GNN Based Machine Learning Forecasting Model For Industrial IoT Applications

Authors: Atish Bagchi, Siva Chandrasekaran

Abstract:

Background: According to World Bank national accounts data, the estimated global manufacturing value-added output in 2020 was 13.74 trillion USD. These manufacturing processes are monitored, modelled, and controlled by advanced, real-time, computer-based systems, e.g., Industrial IoT, PLC, SCADA, etc. These systems measure and manipulate a set of physical variables, e.g., temperature, pressure, etc. Despite the use of IoT, SCADA etc., in manufacturing, studies suggest that unplanned downtime leads to economic losses of approximately 864 billion USD each year. Therefore, real-time, accurate detection, classification and prediction of machine behaviour are needed to minimise financial losses. Although vast literature exists on time-series data processing using machine learning, the challenges faced by the industries that lead to unplanned downtimes are: The current algorithms do not efficiently handle the high-volume streaming data from industrial IoTsensors and were tested on static and simulated datasets. While the existing algorithms can detect significant 'point' outliers, most do not handle contextual outliers (e.g., values within normal range but happening at an unexpected time of day) or subtle changes in machine behaviour. Machines are revamped periodically as part of planned maintenance programmes, which change the assumptions on which original AI models were created and trained. Aim: This research study aims to deliver a Graph Neural Network(GNN)based hybrid forecasting model that interfaces with the real-time machine control systemand can detect, predict machine behaviour and behavioural changes (anomalies) in real-time. This research will help manufacturing industries and utilities, e.g., water, electricity etc., reduce unplanned downtimes and consequential financial losses. Method: The data stored within a process control system, e.g., Industrial-IoT, Data Historian, is generally sampled during data acquisition from the sensor (source) and whenpersistingin the Data Historian to optimise storage and query performance. The sampling may inadvertently discard values that might contain subtle aspects of behavioural changes in machines. This research proposed a hybrid forecasting and classification model which combines the expressive and extrapolation capability of GNN enhanced with the estimates of entropy and spectral changes in the sampled data and additional temporal contexts to reconstruct the likely temporal trajectory of machine behavioural changes. The proposed real-time model belongs to the Deep Learning category of machine learning and interfaces with the sensors directly or through 'Process Data Historian', SCADA etc., to perform forecasting and classification tasks. Results: The model was interfaced with a Data Historianholding time-series data from 4flow sensors within a water treatment plantfor45 days. The recorded sampling interval for a sensor varied from 10 sec to 30 min. Approximately 65% of the available data was used for training the model, 20% for validation, and the rest for testing. The model identified the anomalies within the water treatment plant and predicted the plant's performance. These results were compared with the data reported by the plant SCADA-Historian system and the official data reported by the plant authorities. The model's accuracy was much higher (20%) than that reported by the SCADA-Historian system and matched the validated results declared by the plant auditors. Conclusions: The research demonstrates that a hybrid GNN based approach enhanced with entropy calculation and spectral information can effectively detect and predict a machine's behavioural changes. The model can interface with a plant's 'process control system' in real-time to perform forecasting and classification tasks to aid the asset management engineers to operate their machines more efficiently and reduce unplanned downtimes. A series of trialsare planned for this model in the future in other manufacturing industries.

Keywords: GNN, Entropy, anomaly detection, industrial time-series, AI, IoT, Industry 4.0, Machine Learning

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6896 Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

Authors: Paul Dallyn, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Alessandro Palmeri, Bob Knight

Abstract:

In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plain-sided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the need for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.

Keywords: grouted connection, numerical model, offshore structure, wear, wind energy

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6895 Models Development of Graphical Human Interface Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Érick Aragão Ribeiro, George André Pereira Thé, José Marques Soares

Abstract:

Graphical Human Interface, also known as supervision software, are increasingly present in industrial processes supported by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and so it is evident the need for qualified developers. In order to make engineering students able to produce high quality supervision software, method for the development must be created. In this paper we propose model, based on the international standards ISO/IEC 25010 and ISO/IEC 25040, for the development of graphical human interface. When compared with to other methods through experiments, the model here presented leads to improved quality indexes, therefore help guiding the decisions of programmers. Results show the efficiency of the models and the contribution to student learning. Students assessed the training they have received and considered it satisfactory.

Keywords: software development models, software quality, supervision software, fuzzy logic

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6894 A Framework for Event-Based Monitoring of Business Processes in the Supply Chain Management of Industry 4.0

Authors: Johannes Atug, Andreas Radke, Mitchell Tseng, Gunther Reinhart

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In modern supply chains, large numbers of SKU (Stock-Keeping-Unit) need to be timely managed, and any delays in noticing disruptions of items often limit the ability to defer the impact on customer order fulfillment. However, in supply chains of IoT-connected enterprises, the ERP (Enterprise-Resource-Planning), the MES (Manufacturing-Execution-System) and the SCADA (Supervisory-Control-and-Data-Acquisition) systems generate large amounts of data, which generally glean much earlier notice of deviations in the business process steps. That is, analyzing these streams of data with process mining techniques allows the monitoring of the supply chain business processes and thus identification of items that deviate from the standard order fulfillment process. In this paper, a framework to enable event-based SCM (Supply-Chain-Management) processes including an overview of core enabling technologies are presented, which is based on the RAMI (Reference-Architecture-Model for Industrie 4.0) architecture. The application of this framework in the industry is presented, and implications for SCM in industry 4.0 and further research are outlined.

Keywords: cyber-physical production systems, event-based monitoring, supply chain management, RAMI (Reference-Architecture-Model for Industrie 4.0)

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6893 Development of Configuration Software of Space Environment Simulator Control System Based on Linux

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Zhang Lei, Ning Juan

Abstract:

This paper presents a configuration software solution in Linux, which is used for the control of space environment simulator. After introducing the structure and basic principle, it is said that the developing of QT software frame and the dynamic data exchanging between PLC and computer. The OPC driver in Linux is also developed. This driver realizes many-to-many communication between hardware devices and SCADA software. Moreover, an algorithm named “Scan PRI” is put forward. This algorithm is much more optimizable and efficient compared with "Scan in sequence" in Windows. This software has been used in practical project. It has a good control effect and can achieve the expected goal.

Keywords: Linux OS, configuration software, OPC Server driver, MYSQL database

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6892 Power System Modeling for Calculations in Frequency and Steady State Domain

Authors: G. Levacic, A. Zupan

Abstract:

Application of new technological solutions and installation of new elements into the network requires special attention when investigating its interaction with the existing power system. Special attention needs to be devoted to the occurrence of harmonic resonance. Sources of increasing harmonic penetration could be wind power plants, Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices, underground and submarine cable installations etc. Calculation in frequency domain with various software, for example, the software for power systems transients EMTP-RV presents one of the most common ways to obtain the harmonic impedance of the system. Along calculations in frequency domain, such software allows performing of different type of calculations as well as steady-state domain. This paper describes a power system modeling with software EMTP-RV based on data from SCADA/EMS system. The power flow results on 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels retrieved from EMTP-RV are verified by comparing with power flow results from power transmissions system planning software PSS/E. The determination of the harmonic impedance for the case of remote power plant connection with cable up to 2500 Hz is presented as an example of calculations in frequency domain.

Keywords: power system modeling, frequency domain, steady state, EMTP-RV, PSS/E

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6891 Grid and Market Integration of Large Scale Wind Farms using Advanced Predictive Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Umit Cali

Abstract:

The integration of intermittent energy sources like wind farms into the electricity grid has become an important challenge for the utilization and control of electric power systems, because of the fluctuating behaviour of wind power generation. Wind power predictions improve the economic and technical integration of large amounts of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Trading, balancing, grid operation, controllability and safety issues increase the importance of predicting power output from wind power operators. Therefore, wind power forecasting systems have to be integrated into the monitoring and control systems of the transmission system operator (TSO) and wind farm operators/traders. The wind forecasts are relatively precise for the time period of only a few hours, and, therefore, relevant with regard to Spot and Intraday markets. In this work predictive data mining techniques are applied to identify a statistical and neural network model or set of models that can be used to predict wind power output of large onshore and offshore wind farms. These advanced data analytic methods helps us to amalgamate the information in very large meteorological, oceanographic and SCADA data sets into useful information and manageable systems. Accurate wind power forecasts are beneficial for wind plant operators, utility operators, and utility customers. An accurate forecast allows grid operators to schedule economically efficient generation to meet the demand of electrical customers. This study is also dedicated to an in-depth consideration of issues such as the comparison of day ahead and the short-term wind power forecasting results, determination of the accuracy of the wind power prediction and the evaluation of the energy economic and technical benefits of wind power forecasting.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, wind power, forecasting, data mining, big data, artificial intelligence, energy economics, power trading, power grids

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6890 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh

Abstract:

The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: wind energy, power curve, capacity factor, annual energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
6889 Data Management and Analytics for Intelligent Grid

Authors: G. Julius P. Roy, Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh

Abstract:

Power distribution utilities two decades ago would collect data from its customers not later than a period of at least one month. The origin of SmartGrid and AMI has subsequently increased the sampling frequency leading to 1000 to 10000 fold increase in data quantity. This increase is notable and this steered to coin the tern Big Data in utilities. Power distribution industry is one of the largest to handle huge and complex data for keeping history and also to turn the data in to significance. Majority of the utilities around the globe are adopting SmartGrid technologies as a mass implementation and are primarily focusing on strategic interdependence and synergies of the big data coming from new information sources like AMI and intelligent SCADA, there is a rising need for new models of data management and resurrected focus on analytics to dissect data into descriptive, predictive and dictatorial subsets. The goal of this paper is to is to bring load disaggregation into smart energy toolkit for commercial usage.

Keywords: data management, analytics, energy data analytics, smart grid, smart utilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 666
6888 A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II at the Large Hadron Collider

Authors: J. C. Cabanillas-Noris, M. I. Martínez-Hernández, I. León-Monzón

Abstract:

The selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment during the first data taking period (RUN-I) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. It would be possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range in which the production of particles can be detected. For this purpose, the ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase (RUN-II). Any new detector should be able to take the data synchronously with all other detectors and be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements that must be developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS must be designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, from electronics settings and power supply levels to the archiving of operating conditions data and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), their threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters define the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled through AD0 DCS. Finally, AD0 DCS provides the operator with multiple interfaces to execute these tasks. They are realized as operating panels and scripts running in the background. These features are implemented on a SCADA software platform as a distributed control system which integrates to the global control system of the ALICE experiment.

Keywords: AD0, ALICE, DCS, LHC

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
6887 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov

Abstract:

Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
6886 Performance Evaluation of Discrete Fourier Transform Algorithm Based PMU for Wide Area Measurement System

Authors: Alpesh Adeshara, Rajendrasinh Jadeja, Praghnesh Bhatt

Abstract:

Implementation of advanced technologies requires sophisticated instruments that deal with the operation, control, restoration and protection of rapidly growing power system network under normal and abnormal conditions. Presently, the applications of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) are widely found in real time operation, monitoring, controlling and analysis of power system network as it eliminates the various limitations of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) conventionally used in power system. The use of PMU data is very rapidly increasing its importance for online and offline analysis. Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) is developed as new technology by use of multiple PMUs in power system. The present paper proposes a model of MATLAB based PMU using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) algorithm and evaluation of its operation under different contingencies. In this paper, PMU based two bus system having WAMS network is presented as a case study.

Keywords: GPS global positioning system, PMU phasor measurement system, WAMS wide area monitoring system, DFT, PDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
6885 A Step Magnitude Haptic Feedback Device and Platform for Better Way to Review Kinesthetic Vibrotactile 3D Design in Professional Training

Authors: Biki Sarmah, Priyanko Raj Mudiar

Abstract:

In the modern world of remotely interactive virtual reality-based learning and teaching, including professional skill-building training and acquisition practices, as well as data acquisition and robotic systems, the revolutionary application or implementation of field-programmable neurostimulator aids and first-hand interactive sensitisation techniques into 3D holographic audio-visual platforms have been a coveted dream of many scholars, professionals, scientists, and students. Integration of 'kinaesthetic vibrotactile haptic perception' along with an actuated step magnitude contact profiloscopy in augmented reality-based learning platforms and professional training can be implemented by using an extremely calculated and well-coordinated image telemetry including remote data mining and control technique. A real-time, computer-aided (PLC-SCADA) field calibration based algorithm must be designed for the purpose. But most importantly, in order to actually realise, as well as to 'interact' with some 3D holographic models displayed over a remote screen using remote laser image telemetry and control, all spatio-physical parameters like cardinal alignment, gyroscopic compensation, as well as surface profile and thermal compositions, must be implemented using zero-order type 1 actuators (or transducers) because they provide zero hystereses, zero backlashes, low deadtime as well as providing a linear, absolutely controllable, intrinsically observable and smooth performance with the least amount of error compensation while ensuring the best ergonomic comfort ever possible for the users.

Keywords: haptic feedback, kinaesthetic vibrotactile 3D design, medical simulation training, piezo diaphragm based actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
6884 Dynamic Modeling of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants Using BioWin

Authors: Komal Rathore, Aydin Sunol, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford

Abstract:

Advanced wastewater treatment plants have complex biological kinetics, time variant influent flow rates and long processing times. Due to these factors, the modeling and operational control of advanced wastewater treatment plants become complicated. However, development of a robust model for advanced wastewater treatment plants has become necessary in order to increase the efficiency of the plants, reduce energy costs and meet the discharge limits set by the government. A dynamic model was designed using the Envirosim (Canada) platform software called BioWin for several wastewater treatment plants in Hillsborough County, Florida. Proper control strategies for various parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids, recycle activated sludge and waste activated sludge were developed for models to match the plant performance. The models were tuned using both the influent and effluent data from the plant and their laboratories. The plant SCADA was used to predict the influent wastewater rates and concentration profiles as a function of time. The kinetic parameters were tuned based on sensitivity analysis and trial and error methods. The dynamic models were validated by using experimental data for influent and effluent parameters. The dissolved oxygen measurements were taken to validate the model by coupling them with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The Biowin models were able to exactly mimic the plant performance and predict effluent behavior for extended periods. The models are useful for plant engineers and operators as they can take decisions beforehand by predicting the plant performance with the use of BioWin models. One of the important findings from the model was the effects of recycle and wastage ratios on the mixed liquor suspended solids. The model was also useful in determining the significant kinetic parameters for biological wastewater treatment systems.

Keywords: BioWin, kinetic modeling, flowsheet simulation, dynamic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
6883 A Group Setting of IED in Microgrid Protection Management System

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Chao-Fong Yan, Hsin-Yung Chung, Yung-Ruei Chang, Yih-Der Lee, Chen-Min Chan, Chia-Hao Hsu

Abstract:

There are a number of distributed generations (DGs) installed in microgrid, which may have diverse path and direction of power flow or fault current. The overcurrent protection scheme for the traditional radial type distribution system will no longer meet the needs of microgrid protection. Integrating the intelligent electronic device (IED) and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) with IEC 61850 communication protocol, the paper proposes a microgrid protection management system (MPMS) to protect power system from the fault. In the proposed method, the MPMS performs logic programming of each IED to coordinate their tripping sequence. The GOOSE message defined in IEC 61850 is used as the transmission information medium among IEDs. Moreover, to cope with the difference in fault current of microgrid between grid-connected mode and islanded mode, the proposed MPMS applies the group setting feature of IED to protect system and robust adaptability. Once the microgrid topology varies, the MPMS will recalculate the fault current and update the group setting of IED. Provided there is a fault, IEDs will isolate the fault at once. Finally, the Matlab/Simulink and Elipse Power Studio software are used to simulate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: IEC 61850, IED, group Setting, microgrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 357