Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2194

Search results for: root canal morphology

2194 Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Useful Diagnostic Tool to Determine Root Canal Morphology in a Sample of Egyptian Population

Authors: H. El-Messiry, M. El-Zainy, D. Abdelkhalek


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-quality 3-dimensional images of dental structures because of its high spatial resolution. The study of dental morphology is important in research as it provides information about diversities within a population. Many studies have shown different shapes and numbers of roots canals among different races, especially in molars. The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of root canals of mandibular first and third molars in a sample of Egyptian population using CBCT scanning. Fifty mandibular first Molars (M1) and fifty mandibular third (M3) extracted molars were collected. Thick rectangular molds were made using pink wax to hold the samples. Molars were embedded in the wax mold by aligning them in rows leaving arbitrary 0.5cm space between them. The molds with the samples in were submitted for CBCT scan. The number and morphology of root canals were assessed and classified according to Vertucci's classification. The mesial and the distal roots were examined separately. Finally, data was analyzed using Fisher exact test. The most prevalent mesial root canal frequency in M1 was type IV (60%) and type II (40 %), while M3 showed prevalence of type I (40%) and II (40%). Distal root canal morphology showed prevalence of type I in both M1 (66%) and M3 (86%). So, it can be concluded that CBCT scanning provides supplemental information about the root canal configurations of mandibular molars in a sample of Egyptian population. This study may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of mandibular molars.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular first molar, mandibular third molar, root canal morphology

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2193 Effect of Eddy Irrigant Activation on Cleanliness of the Root Canal Wall during Pulpectomy of Primary Teeth

Authors: Rasha Sharaf, Nehal Sharaf


Pulpectomy of primary teeth aims to remove the necrotic pulp tissue from the infected root canal and clean the root canal walls from any remnant of pulp tissue. Different irrigant activation systems have been recently used, and one of these devices is the Eddy which helps in removal of smear layer and improves the intimate contact between the filling material and the root canal wall. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Eddy in cleanliness of the root canal during pulpectomy of primary teeth. Materials and methods: 45 freshly extracted primary anterior teeth were divided into 3 equal groups, in the 1st group sodium hypochlorite only was used during pulpectomy, in the 2nd group irrigation using sodium hypochlorite with file agitation was performed and in the 3rd group sodium hypochlorite was used with Eddy for irrigant activation. All samples were sectioned longitudinally and scanned using scanning electron microscope to evaluate the cleanliness of the root canals. Results: It was found that Eddy showed high efficacy in removal of smear layer during pulpectomy of primary teeth.

Keywords: Eddy, irrigant activation, irrigation, pulpectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2192 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2191 Silver-Curcumin Nanoparticle Eradicate Enterococcus faecalis in Human ex vivo Dentine Model

Authors: M. Gowri, E. K. Girija, V. Ganesh


Background and Significance: Among the dental infections, inflammation and infection of the root canal are common among all age groups. Currently, the management of root canal infections involves cleaning the canal with powerful irrigants followed by intracanal medicament application. Though these treatments have been in vogue for a long time, root canal failures do occur. Treatment for root canal infections is limited due to the anatomical complexity in terms of small micrometer volumes and poor penetration of drugs. Thus, infections of the root canal seem to be a challenge that demands development of new agents that can eradicate E. faecalis. Methodology: In the present study, we synthesized and screened silver-curcumin nanoparticle against E. faecalis. Morphological cell damage and antibiofilm activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle on E. faecalis was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was studied using flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model. Results: Screening data showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle was active against E. faecalis. silver-curcumin nanoparticle exerted time kill effect. Further, SEM images of E. faecalis showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle caused membrane damage and inhibited biofilm formation. Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was confirmed by increased propidium iodide (PI) uptake in flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model, which mimics human tooth root canal infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed eradication of E. faecalis and reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) after 24 h treatment in the infected tooth samples in this model. Further, silver-curcumin nanoparticle was found to be hemocompatible, not cytotoxic to normal mammalian NIH 3T3 cells and non-mutagenic. Conclusion: The results of this study can pave the way for developing new antibacterial agents with well deciphered mechanisms of action and can be a promising antibacterial agent or medicament against root canal infection.

Keywords: ex vivo dentine model, inhibition of biofilm formation, root canal infection, silver-curcumin nanoparticle

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2190 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding


Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency

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2189 Combination of Silver-Curcumin Nanoparticle for the Treatment of Root Canal Infection

Authors: M. Gowri, E. K. Girija, V. Ganesh


Background and Significance: Among the dental infections, inflammation and infection of the root canal are common among all age groups. Currently, the management of root canal infections involves cleaning the canal with powerful irrigants followed by intracanal medicament application. Though these treatments have been in vogue for a long time, root canal failures do occur. Treatment for root canal infections is limited due to the anatomical complexity in terms of small micrometer volumes and poor penetration of drugs. Thus, infections of the root canal seem to be a challenge that demands development of new agents that can eradicate C. albicans. Methodology: In the present study, we synthesized and screened silver-curcumin nanoparticle against Candida albicans. Detailed molecular studies were carried out with silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans pathogenicity. Morphological cell damage and antibiofilm activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was studied using flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model. Results: Screening data showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle was active against C. albicans. Silver-curcumin nanoparticle exerted time kill effect and post antifungal effect. When used in combination with fluconazole or nystatin, silver-curcumin nanoparticle revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) decrease for both drugs used. In-depth molecular studies with silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle inhibited yeast to hyphae (Y-H) conversion. Further, SEM images of C. albicans showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle caused membrane damage and inhibited biofilm formation. Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was confirmed by increased propidium iodide (PI) uptake in flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model, which mimics human tooth root canal infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed eradication of C. albicans and reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) after 24 h treatment in the infected tooth samples in this model. Conclusion: The results of this study can pave the way for developing new antifungal agents with well deciphered mechanisms of action and can be a promising antifungal agent or medicament against root canal infection.

Keywords: C. albicans, ex vivo dentine model, inhibition of biofilm formation, root canal infection, yeast to hyphae conversion inhibition

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2188 Fluoride as Obturating Material in Primary Teeth

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri


The primary goal of a root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is to eliminate infection and to retain the tooth in a functional state until it gets physiologically exfoliated and replaced by permanent successor. Important requisite of a root canal filling material for primary teeth is that, it should resorb at a similar rate as the roots of primary tooth, be harmless to the periapical tissue and to the permanent tooth germ, resorb readily if pushed beyond the apex, be antiseptic, radio-opaque, should not shrink, adhere to the walls, not discolor the tooth and easy to fill & remove, if required at any stage. Presently available, commonly used obturating materials for primary teeth are zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform based pastes. None of these materials so far meet the ideal requirement of root canal filling material. So in search of ideal obturating material, this study was planed, in which mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide & sodium fluoride and mixture of calcium hydroxide & sodium fluoride was compared clinically and radiographically with calcium hydroxide for the obturation of root canals of 75 carious exposed primary mandibular second molars of 59 children aged 4-9 years. All the three material shows good results, but after a follow-up of 9 months mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide powder closely follow the resorption of root, mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride follow resorption of root in the beginning but later on majority of cases shows faster resorption whereas calcium hydroxide starts depleting from the canal from the beginning even as early as 3 months. Thus mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide found to be best obturaring material for primary tooth.

Keywords: obturating material, primary teeth, root canal treatment, success rate

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2187 Investigations into the in situ Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Removal Efficacies of Passive and Active Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant Delivered into Lateral Canal of a Simulated Root Canal Model

Authors: Saifalarab A. Mohmmed, Morgana E. Vianna, Jonathan C. Knowles


The issue of apical periodontitis has received considerable critical attention. Bacteria is integrated into communities, attached to surfaces and consequently form biofilm. The biofilm structure provides bacteria with a series protection skills against, antimicrobial agents and enhances pathogenicity (e.g. apical periodontitis). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has become the irrigant of choice for elimination of bacteria from the root canal system based on its antimicrobial findings. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different agitation techniques on the efficacy of 2.5% NaOCl to eliminate the biofilm from the surface of the lateral canal using the residual biofilm, and removal rate of biofilm as outcome measures. The effect of canal complexity (lateral canal) on the efficacy of the irrigation procedure was also assessed. Forty root canal models (n = 10 per group) were manufactured using 3D printing and resin materials. Each model consisted of two halves of an 18 mm length root canal with apical size 30 and taper 0.06, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter located at 3 mm from the apical terminus. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm and lateral canal of the models for 10 days in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Biofilms were stained using crystal violet for visualisation. The model halves were reassembled, attached to an apparatus and tested under a fluorescence microscope. Syringe and needle irrigation protocol was performed using 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigant for 60 seconds. The irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated for 30 seconds using manual (gutta-percha), sonic and ultrasonic methods. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The percentages of residual biofilm were measured using image analysis software. The data were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The greatest removal was associated with the ultrasonic group (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual (43.97%), and passive irrigation group (control) (38.67%) respectively. No marked reduction in the efficiency of NaOCl to remove biofilm was found between the simple and complex anatomy models (p = 0.098). The removal efficacy of NaOCl on the biofilm was limited to the 1 mm level of the lateral canal. The agitation of NaOCl results in better penetration of the irrigant into the lateral canals. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of bacterial biofilm.

Keywords: 3D printing, biofilm, root canal irrigation, sodium hypochlorite

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2186 Preparing Curved Canals Using Mtwo and RaCe Rotary Instruments: A Comparison Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Vito Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Irene Malagnino


Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments, in cleaning and shaping root canals curvature. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 160 simulated canals in resin blocks, with an angle curvature 15°-30°. These 160 simulated canals were divided into two groups, where each group consisted of 80 blocks. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=40 canals each). The simulated canals subgroups were prepared with Mtwo and RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. The root canals were measured at four different points of reference, starting at 13 mm from the orifice. In the first group, the canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany). The Mtwo files used were: 10/0.04, 15/0.05, 20/0.06, and 25/0.06. These instruments entered in the full length of the canal. Each file was rotated in the canal until it reached the apical point. In the second group, the canals were prepared using RaCe instruments (La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland), performing the crown down technique, using the torque electric control motor (VDWCO, Munich, Germany), with 600 RPM and 2n/cm as follow: ≠40/0.10, ≠35/0.08, ≠30/0.06, ≠25/0.04, ≠25/0.02. The data were recorded using SPSS version 23 software (Microsoft, IL, USA). Data analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: The results obtained by using the Mtwo rotary instruments, showed that these instruments were able to clean and shape in the right-to-left motion curved canals, at different levels, without any deviation, and in perfect symmetry, with a P-value=0.000. The data showed that the greater the depth of the root canal, the greater the deviations of the RaCe rotary instruments. These deviations occurred in three levels, which are: S2(P=0.004), S3( P=0.007), S4(P=0.009). The Mtwo files can go deeper and create a greater angle in S4 level (21°-28°), compared to RaCe instruments with an angle equal to 19°-24°. Conclusion: The present study noted a clinically significant difference between Mtwo rotary instruments and RaCe rotary files used for the canal preparation and indicated that Mtwo instruments are a better choice for the curved canals.

Keywords: canal curvature, canal preparation, Mtwo, RaCe, resin blocks

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2185 A Disappearing Radiolucency of the Mandible Caused by Inadvertent Trauma Following IMF Screw Placement

Authors: Anna Ghosh, Dominic Shields, Ceri McIntosh, Stephen Crank


A 29-year-old male was a referral to the maxillofacial unit following a referral from his general dental practitioner via a routine pathway regarding a large periapical lesion on the LR4 with root resorption. The patient was asymptomatic, the LR4 vital and unrestored, and this was an incidental finding at a routine check-up. The patient's past medical history was unremarkable. Examination revealed no extra or intra-oral pathology and non-mobile teeth. No focal neurology was detected. An orthopantogram demonstrated a well-defined unilocular corticated radiolucency associated with the LR4. The root appeared shortened with the radiolucency between the root and a radio-opacity, possibly representing the displacement of the apical tip of the tooth. It was recommended that the referring general practitioner should proceed with orthograde root canal therapy, after which time exploration, enucleation, and retrograde root filling of the LR4 would be carried out by a maxillofacial unit. The patient was reviewed six months later where, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the patient had been unable to access general dental services for the root canal treatment. He was still entirely asymptomatic. A one-year review was planned in the hope this would allow time for the orthograde root canal therapy to be completed. At this review, the orthograde root canal therapy had still not been completed. Interestingly, a repeat orthopantogram revealed a significant reduction in size with good bony infill and a significant reduction in the size of the lesion. Due to the ongoing delays with primary care dental therapy, the patient was subsequently internally referred to the restorative dentistry department for care. The patient was seen again by oral and maxillo-facial surgery in mid-2022 where he still reports this tooth as asymptomatic with no focal neurology. The patient's history was fully reviewed, and noted that 15 years previously, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of a left angle of mandible fracture. Temporary IMF involving IMF screws and fixation wires were employed to maintain occlusion during plating and subsequently removed post-operatively. It is proposed that the radiolucency was, as a result of the IMF screw placement, penetrating the LR4 root resulting in resorption of the tooth root and development of a radiolucency. This case highlights the importance of careful screw size and physical site location, and placement of IMF screws, as there can be permeant damage to a patient’s dentition.

Keywords: facial trauma, inter-maxillary fixation, mandibular radiolucency, oral and maxillo-facial surgery

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2184 The Morphological and Morphometrical Evaluation of the Bores That Transmit Emissary Veins in Terms of Surgery

Authors: Fikri Turk, Sahika Pinar Akyer, Mevci Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent Ozdemir, Ilgaz Akdogan


The complications such as bleeding, thrombosis and air embolism depend on injuries emissary veins is often encountered in surgery. Detailed descriptions of the mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal and foramen vesalius are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the purpose of our study was to explore and represent the morphology and morphometry of these emissary foramina in order to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons. The present study was made on 60 dry human skull in the laboratories of Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine Department of Anatomy. After taken photograph of emissary foramens by Canon 650D professional camera, the evaluation and measurement’s these foramens made with Matlab program by computer. The overall prevalence of mastoid foramen was 90.52%, occipital foramen was 72.52%, parietal foramen was 42.85%, posterior condylar canal was 91.25% and foramen vesalius was 78.26%. The mean diameter of the mastoid foramen was 1.81±0.76 mm, occipital foramen was 1.20±0.25 mm, parietal foramen was 1.49±0.46 mm, posterior condylar canal was 2.83±1.33 mm and foramen vesalius was 1.74±0.60 mm. Distances between emissary foramina and fixed bony landmarks were measured. Emissary veins are important in clinic practice and surgical procedures because they act a route of spread of exracranial infection to the intracranial structures and these veins may be a significant bleeding during surgery of the skull and they can be source of thrombosis and air embolism. The detailed anatomical knowledge of these veins and foraminas may help to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons.

Keywords: emissary foramina, mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal, foramen vesalius, morphology, morphometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2183 Impact of Lined/Unlined Canal on Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Bhavani Basin, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: K. Mirudhula, R. Saravanan


Bhavani basin is the fourth largest Sub Basin in the Cauvery basin. The entire command area of all three major canals that takes off from the Bhavani river falls within the Erode District i.e. Lower Bhavani Project (LBP), Kodiveri and Kalingarayan canals. The LBP canal is a major source of irrigation in Erode District. Many of these canals are unlined and leakage takes place from them. Thus the seepage from the canal helps in recharging the wells in the area, enabling to get adequate water supply for the crops when water was not released from Bhavanisagar Dam. In this study, the groundwater recharge is determined by groundwater flow modeling using Visual MODFLOW model. For this purpose, three major natural sources of groundwater recharge are taken into consideration such as rainfall infiltration, canal seepage and return flow of irrigation. The model was run and ZONEBUDGET gives an idea about the amount of recharge from lined/unlined canal to the field. Unlined canal helps to recharge the groundwater about 20% more than the lined canal. The analysis reveals that the annual rainfall also has rapidly changed in this region. In the LBP canal Head reach meets their requirement with available quantity of water from the canal system. Tail end reach does not receive the required quantity of water because of seepage loss and conveyance loss. Hence the lined canal can be provided for full length of the main canal. Branch canals and minor distributaries are suggested to maintain the canals with unlined canal system.

Keywords: lower Bhavani basin, erode, groundwater flow modeling, irrigation practice, lined canal system

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2182 Comparative Analysis of Canal Centering Ratio, Apical Transportation, and Remaining Dentin Thickness between Single File System Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography: An in vitro Study

Authors: Aditi Jain


Aim: To compare the canal transportation, centering ability and remaining dentin thickness of OneShape and WaveOne system using CBCT. Objective: To identify rotary system which respects original canal anatomy. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human single-rooted premolars were used in the present study. Pre-instrumentation scans of all teeth were taken, canal curvatures were calculated, and the samples were randomly divided into two groups with twenty samples in each group, where Group 1 included WaveOne system and Group 2 Protaper rotary system. Post-instrumentation scans were performed, and the two scans were compared to determine canal transportation, centering ability and remaining dentin thickness at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex. Results: Using Student’s unpaired t test results were as follows; for canal transportation Group 1 showed statistical significant difference at 3mm, 6mm and non-significant difference was obtained at 9mm but for Group 2 non-statistical significant difference was obtained at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm. For centering ability and remaining dentin thickness Group 1 showed non-statistical significant difference at 3mm and 9mm, while statistical significant difference at 6mm was obtained. When comparison of remaining dentin thickness was done at three levels using two groups WaveOne and ProTaper. There was non-statistical significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: WaveOne single reciprocation file respects original canal anatomy better than ProTaper. WaveOne depicted the best centering ability.

Keywords: ShapeOne, WaveOne, transportation, centering ability, dentin thickness, CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography)

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2181 “Protection” or “Destruction”: Taking the Cultural Heritage Protection of the Grand Canal in Huaxian and Xunxian Sections of Henan Province as Example

Authors: Yue Sun, Yuan Wang


The Grand Canal of China has been in use for more than two thousand years. It runs through the central and eastern regions of China and communicates with the five major river systems of Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Yangtze River and Qiantang River from north to south. It is a complex, systematic and comprehensive water conservancy project in the period of agricultural civilization and includes the three parts of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, the Sui and Tang Dynasties Canal and the Eastern Zhejiang Canal. It covers eight provinces and cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan and Anhui. The Grand Canal is an important channel connecting the Central Plains and the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, and it is also an important waterway trade channel. Nowadays, although the Grand Canal no longer bears the burden of communicating water transportation between the north and the south, the site of the Grand Canal is still a “historical museum” of the lifestyle of people who lived on the canal from the Ming and Qing Dynasties to the Republic of China. By means of literature reading and field investigation, this paper compares the different protection strategies of the Grand Canal in the region between the ancient villages of Huaxian and Xunxian, which witness the vicissitudes of canal water transport, to explore whether the protective renovation of historical and cultural routes is “protection” or “destruction”, and puts forward some protection suggestions.

Keywords: The Grand Canal, heritage conservation, cultural route, ancient villages, strategies

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2180 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump


This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

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2179 Study of the Facilities in the Cultural and Ecotourism Route in the Area of Om Nont Canal, Nonthaburi Provice, Thailand

Authors: Supattra Suanlim


Nonthaburi province is one of the provinces in the central region of Thailand. There is the Chao Phraya River, which is a large and important river of Thailand passing through the province. With the way of life and social changes since the past. There is a digging canal called Lat canal or Om canal, communities along the canal have dense settlements. Important in life and culture. This research has 3 objectives as follows. 1.To explore cultural and ecotourism attractions in the Om Nont canal area. 2.To explore the facilities in the Om Nont canal tourist attraction. To suggest facilities for tourist attractions in the Om Nont canal, Nonthaburi, Thailand. This research is a qualitative research, using research methods by collecting data and surveying tourist attractions by water traffic. The results of the research can be concluded that There are 21 tourist attractions that have the potential to welcome tourists who want to travel cultural. 16 temples or places of worship, 2 government offices, 1 market, 2 landmarks. Each should be improved to increase the potential of the paths. There should be improvements in the road landscape that is a connection to water traffic. Districts should have signage and signage installation within tourist sites and have guidelines for architectural improvements. And the Nodes should improve the public space of the community. Such as the Nonthaburi pier area to have the idea of designing a tourist center Provide information in both Thai and English.

Keywords: Community, Cultural, Ecotourism, Facility

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2178 Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal

Authors: Agatha Padma Laksitaningtyas, Sumiyati Gunawan


Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.

Keywords: bed load, sediment, irrigation, Mataram canal

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2177 Irrigation Potential Assessment for Eastern Ganga Canal, India Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Deepak Khare, Radha Krishan, Bhaskar Nikam


The present study deals with the results of the Ortho-rectified Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m resolution) satellite data analysis for the extraction of canal networks under the Eastern Ganga Canal (EGC) command. Based on the information derived through the remote sensing data, in terms of the number of canals, their physical status and hydraulic connectivity from the source, irrigation potential (IP) created in the command was assessed by comparing with planned/design canal-wise irrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in a geodatabase. The EGC project irrigates the command through one main canal, five branch canals, 36 distributaries and 186 minors. The study was conducted with the main objectives of inventory and mapping of irrigation infrastructure using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and field data. Likewise, the assessment of irrigation potential created using the mapped infrastructure was performed as on March 2017. Results revealed that the canals were not only pending but were also having gap/s, and hydraulically disconnected in each branch canal and also in minors of EGC. A total of 16622.3 ha of commands were left untouched with canal water just due to the presence of gaps in the EGC project. The sum of all the gaps present in minor canals was 11.92 km, while in distributary, it was 2.63 km. This is a very good scenario that balances IP can be achieved by working on the gaps present in minor canals. Filling the gaps in minor canals can bring most of the area under irrigation, especially the tail reaches command.

Keywords: canal command, GIS, hydraulic connectivity, irrigation potential

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2176 Analysis of the Impact of Suez Canal on the Robustness of Global Shipping Networks

Authors: Zimu Li, Zheng Wan


The Suez Canal plays an important role in global shipping networks and is one of the most frequently used waterways in the world. The 2021 canal obstruction by ship Ever Given in March 2021, however, completed blocked the Suez Canal for a week and caused significant disruption to world trade. Therefore, it is very important to quantitatively analyze the impact of the accident on the robustness of the global shipping network. However, the current research on maritime transportation networks is usually limited to local or small-scale networks in a certain region. Based on the complex network theory, this study establishes a global shipping complex network covering 2713 nodes and 137830 edges by using the real trajectory data of the global marine transport ship automatic identification system in 2018. At the same time, two attack modes, deliberate (Suez Canal Blocking) and random, are defined to calculate the changes in network node degree, eccentricity, clustering coefficient, network density, network isolated nodes, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality under the two attack modes, and quantitatively analyze the actual impact of Suez Canal Blocking on the robustness of global shipping network. The results of the network robustness analysis show that Suez Canal blocking was more destructive to the shipping network than random attacks of the same scale. The network connectivity and accessibility decreased significantly, and the decline decreased with the distance between the port and the canal, showing the phenomenon of distance attenuation. This study further analyzes the impact of the blocking of the Suez Canal on Chinese ports and finds that the blocking of the Suez Canal significantly interferes withChina's shipping network and seriously affects China's normal trade activities. Finally, the impact of the global supply chain is analyzed, and it is found that blocking the canal will seriously damage the normal operation of the global supply chain.

Keywords: global shipping networks, ship AIS trajectory data, main channel, complex network, eigenvalue change

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2175 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra


Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

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2174 Growth of Non-Polar a-Plane AlGaN Epilayer with High Crystalline Quality and Smooth Surface Morphology

Authors: Abbas Nasir, Xiong Zhang, Sohail Ahmad, Yiping Cui


Non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayers of high structural quality have been grown on r-sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer with variable aluminium concentration was used to improve the structural quality of the non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayer. The characterisations were carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD and AFM results demonstrate that the Al-composition-graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer significantly improved the crystalline quality and the surface morphology of the top layer. A low root mean square roughness 1.52 nm is obtained from AFM, and relatively low background carrier concentration down to 3.9×  cm-3 is obtained from Hall effect measurement.

Keywords: non-polar AlGaN epilayer, Al composition-graded AlGaN layer, root mean square, background carrier concentration

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2173 Root Biomass Growth in Different Growth Stages of Wheat and Barley Cultivars

Authors: H. Akman, A. Topal


This work was conducted in greenhouse conditions in order to investigate root biomass growth of two bread wheat, two durum wheat and two barley cultivars that were grown in irrigated and dry lands, respectively. This work was planned with four replications at a Completely Randomized Block Design in 2011-2012 growing season. In the study, root biomass growth was evaluated at stages of stem elongation, complete of anthesis and full grain maturity. Results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars grown at dry and irrigated lands in all growth stages in terms of root biomass (P < 0.01). According to research results, all of growth stages, dry typed-bread and durum wheats generally had higher root biomass than irrigated typed-cultivars, furthermore that dry typed-barley cultivar, had higher root biomass at GS 31 and GS 69, however lower at GS 92 than Larende. In all cultivars, root biomass increased between GS 31 and GS 69 so that dry typed-cultivars had more root biomass increase than irrigated typed-cultivars. Root biomass of bread wheat increased between GS 69 and GS 92, however root biomass of barley and durum wheat decreased.

Keywords: bread and durum wheat, barley, root biomass, different growth stage

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2172 The Dead Alexandrian Historic Vein: The Revitalization of Mahmoudiyah Canal 'The Forgotten Environmental Asset'

Authors: Sara S. Fouad, Omneya Messallam


In 1818, a seventy-five kilometer long canal was dug (called the Mahmoudiyah canal) connecting between Alexandria city in Egypt and the western branch of the Nile. It was a productive resource and vital to its environment, context, transportation, and recreation. It played a significant role in people’s lives and Alexandria city’s shape. The canal, which was the main vein of goods’ transporting from Alexandria’s seaport to the different parts of Egypt, was still in use today as a major source of clear water in the city. But nowadays, Mahmoudiyah canal is converting into ‘dead waterway’. The canal became sources of pollution as a result of solid and industrial waste thus causing many diseases, destroying communities and biodiversity, with urban invasion, the loss of community aesthetic value and healthy environment. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an urban strategy, as a solution to revive the forgotten canal, through recreating a cultural promenade on its shore. The main aim of this research is to formulate decent quality of life, unpolluted space, an area gathering the city space for nature, tourism and investments. As a case study, this paper investigates Mahmoudiyah canal through urban and ecological analyses, aiming to design an urban strategy for reviving it by creating a cultural promenade enriched with public spaces and green areas, which can most probably enhance the quality of life, city re-living and development. Community participation is also considered as vital and intrinsic implementation stage. The empirical research involved using several data assembly methods such as interviews, mental mapping, structural observations and questionnaires. The paper ends with a set of conclusions leading to proposals for the Mahmoudiyah canal revitalization considering the complex challenges and processes of sustainable regeneration focusing on city’s rehabilitation and lost identity.

Keywords: Mahmoudiyah canal, community aesthetic value, city re-living, cultural promenade

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2171 Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth

Authors: Priyakant Vaghela, Jagdish Prajapati


Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric spur gear tooth, G2 continuity, pressure angle, stress concentration at the root of tooth, tooth root stress

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2170 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul


The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

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2169 Assessment of Korea's Natural Gas Portfolio Considering Panama Canal Expansion

Authors: Juhan Kim, Jinsoo Kim


South Korea cannot import natural gas in any form other than LNG because of the division of South and North Korea. Further, the high proportion of natural gas in the national energy mix makes this resource crucial for energy security in Korea. Expansion of Panama Canal will allow for reducing the cost of shipping between the Far East and U.S East. Panama Canal expansion can have significant impacts on South Korea. Due to this situation, we review the natural gas optimal portfolio by considering the uniqueness of the Korean Natural gas market and expansion of Panama Canal. In order to assess Korea’s natural gas optimal portfolio, we developed natural gas portfolio model. The model comprises two steps. First, to obtain the optimal long-term spot contract ratio, the study examines the price level and the correlation between spot and long-term contracts by using the Markowitz, portfolio model. The optimal long-term spot contract ratio follows the efficient frontier of the cost/risk level related to this price level and degree of correlation. Second, by applying the obtained long-term contract purchase ratio as the constraint in the linear programming portfolio model, we determined the natural gas optimal import portfolio that minimizes total intangible and tangible costs. Using this model, we derived the optimal natural gas portfolio considering the expansion of Panama Canal. Based on these results, we assess the portfolio for natural gas import to Korea from the perspective of energy security and present some relevant policy proposals.

Keywords: natural gas, Panama Canal, portfolio analysis, South Korea

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2168 Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Root-End Filling Materials in Root-End Cavities Prepared by Er,Cr: YSGG Laser or Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Noushin Shokouhinejad, Hasan Razmi, Reza Fekrazad, Saeed Asgary, Ammar Neshati, Hadi Assadian, Sanam Kheirieh


This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, rooted cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er, Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using the ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P < 0.001). The bond strengths of MTA and NEC did not differ significantly. The failure modes were mainly adhesive for MTA, but cohesive for NEC. In conclusion, bond strengths of MTA and NEC to root-end cavities were comparable and higher in ultrasonically prepared cavities.

Keywords: bond strength, Er, Cr:YSGG laser, MTA, NEC, root-end cavity

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2167 Finite Element Method Analysis of Occluded-Ear Simulator and Natural Human Ear Canal

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hu, Y. Koike


In this paper, we discuss the propagation of sound in the narrow pathways of an occluded-ear simulator typically used for the measurement of insert-type earphones. The simulator has a standardized frequency response conforming to the international standard (IEC60318-4). In narrow pathways, the speed and phase of sound waves are modified by viscous air damping. In our previous paper, we proposed a new finite element method (FEM) to consider the effects of air viscosity in this type of audio equipment. In this study, we will compare the results from the ear simulator FEM model, and those from a three dimensional human ear canal FEM model made from computed tomography images, with the measured frequency response data from the ear canals of 18 people.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, viscosity, human ear canal

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2166 Human Errors in IT Services, HFACS Model in Root Cause Categorization

Authors: Kari Saarelainen, Marko Jantti


IT service trending of root causes of service incidents and problems is an important part of proactive problem management and service improvement. Human error related root causes are an important root cause category also in IT service management, although it’s proportion among root causes is smaller than in the other industries. The research problem in this study is: How root causes of incidents related to human errors should be categorized in an ITSM organization to effectively support service improvement. Categorization based on IT service management processes and based on Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was studied in a case study. HFACS is widely used in human error root cause categorization across many industries. Combining these two categorization models in a two dimensional matrix was found effective, yet impractical for daily work.

Keywords: IT service management, ITIL, incident, problem, HFACS, swiss cheese model

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2165 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath


Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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