Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 597

Search results for: Ibrahim Shaker

597 Experimental and Modal Determination of the State-Space Model Parameters of a Uni-Axial Shaker System for Virtual Vibration Testing

Authors: Jonathan Martino, Kristof Harri


In some cases, the increase in computing resources makes simulation methods more affordable. The increase in processing speed also allows real time analysis or even more rapid tests analysis offering a real tool for test prediction and design process optimization. Vibration tests are no exception to this trend. The so called ‘Virtual Vibration Testing’ offers solution among others to study the influence of specific loads, to better anticipate the boundary conditions between the exciter and the structure under test, to study the influence of small changes in the structure under test, etc. This article will first present a virtual vibration test modeling with a main focus on the shaker model and will afterwards present the experimental parameters determination. The classical way of modeling a shaker is to consider the shaker as a simple mechanical structure augmented by an electrical circuit that makes the shaker move. The shaker is modeled as a two or three degrees of freedom lumped parameters model while the electrical circuit takes the coil impedance and the dynamic back-electromagnetic force into account. The establishment of the equations of this model, describing the dynamics of the shaker, is presented in this article and is strongly related to the internal physical quantities of the shaker. Those quantities will be reduced into global parameters which will be estimated through experiments. Different experiments will be carried out in order to design an easy and practical method for the identification of the shaker parameters leading to a fully functional shaker model. An experimental modal analysis will also be carried out to extract the modal parameters of the shaker and to combine them with the electrical measurements. Finally, this article will conclude with an experimental validation of the model.

Keywords: lumped parameters model, shaker modeling, shaker parameters, state-space, virtual vibration

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596 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker

Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan


Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.

Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
595 Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test the Dimensional Structure of Tourism Service Quality

Authors: Ibrahim A. Elshaer, Alaa M. Shaker


Several previous empirical studies have operationalized service quality as either a multidimensional or unidimensional construct. While few earlier studies investigated some practices of the assumed dimensional structure of service quality, no study has been found to have tested the construct’s dimensionality using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To gain a better insight into the dimensional structure of service quality construct, this paper tests its dimensionality using three CFA models (higher order factor model, oblique factor model, and one factor model) on a set of data collected from 390 British tourists visited Egypt. The results of the three tests models indicate that service quality construct is multidimensional. This result helps resolving the problems that might arise from the lack of clarity concerning the dimensional structure of service quality, as without testing the dimensional structure of a measure, researchers cannot assume that the significant correlation is a result of factors measuring the same construct.

Keywords: service quality, dimensionality, confirmatory factor analysis, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
594 Integration GIS–SCADA Power Systems to Enclosure Air Dispersion Model

Authors: Ibrahim Shaker, Amr El Hossany, Moustafa Osman, Mohamed El Raey


This paper will explore integration model between GIS–SCADA system and enclosure quantification model to approach the impact of failure-safe event. There are real demands to identify spatial objects and improve control system performance. Nevertheless, the employed methodology is predicting electro-mechanic operations and corresponding time to environmental incident variations. Open processing, as object systems technology, is presented for integration enclosure database with minimal memory size and computation time via connectivity drivers such as ODBC:JDBC during main stages of GIS–SCADA connection. The function of Geographic Information System is manipulating power distribution in contrast to developing issues. In other ward, GIS-SCADA systems integration will require numerical objects of process to enable system model calibration and estimation demands, determine of past events for analysis and prediction of emergency situations for response training.

Keywords: air dispersion model, environmental management, SCADA systems, GIS system, integration power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
593 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
592 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed, and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar


Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The use microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Processes by which microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida, pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P.putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of Pseudomonas putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. A mercury-resistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury from mercury nitrate solution. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 90%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P.putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury environmental pollutants removal is a potential biological treatment for waste water treatment especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 584
591 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim


These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
590 Design and Optimization of an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Converter

Authors: Slim Naifar, Sonia Bradai, Christian Viehweger, Olfa Kanoun


Vibration provides an interesting source of energy since it is available in many indoor and outdoor applications. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, vibration converters have to satisfy some criterion in terms of robustness, compactness and energy outcome. In this work, an electromagnetic converter based on mechanical spring principle is proposed. The designed harvester is formed by a coil oscillating around ten ring magnets using a mechanical spring. The proposed design overcomes one of the main limitation of the moving coil by avoiding the contact between the coil wires with the mechanical spring which leads to a better robustness for the converter. In addition, the whole system can be implemented in a cavity of a screw. Different parameters in the harvester were investigated by finite element method including the magnet size, the coil winding number and diameter and the excitation frequency and amplitude. A prototype was realized and tested. Experiments were performed for 0.5 g to 1 g acceleration. The used experimental setup consists of an electrodynamic shaker as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor to measure the applied displacement and frequency excitation. Together with the laser sensor, a controller unit, and an amplifier, the shaker is operated in a closed loop which allows controlling the vibration amplitude. The resonance frequency of the proposed designs is in the range of 24 Hz. Results indicate that the harvester can generate 612 mV and 1150 mV maximum open circuit peak to peak voltage at resonance for 0.5 g and 1 g acceleration respectively which correspond to 4.75 mW and 1.34 mW output power. Tuning the frequency to other values is also possible due to the possibility to add mass to the moving part of the or by changing the mechanical spring stiffness.

Keywords: energy harvesting, electromagnetic principle, vibration converter, moving coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
589 Vibration and Freeze-Thaw Cycling Tests on Fuel Cells for Automotive Applications

Authors: Gema M. Rodado, Jose M. Olavarrieta


Hydrogen fuel cell technologies have experienced a great boost in the last decades, significantly increasing the production of these devices for both stationary and portable (mainly automotive) applications; these are influenced by two main factors: environmental pollution and energy shortage. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity by using hydrogen and oxygen gases as reactive components and obtaining water and heat as byproducts of the chemical reaction. Fuel cells, specifically those of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology, are considered an alternative to internal combustion engines, mainly because of the low emissions they produce (almost zero), high efficiency and low operating temperatures (< 373 K). The introduction and use of fuel cells in the automotive market requires the development of standardized and validated procedures to test and evaluate their performance in different environmental conditions including vibrations and freeze-thaw cycles. These situations of vibration and extremely low/high temperatures can affect the physical integrity or even the excellent operation or performance of the fuel cell stack placed in a vehicle in circulation or in different climatic conditions. The main objective of this work is the development and validation of vibration and freeze-thaw cycling test procedures for fuel cell stacks that can be used in a vehicle in order to consolidate their safety, performance, and durability. In this context, different experimental tests were carried out at the facilities of the National Hydrogen Centre (CNH2). The experimental equipment used was: A vibration platform (shaker) for vibration test analysis on fuel cells in three axes directions with different vibration profiles. A walk-in climatic chamber to test the starting, operating, and stopping behavior of fuel cells under defined extreme conditions. A test station designed and developed by the CNH2 to test and characterize PEM fuel cell stacks up to 10 kWe. A 5 kWe PEM fuel cell stack in off-operation mode was used to carry out two independent experimental procedures. On the one hand, the fuel cell was subjected to a sinusoidal vibration test on the shaker in the three axes directions. It was defined by acceleration and amplitudes in the frequency range of 7 to 200 Hz for a total of three hours in each direction. On the other hand, the climatic chamber was used to simulate freeze-thaw cycles by defining a temperature range between +313 K and -243 K with an average relative humidity of 50% and a recommended ramp up and rump down of 1 K/min. The polarization curve and gas leakage rate were determined before and after the vibration and freeze-thaw tests at the fuel cell stack test station to evaluate the robustness of the stack. The results were very similar, which indicates that the tests did not affect the fuel cell stack structure and performance. The proposed procedures were verified and can be used as an initial point to perform other tests with different fuel cells.

Keywords: climatic chamber, freeze-thaw cycles, PEM fuel cell, shaker, vibration tests

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588 Current Harvesting Methods for Jatropha curcas L.

Authors: Luigi Pari, Alessandro Suardi, Enrico Santangelo


In the last decade Jatropha curcas L. (an oleaginous crop native to Central America and part of South America) has raised particular interest owing to of its properties and uses. Its capsules may contain up to 40% in oil and can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The harvesting phase is made difficult by the physiological traits of the specie, because fruits are in bunches and do not ripen simultaneously. Three harvesting methodologies are currently diffused and differ for the level of mechanization applied: manual picking, semi-mechanical harvesting, and mechanical harvesting. The manual picking is the most common in the developing countries but it is also the most time consuming and inefficient. Mechanical harvesting carried out with modified grape harvesters has the higher productivity, but it is very costly as initial investment and requires appropriate schemes of cultivation. The semi-mechanical harvesting method is achieved with shaker tools employed to facilitate the fruit detachment. This system resulted much cheaper than the fully mechanized one and quite flexible for small and medium scale applications, but it still requires adjustments for improving the productive performance. CRA-ING, within the European project Jatromed ( has carried out preliminary studies on the applicability of such approach, adapting an olive shaker to harvest Jatropha fruits. The work is a survey of the harvesting methods currently available for Jatropha, show the pros and cons of each system, and highlighting the criteria to be considered for choosing one respect another. The harvesting of Jatropha curcas L. remains a big constrains for the spread of the species as energy crop. The approach pursued by CRA-ING can be considered a good compromise between the fully mechanized harvesters and the exclusive manual intervention. It is an attempt to promote a sustainable mechanization suited to the social context of developing countries by encouraging the concrete involvement of local populations.

Keywords: jatropha curcas, energy crop, harvesting, central america, south america

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587 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim


Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
586 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren


Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
585 Experimental Damping Performance of Composite Materials with Different Fibre Orientations

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu


A clamped-free vibrating beam technique was used to evaluate dynamic properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite. In the experiment, an electromagnetic shaker and a non-contact laser head were used to vibrate and to take the response of the specimens, respectively. Test results showed that damping and elastic modulus of the material, as dynamic properties, could be obtained successfully using this technique. It was found that the balanced and symmetric specimens with 45 degrees are the best for damping performance. It is believed that such results could be used for the modal design of aerospace structures.

Keywords: composite materials, damping values, dynamic properties, non-contact measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
584 Application of Electronic Nose Systems in Medical and Food Industries

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Feryal Alskafi, Rabaa Hammad, Shaker Khanfar, Yara Alsukhni


Electronic noses are devices designed to emulate the humane sense of smell by characterizing and differentiating odor profiles. In this study, we build a low-cost e-nose using an array module containing four different types of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. We used this system to create a profile for a meat specimen over three days. Then using a pattern recognition software, we correlated the odor of the specimen to its age. It is a simple, fast detection method that is both non-expensive and non-destructive. The results support the usage of this technology in food control management.

Keywords: e-nose, low cost, odor detection, food safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
583 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee


The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: instructional leadership, capacity development, self-efficacy, competency

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
582 A Physically-Based Analytical Model for Reduced Surface Field Laterally Double Diffused MOSFETs

Authors: M. Abouelatta, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna, G. T. Sayah, C. Gontrand, A. Zekry


In this paper, a methodology for physically modeling the intrinsic MOS part and the drift region of the n-channel Laterally Double-diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) is presented. The basic physical effects like velocity saturation, mobility reduction, and nonuniform impurity concentration in the channel are taken into consideration. The analytical model is implemented using MATLAB. A comparison of the simulations from technology computer aided design (TCAD) and that from the proposed analytical model, at room temperature, shows a satisfactory accuracy which is less than 5% for the whole voltage domain.

Keywords: LDMOS, MATLAB, RESURF, modeling, TCAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
581 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah


Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
580 Challenges of Domestic Water Security for Sustainable Development in North Central Belt of Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim, Isaiah Ndalassan Ibrahim


Accessibility and availability of good quality water have become a major concern among different users. This paper examines the caustic importance of water security in relation to people’s desire for survival. It observed the democratic ideology of national policy on domestic water supply and demand and its implementation for national and societal development. It used analogy on equilibrium approach to ascertain the household water security. In most communities, it is glaring that several public water management in operation for several years are hardly performing efficiently to reach equilibrium demand. Moreover most settlements being rural or urban lack effective public water system that could ensure regular supplies to the population. The terrain and gradual declining of efficient rainfall northward poses great challenge to the region in managing water supply and demand adequately. This study itemized the need for the government to get clear strategy for a sustainable development on better water efficiency. Partnership in providing workable policy on water security is considered apparently important. It is also suggested that water plant treatment should be established in every medium-sized towns in the country.

Keywords: good quality of water, water accessibility, water availability, water sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
579 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan


Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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578 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert


Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
577 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden


Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
576 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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575 Applicability and Reusability of Fly Ash and Base Treated Fly Ash for Adsorption of Catechol from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Modeling

Authors: S. Agarwal, A. Rani


Catechol is a natural polyphenolic compound that widely exists in higher plants such as teas, vegetables, fruits, tobaccos, and some traditional Chinese medicines. The fly ash-based zeolites are capable of absorbing a wide range of pollutants. But the process of zeolite synthesis is time-consuming and requires technical setups by the industries. The marketed costs of zeolites are quite high restricting its use by small-scale industries for the removal of phenolic compounds. The present research proposes a simple method of alkaline treatment of FA to produce an effective adsorbent for catechol removal from wastewater. The experimental parameter such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of catechol were studied in batch reactor. For this purpose the adsorbent materials were mixed with aqueous solutions containing catechol ranging in 50 – 200 mg/L initial concentrations and then shaken continuously in a thermostatic Orbital Incubator Shaker at 30 ± 0.1 °C for 24 h. The samples were withdrawn from the shaker at predetermined time interval and separated by centrifugation (Centrifuge machine MBL-20) at 2000 rpm for 4 min. to yield a clear supernatant for analysis of the equilibrium concentrations of the solutes. The concentrations were measured with Double Beam UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model Spectrscan UV 2600/02) at the wavelength of 275 nm for catechol. In the present study, the use of low-cost adsorbent (BTFA) derived from coal fly ash (FA), has been investigated as a substitute of expensive methods for the sequestration of catechol. The FA and BTFA adsorbents were well characterized by XRF, FE-SEM with EDX, FTIR, and surface area and porosity measurement which proves the chemical constituents, functional groups and morphology of the adsorbents. The catechol adsorption capacities of synthesized BTFA and native material were determined. The adsorption was slightly increased with an increase in pH value. The monolayer adsorption capacities of FA and BTFA for catechol were 100 mg g⁻¹ and 333.33 mg g⁻¹ respectively, and maximum adsorption occurs within 60 minutes for both adsorbents used in this test. The equilibrium data are fitted by Freundlich isotherm found on the basis of error analysis (RMSE, SSE, and χ²). Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and exothermic on the basis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS°, and ΔH°). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the data for both FA and BTFA. BTFA showed large adsorptive characteristics, high separation selectivity, and excellent recyclability than FA. These findings indicate that BTFA could be employed as an effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of catechol from wastewater.

Keywords: catechol, fly ash, isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic parameters

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574 Effect of Temperature on the Production of Fructose and Bioethanol from Date’s Syrup using S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859

Authors: M. A. Zeinelabdeen, A. E. Abasaeed, M. H. Gaily, A. K. Sulieman, M. D. Putra


The effect of temperature on the production of fructose and bioethanol from date syrup via selective fermentation by S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859 strain was studied. Various temperatures have been tested (27, 30 and 33 ᵒC). The fermentation experiments were conducted in a water shaker bath at the three temperatures under testing and 120 rpm. The results showed that a high fructose yield can be achieved at all temperatures under testing while the optimal is 27 ᵒC with 84% fructose yield. A high ethanol yield can be obtained for all temperatures under testing. However; the maximum biomass concentration and ethanol yield (86.22%) were obtained at 30 ᵒC.

Keywords: dates, ethanol, fructose, fermentation, S. cerevisiae

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573 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh


Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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572 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar


Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

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571 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi


Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, enzyme activity, waste materials, mangrove

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570 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim


Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah

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569 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood


Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

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568 Development and Validation of a Rapid Turbidimetric Assay to Determine the Potency of Cefepime Hydrochloride in Powder Injectable Solution

Authors: Danilo F. Rodrigues, Hérida Regina N. Salgado


Introduction: The emergence of resistant microorganisms to a large number of clinically approved antimicrobials has been increasing, which restrict the options for the treatment of bacterial infections. As a strategy, drugs with high antimicrobial activities are in evidence. Stands out a class of antimicrobial, the cephalosporins, having as fourth generation cefepime (CEF) a semi-synthetic product which has activity against various Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) aerobic. There are few studies in the literature regarding the development of microbiological methodologies for the analysis of this antimicrobial, so researches in this area are highly relevant to optimize the analysis of this drug in the industry and ensure the quality of the marketed product. The development of microbiological methods for the analysis of antimicrobials has gained strength in recent years and has been highlighted in relation to physicochemical methods, especially because they make possible to determine the bioactivity of the drug against a microorganism. In this context, the aim of this work was the development and validation of a microbiological method for quantitative analysis of CEF in powder lyophilized for injectable solution by turbidimetric assay. Method: For performing the method, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 IAL 2082 was used as the test microorganism and the culture medium chosen was the Casoy broth. The test was performed using temperature control (35.0 °C ± 2.0 °C) and incubated for 4 hours in shaker. The readings of the results were made at a wavelength of 530 nm through a spectrophotometer. The turbidimetric microbiological method was validated by determining the following parameters: linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness, according to ICH guidelines. Results and discussion: Among the parameters evaluated for method validation, the linearity showed results suitable for both statistical analyses as the correlation coefficients (r) that went 0.9990 for CEF reference standard and 0.9997 for CEF sample. The precision presented the following values 1.86% (intraday), 0.84% (interday) and 0.71% (between analyst). The accuracy of the method has been proven through the recovery test where the mean value obtained was 99.92%. The robustness was verified by the parameters changing volume of culture medium, brand of culture medium, incubation time in shaker and wavelength. The potency of CEF present in the samples of lyophilized powder for injectable solution was 102.46%. Conclusion: The turbidimetric microbiological method proposed for quantification of CEF in lyophilized powder for solution for injectable showed being fast, linear, precise, accurate and robust, being in accordance with all the requirements, which can be used in routine analysis of quality control in the pharmaceutical industry as an option for microbiological analysis.

Keywords: cefepime hydrochloride, quality control, turbidimetric assay, validation

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