Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 293

Search results for: mandibular third molar

293 Radiographic Predictors of Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Difficulties under General Anaesthetic

Authors: Carolyn Whyte, Tina Halai, Sonita Koshal


Aim: There are many methods available to assess the potential difficulty of third molar surgery. This study investigated various factors to assess whether they had a bearing on the difficulties encountered. Study design: A retrospective study was completed of 62 single mandibular third molar teeth removed under day case general anaesthesia between May 2016 and August 2016 by 3 consultant oral surgeons. Method: Data collection was by examining the OPG radiographs of each tooth and recording the necessary data. This was depth of impaction, angulation, bony impaction, point of application in relation to second molar, root morphology, Pell and Gregory classification and Winters Lines. This was completed by one assessor and verified by another. Information on medical history, anxiety, ethnicity and age were recorded. Case notes and surgical entries were examined for any difficulties encountered. Results: There were 5 cases which encountered surgical difficulties which included fracture of root apices (3) which were left in situ, prolonged bleeding (1) and post-operative numbness >6 months(1). Four of the 5 cases had Pell and Gregory classification as (B) where the occlusal plane of the impacted tooth is between the occlusal plane and the cervical line of the adjacent tooth. 80% of cases had the point of application as either coronal or apical one third (1/3) in relation to the second molar. However, there was variability in all other aspects of assessment in predicting difficulty of removal. Conclusions: Of the cases which encountered difficulties they all had at least one predictor of potential complexity but these varied case by case.

Keywords: impaction, mandibular third molar, radiographic assessment, surgical removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
292 Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Useful Diagnostic Tool to Determine Root Canal Morphology in a Sample of Egyptian Population

Authors: H. El-Messiry, M. El-Zainy, D. Abdelkhalek


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-quality 3-dimensional images of dental structures because of its high spatial resolution. The study of dental morphology is important in research as it provides information about diversities within a population. Many studies have shown different shapes and numbers of roots canals among different races, especially in molars. The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of root canals of mandibular first and third molars in a sample of Egyptian population using CBCT scanning. Fifty mandibular first Molars (M1) and fifty mandibular third (M3) extracted molars were collected. Thick rectangular molds were made using pink wax to hold the samples. Molars were embedded in the wax mold by aligning them in rows leaving arbitrary 0.5cm space between them. The molds with the samples in were submitted for CBCT scan. The number and morphology of root canals were assessed and classified according to Vertucci's classification. The mesial and the distal roots were examined separately. Finally, data was analyzed using Fisher exact test. The most prevalent mesial root canal frequency in M1 was type IV (60%) and type II (40 %), while M3 showed prevalence of type I (40%) and II (40%). Distal root canal morphology showed prevalence of type I in both M1 (66%) and M3 (86%). So, it can be concluded that CBCT scanning provides supplemental information about the root canal configurations of mandibular molars in a sample of Egyptian population. This study may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of mandibular molars.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular first molar, mandibular third molar, root canal morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
291 Sex Estimation Using Cervical Measurements of Molar Teeth in an Iranian Archaeological Population

Authors: Seyedeh Mandan Kazzazi, Elena Kranioti


In the field of human osteology, sex estimation is an important step in developing biological profile. There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate the sex of human remains varying from visual assessments to metric analysis of sexually dimorphic traits. Teeth are one of the most durable physical elements in human body that can be used for this purpose. The present study investigated the utility of cervical measurements for sex estimation through discriminant analysis. The permanent molar teeth of 75 skeletons (28 females and 52 males) from Hasanlu site in North-western Iran were studied. Cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were taken from both maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of each diameter in assessing sex. The results showed that males had statistically larger teeth than females for maxillary and mandibular molars and both measurements (P < 0.05). The range of classification rate was from (75.7% to 85.5%) for the original and cross-validated data. The most dimorphic teeth were maxillary and mandibular second molars providing 85.5% and 83.3% correct classification rate respectively. The data generated from the present study suggested that cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the molar teeth can be useful and reliable for sex estimation in Iranian archaeological populations.

Keywords: cervical measurements, Hasanlu, premolars, sex estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
290 Volumetric Properties of Binary Mixtures of Glycerol +1-Butanol or +2-Butanol at Several Temperatures

Authors: Y. Chabouni, F. Amireche


Densities of glycerol + 1-butanol or 2-butanol mixtures were measured over the temperature range 293.15 to 303.15 K at atmospheric pressure, over the entire composition range, with a vibrating tube densimeter. Excess molar volumes, apparent and partial molar volumes of glycerol and butanol, thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture and partial molar expansivities of the components were calculated. The excess molar volumes of the mixtures are negative at all temperatures, and deviations from ideality increase with increasing temperature. Excess molar volumes were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. Partial molar volumes of glycerol decrease with increasing butanol concentration.

Keywords: 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, density, excess molar volume, glycerol, partial molar property, thermal isobaric expansivities

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
289 A Radiographic Superimposition in Orthognathic Surgery of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira


Patients requiring correction of severe Class III skeletal discrepancy historically has been among the most challenging treatments for orthodontists. Correction of an aesthetic and functional problem is crucially important. This is a case report of an adult male aged 18 years who complained of difficulty in chewing and speaking. Patient has a prominent profile with mandibular excess. The pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. The panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, the pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, the post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It includes the superimposition of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible. Superimposition is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement. It is also important to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgery included mandibular set back by bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Although the discrepancy was severe using this combination of treatment and the use of radiographic superimposition, an aesthetically pleasing and stable result was achieved.

Keywords: cephalometric, mandibular set back, orthognathic, superimposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
288 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra


Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
287 A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee, Ching-hua Hung


Snoring, the lay term for obstructive breathing during sleep, is one of the most prevalent of obnoxious human habits. Loud snoring usually makes others feel noisy and uncomfortable. Snoring also influences the sleep quality of snorers’ bed partners, because of the noise they do not get to sleep easily. Snoring causes the reduce of sleep quality leading to several medical problems, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, high blood pressure, increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cerebral vascular accident, and etc. There are many non-prescription devices offered for sale on the market, but very limited data are available to support a beneficial effect of these devices on snoring and use in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mandibular advancement devices (MADs), also termed as the Mandibular reposition devices (MRDs) are removable devices which are worn at night during sleep. Most devices require dental impression, bite registration, and fabrication by a dental laboratory. Those devices are fixed to upper and lower teeth and are adjusted to advance the mandible. The amount of protrusion is adjusted to meet the therapeutic requirements, comfort, and tolerance. Many devices have a fixed degree of advancement. Some are adjustable in a limited degree. This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.

Keywords: finite element analysis, mandibular advancement devices, mechanical stress, snoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
286 Crossbite Unilateral Correction Using Transpalatal Arch with Extension Arm Modification

Authors: Hanifa Maryani Ahmad, Muslim Yusuf


Background: Unilateral crossbite can be defined as an abnormal transverse relationship between the upper and lower teeth where the mandibular buccal cusp occluding to the maxillary buccal cusp and which involves only one side of the arch. This report describes the treatment of an adolescent female with Class III malocclussion unilateral crossbite resulting from a mildly constricted maxillary arch. The patient had a Class III skeletal relationship, Class III molar relationships, unilateral crossbite on the left side, and deviated midlines. Objectives: The treatment objectives were to correct the abnormal transverse relationship, achieve proper dental inclination, and correct the unilateral crossbites to improve the facial profile. Case management: The treatment protocol was using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification to expand the maxillary arch. Following the levelling and aligning stage of treatment, using a vertical loop while mandibular arch was expanded after getting an end to end relationship on the anterior side. Results: Corrections of the unilateral crossbite were achieved in 4 months. The treatment is still on process because the canines relationship were not corrected. Conclusions: This report highlights a treatment using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification that can be used to expand the transverse width of an arch to correct the discrepancy. Even though the treatment processes were still ongoing, the correction of the unilateral crossbite have been achieved in 4 months by only using the transpalatal arch.

Keywords: crossbite unilateral, late growing, non-extraction, transpalatal arch

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
285 Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Polyethers: DISQUAC Calculations Compared with Dortmund UNIFAC Results

Authors: F. Amireche, I. Mokbel, J. Jose, B. F. Belaribi


The experimental vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) at isothermal conditions and excess molar Gibbs energies GE are carried out for the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, + diethylene glycol dimethyl ether or + diethylene glycol diethyl ether, at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. A good static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P, the excess molar Gibbs energies GE and the excess molar enthalpies HE.

Keywords: Disquac model, Dortmund UNIFAC model, 1, 2- dichloroethane, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, polyethers, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
284 Influence of the Molar Concentration and Substrate Temperature on Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Chemically Sprayed

Authors: J. Ramirez, A. Maldonado, M. de la L. Olvera


The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates, is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for ten days before the deposition. The results show that as the molar concentration increases, a decrease in the electrical resistivity values is obtained, reaching the minimum in films deposited from a 0.4 M solution at 500°C. A further increase in the molar concentration leads to a very slight increase in the resistivity. On the other hand, as the substrate temperature is increased, the resistivity decreases and a tendency towards to minimum value is evidenced; taking the molar concentration as parameter, minimum values are reached at 500°C. The attain of ZnO:F thin films, with a resistivity as low as 7.8×10-3 Ώcm (sheet resistance of 130 Ώ/☐ and film thickness of 600 nm) measured in as-deposited films is reported here for the first time. The concurrent effect of the high molar concentration of the starting solution, the substrate temperature values used, and the ageing of the starting solution, which might cause polymerization of the zinc ions with the fluorine species, enhance the electrical properties. The structure of the films is polycrystalline, with a (002) preferential growth. Molar concentration rules the surface morphology as at low concentration an hexagonal and porous structure is developed changing to a uniform compact and small grain size surface in the films deposited with the high molar concentrations.

Keywords: zinc oxide, chemical spray, thin films, TCO

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
283 Refractive Index, Excess Molar Volume and Viscometric Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of Morpholine with Cumene at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, and 308.15 K

Authors: B. K. Gill, Himani Sharma, V. K. Rattan


Experimental data of refractive index, excess molar volume and viscosity of binary mixture of morpholine with cumene over the whole composition range at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K and normal atmospheric pressure have been measured. The experimental data were used to compute the density, deviation in molar refraction, deviation in viscosity and excess Gibbs free energy of activation as a function of composition. The experimental viscosity data have been correlated with empirical equations like Grunberg- Nissan, Herric correlation and three body McAllister’s equation. The excess thermodynamic properties were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the binary mixtures are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

Keywords: cumene, excess Gibbs free energy, excess molar volume, morpholine

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
282 Association between Caries Status of First Permanent Molar with Oral Health Care Practice in Children Aged 9-12 Years in Lubuk Kilangan, Padang City

Authors: Cytha Nilam Chairani, Ditha Noviantika, Hidayati Amir, Nurul Khairiyah, Siti Rahmadita, Fadila Khairani


Background: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases with high prevalence in children. The first permanent molar (FPM) has an essential role in establishing the occlusion. Nevertheless, FPM is very prone to caries because of various factors, such as their anatomical structure and early emergence in oral cavity. It is due to the little knowledge from parents and children regarding the timing of emergence of FPM in oral cavity which is still considered as primary teeth. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge from parents and children may affect their oral hygiene practice resulting to carious process. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice in 9-12-year-old school children in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 50 school children (9-12 years old) using random sampling technique from two randomly selected schools in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. A questionnaire was developed from other studies consisting of four closed ended questions regarding oral health practice. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney Test to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice. Results: The results showed that 32% of children had FPMs sound and the remaining 68% had FPMs carious which were grouped into 1-2 FPMs carious (60%) and 3-4 FPMs carious (8%). The caries status of mandibular FPM (64%) was higher compared to maxillary FPM (10%). Conclusion: There was significant association in subject who did not visit dentist in the last 6 months which had more carious FPMs compared to subject who visited dentist (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the status of FPM caries and knowledge of the timing eruption of FPM, oral hygiene instruction from parents and tooth brushing (p > 0.05).

Keywords: dental caries, children, first permanent molar, oral hygiene practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
281 Tooth Fractures Following the Placement of Adjacent Dental Implants: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Eyal Rosen


This study is aimed to report a possible effect of the presence of dental implants on the development of crown or root fractures in adjacent natural teeth. A series of 26 cases of teeth diagnosed with crown or root fractures following the placement of adjacent dental implants is presented. In addition, a comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed to detect other studies that evaluated this possible complication. The case series analysis revealed that all crown-fractured teeth were non-endodontically treated teeth (n=18), and all root fractured teeth were endodontically treated teeth (n=8). The time from implant loading to the diagnosis of a fracture in an adjacent tooth was longer than 1 year in 78% of cases. The majority of crown or root fractures occurred in female patients, over 50 years of age, with an average age of 59 in the crown fractures group, and 54 in the root fractures group. Most of the patients received 2 or more implants. Nine (50%) of the teeth with crown fracture were molars, 7 (39%) were mandibular premolars, and 2 (11%) were incisor teeth. The majority of teeth with root fracture were premolar or mandibular molar teeth (6 (75%)). The systematic review of the literature did not reveal additional studies that reported on this possible complication. To the best of the author’s knowledge this case series, although limited in its extent, is the first clinical report of a possible serious complication of implants, associated fractures in adjacent endodontically and non-endodontically treated natural teeth. The most common patient profile found in this series was a woman over 50 years of age, having a fractured premolar tooth, which was diagnosed more than 1 year after reconstruction that was based on multiple adjacent implants. Additional clinical studies are required in order to shed light on this potential serious complication.

Keywords: complications, dental implants, endodontics, fractured teeth

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
280 Study of Intermolecular Interactions in Binary Mixtures of 1-Butyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Bis (Trifluoro Methyl Sulfonyl) Imide and 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Ethyl Sulphate at Different Temperature from 293.18 to 342.15 K

Authors: V. Lokesh, M. Manjunathan, S. Sairam, K. Saithsh Kumar, R. Anantharaj


The densities of pure and its binary mixtures of 1-Butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoro methyl sulfonyl) imide and 1–Ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ethyl sulphate at different temperature, over the entire composition range were measured at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15, 328.15, 33.15, 338.15, 343.15 K. In this study, the liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used. From this experimental data, the excess molar volumes, apparent molar volume, partial molar volumes and the excess partial molar volumes have been calculated for over the whole composition range. Hence, the effect of temperature and composition on all derived thermodynamic properties of this binary mixture will be discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

Keywords: ionic liquid, interaction energy, effect of temperature, effect of composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
279 Thermodynamic Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose


The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
278 Salvage Reconstruction of Intraoral Dehiscence following Free Fibular Flap with a Superficial Temporal Artery Islandized Flap (STAIF)

Authors: Allyne Topaz


Intraoral dehiscence compromises free fibula flaps following mandibular reconstruction. Salivary contamination risks thrombosis of microvascular anastomosis and hardware infection. The superficial temporal artery islandized flap (STAIF) offers an efficient, non-microsurgical reconstructive option for regaining intraoral competency for a time sensitive complication. Methods: The STAIF flap is based on the superficial temporal artery coursing along the anterior hairline. The flap is mapped with assistance of the doppler probe. The width of the skin paddle is taken based on the ability to close the donor site. The flap is taken down to the level of the zygomatic arch and tunneled into the mouth. Results: We present a case of a patient who underwent mandibular reconstruction with a free fibula flap after a traumatic shotgun wound. The patient developed repeated intraoral dehiscence following failed local buccal and floor of mouth flaps leading to salivary contamination of the flap and hardware. The intraoral dehiscence was successfully salvaged on the third attempt with a STAIF flap. Conclusions: Intraoral dehiscence creates a complication requiring urgent attention to prevent loss of free fibula flap after mandibular reconstruction. The STAIF is a non-microsurgical option for restoring intraoral competency. This robust, axially vascularized skin paddle may be split for intra- and extra-oral coverage, as needed and can be an important tool in the reconstructive armamentarium.

Keywords: free fibula flap, intraoral dehiscence, mandibular reconstruction, superficial temporal artery islandized flap

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
277 Isothermal Vapour-Liquid Equilibria of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose


The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
276 The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth

Authors: T. Qasim, B. El Masoud, D. Ailabouni


This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples are loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.

Keywords: all ceramic, cyclic loading, chewing simulator, dental crowns, relative wear, thermally ageing

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
275 Adjustment of the Level of Vibrational Force on Targeted Teeth

Authors: Amin Akbari, Dongcai Wang, Huiru Li, Xiaoping Du, Jie Chen


The effect of vibrational force (VF) on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement depends on the level of delivered stimulation to the tooth in terms of peak load (PL), which requires contacts between the tooth and the VF device. A personalized device ensures the contacts, but the resulting PL distribution on the teeth is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the PL on particular teeth can be adjusted to the prescribed values. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of apersonalized VF device in controlling the level of stimulation on two teeth, the mandibular canines and 2nd molars. A 3-D finite element (FE) model of human dentition, including teeth, PDL, and alveolar bone, was created from the cone beam computed tomography images of an anonymous subject. The VF was applied to the teeth through a VFdevice consisting of a mouthpiece with engraved tooth profile of the subject and a VF source that applied 0.3 N force with the frequency of 30 Hz. The dentition and mouthpiece were meshed using 10-node tetrahedral elements. Interface elements were created at the interfaces between the teeth and the mouthpiece. The upper and lower teeth bite on the mouthpiece to receive the vibration. The depth of engraved individual tooth profile could be adjusted, which was accomplished by adding a layer of material as an interference or removing a layer of material as a clearance to change the PL on the tooth. The interference increases the PL while the clearance decreases it. Fivemouthpiece design cases were simulated, which included a mouthpiece without interference/clearance; the mouthpieces with bilateral interferences on both mandibular canines and 2nd molars with magnitudes of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2-mm, respectively; and mouthpiece with bilateral 0.3-mm clearances on the four teeth. Then, the force distributions on the entire dentition were compared corresponding to these adjustments. The PL distribution on the teeth is uneven when there is no interference or clearance. Among all teeth, the anterior segment receives the highest level of PL. Adding 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2-mm interferences to the canines and 2nd molars bilaterally leads to increase of the PL on the canines by 10, 62, and 73 percent and on the 2nd molar by 14, 55, and 87 percent, respectively. Adding clearances to the canines and 2nd molars by removing the contactsbetween these teeth and the mouthpiece results in zero PL on them. Moreover, introducing interference to mandibular canines and 2nd molarsredistributes the PL on the entireteeth. The share of the PL on the anterior teeth are reduced. The use of the personalized mouthpiece ensures contactsof the teeth to the mouthpiece so that all teeth can be stimulated. However, the PL distribution is uneven. Adding interference between a tooth and the mouthpiece increases the PL while introducing clearance decreases the PL. As a result, the PL is redistributed. This study confirms that the level of VF stimulation on the individual tooth can be adjusted to a prescribed value.

Keywords: finite element method, orthodontic treatment, stress analysis, tooth movement, vibrational force

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
274 Densities and Volumetric Properties of {Difurylmethane + [(C5 – C8) N-Alkane or an Amide]} Binary Systems at 293.15, 298.15 and 303.15 K: Modelling Excess Molar Volumes by Prigogine-Flory-Patterson Theory

Authors: Belcher Fulele, W. A. A. Ddamba


Study of solvent systems contributes to the understanding of intermolecular interactions that occur in binary mixtures. These interactions involves among others strong dipole-dipole interactions and weak van de Waals interactions which are of significant application in pharmaceuticals, solvent extractions, design of reactors and solvent handling and storage processes. Binary mixtures of solvents can thus be used as a model to interpret thermodynamic behavior that occur in a real solution mixture. Densities of pure DFM, n-alkanes (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane) and amides (N-methylformamide, N-ethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide) as well as their [DFM + ((C5-C8) n-alkane or amide)] binary mixtures over the entire composition range, have been reported at temperature 293.15, 298.15 and 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These data has been used to derive the thermodynamic properties: the excess molar volume of solution, apparent molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, limiting excess partial molar volumes, limiting partial molar volumes of each component of a binary mixture. The results are discussed in terms of possible intermolecular interactions and structural effects that occur in the binary mixtures. The variation of excess molar volume with DFM composition for the [DFM + (C5-C7) n-alkane] binary mixture exhibit a sigmoidal behavior while for the [DFM + n-octane] binary system, positive deviation of excess molar volume function was observed over the entire composition range. For each of the [DFM + (C5-C8) n-alkane] binary mixture, the excess molar volume exhibited a fall with increase in temperature. The excess molar volume for each of [DFM + (NMF or NEF or DMF or DMA)] binary system was negative over the entire DFM composition at each of the three temperatures investigated. The negative deviations in excess molar volume values follow the order: DMA > DMF > NEF > NMF. Increase in temperature has a greater effect on component self-association than it has on complex formation between molecules of components in [DFM + (NMF or NEF or DMF or DMA)] binary mixture which shifts complex formation equilibrium towards complex to give a drop in excess molar volume with increase in temperature. The Prigogine-Flory-Patterson model has been applied at 298.15 K and reveals that the free volume is the most important contributing term to the excess experimental molar volume data for [DFM + (n-pentane or n-octane)] binary system. For [DFM + (NMF or DMF or DMA)] binary mixture, the interactional term and characteristic pressure term contributions are the most important contributing terms in describing the sign of experimental excess molar volume. The mixture systems contributed to the understanding of interactions of polar solvents with proteins (amides) with non-polar solvents (alkanes) in biological systems.

Keywords: alkanes, amides, excess thermodynamic parameters, Prigogine-Flory-Patterson model

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
273 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese-Cobalt Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Vasko Idakiev, Tatyana Tabakova, Krasimir Ivanov


Formaldehyde production by selective oxidation of methanol is an important industrial process. The main by-products in the waste gas are CO and dimethyl ether (DME). The idea of this study is to combine the advantages of both Cu-Mn and Cu-Co catalytic systems by obtaining a new mixed Cu-Mn-Co catalyst with high activity and selectivity at the simultaneous oxidation of CO, methanol, and DME. Two basic Cu-Mn samples with high activity were selected for further investigation: (i) manganese-rich Cu-Mn/γ–Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5 and (ii) copper-rich Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 2:1. Manganese in these samples was replaced by cobalt in the whole concentration region, and catalytic properties were determined. The results show a general trend of decreasing the activity toward DME oxidation and increasing the activity toward CO and methanol oxidation with the increase of cobalt up to 60% for both groups of catalyst. This general trend, however, contains specific features, depending on the composition of the catalyst and the nature of the oxidized gas. The catalytic activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 2:1 is gradually changed with increasing the cobalt content. The activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 1: 5 passes through a maximum at 60% manganese replacement by cobalt, probably due to the formation of highly dispersed Co-based spinel structures (Co3O4 and/or MnCo2O4). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, methanol and DME oxidation. Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio 1:5 and Co/Mn molar ratio 1.5 in the active component can ensure successful oxidation of CO, CH3OH and DME. The active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds - CuO, Co3O4, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, MnCo2O4 and CuCo2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Co molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this effect being quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Co catalysts, oxidation, carbon oxide, VOCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
272 Experimental Assessment of Artificial Flavors Production

Authors: M. Unis, S. Turky, A. Elalem, A. Meshrghi


The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with isopropnol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 60,70 and 80°C and at a different molar ratio of isopropnol to acetic acid. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 60.6% was obtained at 80°C for molar ratio of 1:3 acid : alcohol. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated from the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium.

Keywords: artificial flavors, esterification, chemical equilibria, isothermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
271 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
270 The Accuracy of an In-House Developed Computer-Assisted Surgery Protocol for Mandibular Micro-Vascular Reconstruction

Authors: Christophe Spaas, Lies Pottel, Joke De Ceulaer, Johan Abeloos, Philippe Lamoral, Tom De Backer, Calix De Clercq


We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of an in-house developed low-cost computer-assisted surgery (CAS) protocol for osseous free flap mandibular reconstruction. All patients who underwent primary or secondary mandibular reconstruction with a free (solely or composite) osseous flap, either a fibula free flap or iliac crest free flap, between January 2014 and December 2017 were evaluated. The low-cost protocol consisted out of a virtual surgical planning, a prebend custom reconstruction plate and an individualized free flap positioning guide. The accuracy of the protocol was evaluated through comparison of the postoperative outcome with the 3D virtual planning, based on measurement of the following parameters: intercondylar distance, mandibular angle (axial and sagittal), inner angular distance, anterior-posterior distance, length of the fibular/iliac crest segments and osteotomy angles. A statistical analysis of the obtained values was done. Virtual 3D surgical planning and cutting guide design were performed with Proplan CMF® software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and IPS Gate (KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany). Segmentation of the DICOM data as well as outcome analysis were done with BrainLab iPlan® Software (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). A cost analysis of the protocol was done. Twenty-two patients (11 fibula /11 iliac crest) were included and analyzed. Based on voxel-based registration on the cranial base, 3D virtual planning landmark parameters did not significantly differ from those measured on the actual treatment outcome (p-values >0.05). A cost evaluation of the in-house developed CAS protocol revealed a 1750 euro cost reduction in comparison with a standard CAS protocol with a patient-specific reconstruction plate. Our results indicate that an accurate transfer of the planning with our in-house developed low-cost CAS protocol is feasible at a significant lower cost.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, computer-assisted surgery, low-cost, mandibular reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
269 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař


Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
268 The Bone Remodeling of Mandible in Bruxers

Authors: Eni Rahmi, Rasmi Rikmasari, Taufik Soemarsongko


Background: One of the bad habits that requires a treatment and viewed as a risk factor of the temporomandibular disorder is bruxism. Bruxism defined as an awake and/or asleep parafunctional activities include grinding, gnashing, bracing or clenching of the teeth. In particular circumstances such as an increased frequency of episode, duration and the intensity of masseter contractions, caused phenomenon with pathological consequences, i.e., mandibular remodeling. The remodeling in mandibular angle was associated with the masseter and pterygoid medial muscles attachment which in its insertion area. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular remodeling between bruxers and non-bruxers with ramus height, gonial angle and bigonial width as parameters, and to identify correlation among those parameters in bruxers, using panoramic radiographic. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 bruxers (10 phasic bruxism patients, 6 tonic bruxism patients, and 19 mixed bruxism patients) and 20 non-bruxers as control group. The data were obtained by using questionary, clinical examination, and radiographic measurement. Panoramic radiograph measurement was done using soft CBCT EPX Impla (E-Woo Korea). The data was analyzed by using Paired T-Test to see differences between parameters in both group and Pearson Correlation Test to evaluate correlation among parameters. Result: There was significant differences between bruxers and non-bruxers in ramus heights (p=0,04), bigonial widths (p=0,001), and gonial angles(p=0,015). The bruxers showed increased ramus heights and bigonial widths, in other hand, the gonial angles decreased. This study also found that there was highly correlation among ramus height, gonial angles, and bigonial widths. Conclusion: the bone remodeling occurred on inferior and posterior border of mandibular angle in bruxism patient, indicated by the form and size differences between bruxers (phasic bruxism, tonic bruxism, and mixed bruxism) with non-bruxers, which shown by panoramic radiograph.

Keywords: bruxism, ramus height, gonial angle, bigonial width

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
267 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
266 Preoperative 3D Planning and Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects for Patients with Oral Cavity Tumors

Authors: Janis Zarins, Kristaps Blums, Oskars Radzins, Renars Deksnis, Atis Svare, Santa Salaka


Wide tumor resection remains the first choice method for tumors of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, remained tissue defect impacts patients functional and aesthetical outcome, which could be improved using microvascular tissue transfers. Mandibular reconstruction is challenging due to the complexity of composite tissue defects and occlusal relationships for normal eating, chewing, and pain free jaw motions. Individual 3-D virtual planning would provide better symmetry and functional outcome. The main goal of preoperative planning is to develop a customized surgical approach with patient specific cutting guides of the mandible, osteotomy guides of the fibula, pre-bended osteosynthesis plates to perform more precise reconstruction, to decrease the surgery time and reach the best outcome. Our study is based on the analysis of 32 patients operated on between 2019 to 2021. All patients underwent mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula flaps. Patients characteristics, surgery profile, survival, functional outcome, and quality of life was evaluated. Preoperative planning provided a significant decrease of surgery time and the best arrangement of bone closely similar as before the surgery. In cases of bone asymmetry, deformity and malposition, a new mandible was created using 3D planning to restore the appearance of lower jaw anatomy and functionality.

Keywords: mandibular, 3D planning, cutting guides, fibula flap, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
265 Prevalence of Dens Evaginatus in Adolescent Population of Melaka: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George Pallivathukal


Dens evaginatus (DE) is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by a slender enamel-covered tubercle which projects from the occlusal surface of an otherwise normal premolar. DE can often interfere normal occlusion and can lead to complications like sensitivity, pulpal exposure and temporo mandibular joint problems. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records of patients under the age of 20 who attended the faculty of dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College were examined for DE. Results: The prevalence of DE was 23% among the study group. Males presented with a higher prevalence of 67% and females with 33%. The prevalence of Dens evaginatus was distributed as 28% in maxillary central incisor, 52% in maxillary lateral incisors, 12% in mandibular second premolars. Prevalence in permanent dentitions appeared to be higher than deciduous dentition. The bilateral occurrence of Dens evaginatus is an interesting phenomenon. 57% of the cases of the DE were bilateral.

Keywords: deciduous dentition, dens evaginatus, permanent dentition, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
264 Study of Individual Parameters on the Enzymatic Glycosidation of Betulinic Acid by Novozyme-435

Authors: A. U. Adamu, Hamisu Abdu, A. A. Saidu


The enzymatic synthesis of 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-betulinic acid using Novozyme-435 as a catalyst was studied. The effect of various parameters such as substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, re-used enzymes and amount of enzymes were investigated. The optimum rection conditions for the enzymatic glycosidation of betulinic acid in an organic solvent using Novozym-435 was found to be at 1:1.2 substrate molar ratio, 55oC, 24 h and 180 mg of enzymes with percentage conversion of 88.69 %.

Keywords: betulinic acid, glycosidation, novozyme-435, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 309