Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 125

Search results for: inclination

125 Optimization of Copper-Water Negative Inclination Heat Pipe with Internal Composite Wick Structure

Authors: I. Brandys, M. Levy, K. Harush, Y. Haim, M. Korngold

Abstract:

Theoretical optimization of a copper-water negative inclination heat pipe with internal composite wick structure has been performed, regarding a new introduced parameter: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps of the composite wick. Since in many cases, the design of a heat pipe matches specific thermal requirements and physical limitations, this work demonstrates the optimization of a 1 m length, 8 mm internal diameter heat pipe without an adiabatic section, at a negative inclination angle of -10º. The optimization is based on a new introduced parameter, LR: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps.

Keywords: heat pipe, inclination, optimization, ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
124 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz

Abstract:

A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
123 Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3 / Kerosene under Magnetic Field

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Mansori, M. Ahmady, M. Zhaloyi

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to Kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.

Keywords: copper oscillating heat pipe, Fe2O3, magnetic field, inclination angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
122 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate-Inclined Column Connection

Authors: Rabab Allouzi, Amer Alkloub

Abstract:

As the complex shaped buildings become a popular trend for architects, this paper is presented to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete flat plate-inclined column connection. The studies on the inclined column and flat plate connections are not sufficient in comparison to those on the conventional structures. The effect of column angle of inclination on the punching shear strength is found significant and studied herein. This paper presents a non-linear finite element based modeling approach to estimate behavior of RC flat plate inclined column connection. Results from simulations of RC flat plate-straight column connection show good agreement with experimental response of specimens tested by other researchers. The model is further used to study the response of inclined columns to punching at various ranges of inclination angles. The inclination angle can be included in the punching shear strength provisions provided by ACI 318-14 to account for the effect of column inclination.

Keywords: punching shear, non-linear finite element, inclined columns, reinforced concrete connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
121 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef

Abstract:

The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: ball end milling, cutting forces, cutting parameters, residual stress, tool-workpiece inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
120 Autonomous Landing of UAV on Moving Platform: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mortez Alijani, Anas Osman

Abstract:

Recently, the popularity of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has skyrocketed amidst the unprecedented events and the global pandemic, as they play a key role in both the security and health sectors, through surveillance, taking test samples, transportation of crucial goods and spreading awareness among civilians. However, the process of designing and producing such aerial robots is suppressed by the internal and external constraints that pose serious challenges. Landing is one of the key operations during flight, especially, the autonomous landing of UAVs on a moving platform is a scientifically complex engineering problem. Typically having a successful automatic landing of UAV on a moving platform requires accurate localization of landing, fast trajectory planning, and robust control planning. To achieve these goals, the information about the autonomous landing process such as the intersection point, the position of platform/UAV and inclination angle are more necessary. In this study, the mathematical approach to this problem in the X-Y axis based on the inclination angle and position of UAV in the landing process have been presented. The experimental results depict the accurate position of the UAV, intersection between UAV and moving platform and inclination angle in the landing process, allowing prediction of the intersection point.

Keywords: autonomous landing, inclination angle, unmanned aerial vehicles, moving platform, X-Y axis, intersection point

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
119 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow inside Concentric Heat Exchanger Using Different Inlet Geometry Configurations

Authors: Mohamed M. Abo Elazm, Ali I. Shehata, Mohamed M. Khairat Dawood

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLUENT has been used to predict the fluid flow and heat transfer distribution within concentric heat exchangers. The effect of inlet inclination angle has been investigated with Reynolds number range (3000 – 4000) and Pr=0.71. The heat exchanger is fabricated from copper concentric inner tube with a length of 750 mm. The effects of hot to cold inlet flow rate ratio (MH/MC), Reynolds's number and of inlet inclination angle of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° are considered. The results showed that the numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental measurement. The results present an efficient design of concentric tube heat exchanger to enhance the heat transfer by increasing the swirling effect.

Keywords: heat transfer, swirling effect, CFD, inclination angle, concentric tube heat exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
118 Porous Bluff-Body Disc on Improving the Gas-Mixing Efficiency

Authors: Shun-Chang Yen, You-Lun Peng, Kuo-Ching San

Abstract:

A numerical study on a bluff-body structure with multiple holes was conducted using ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics analysis. The effects of the hole number and jet inclination angles were considered under a fixed gas flow rate and nonreactive gas. The bluff body with multiple holes can transform the axial momentum into a radial and tangential momentum as well as increase the swirl number (S). The concentration distribution in the mixing of a central carbon dioxide (CO2) jet and an annular air jet was utilized to analyze the mixing efficiency. Three bluff bodies with differing hole numbers (H = 3, 6, and 12) and three jet inclination angles (θ = 45°, 60°, and 90°) were designed for analysis. The Reynolds normal stress increases with the inclination angle. The Reynolds shear stress, average turbulence intensity, and average swirl number decrease with the inclination angle. For an unsymmetrical hole configuration (i.e., H = 3), the streamline patterns exhibited an unsymmetrical flow field. The highest mixing efficiency (i.e., the lowest integral gas fraction of CO2) occurred at H = 3. Furthermore, the highest swirl number coincided with the strongest effect on the mass fraction of CO2. Therefore, an unsymmetrical hole arrangement induced a high swirl flow behind the porous disc.

Keywords: bluff body with multiple holes, computational fluid dynamics, swirl-jet flow, mixing efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
117 Entropy Generation Analyze Due to the Steady Natural Convection of Newtonian Fluid in a Square Enclosure

Authors: T. T. Naas, Y. Lasbet, C. Kezrane

Abstract:

The thermal control in many systems is widely accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost, reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically. Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution. The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the inclination angle increases or decreases is found.

Keywords: natural convection in enclosure, inclined enclosure, Nusselt number, entropy generation analyze

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
116 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh

Abstract:

The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams shows the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle θ is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
115 Prediction of Turbulent Separated Flow in a Wind Tunel

Authors: Karima Boukhadia

Abstract:

In the present study, the subsonic flow in an asymmetrical diffuser was simulated numerically using code CFX 11.0 and its generator of grid ICEM CFD. Two models of turbulence were tested: K- ε and K- ω SST. The results obtained showed that the K- ε model singularly over-estimates the speed value close to the wall and that the K- ω SST model is qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results of Buice and Eaton 1997. They also showed that the separation and reattachment of the fluid on the tilted wall strongly depends on its angle of inclination and that the length of the zone of separation increases with the angle of inclination of the lower wall of the diffuser.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, separation, reattachment, tilt angle, separation zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
114 Numerical Study of a Nanofluid in a Truncated Cone

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
113 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
112 Grid Tied Photovoltaic Power on School Roof

Authors: Yeong-cheng Wang, Jin-Yinn Wang, Ming-Shan Lin, Jian-Li Dong

Abstract:

To universalize the adoption of sustainable energy, the R.O.C. government encourages public buildings to introduce the PV power station on the building roof, whereas most old buildings did not include the considerations of photovoltaic (PV) power facilities in the design phase. Several factors affect the PV electricity output, the temperature is the key one, different PV technologies have different temperature coefficients. Other factors like PV panel azimuth, panel inclination from the horizontal plane, and row to row distance of PV arrays, mix up at the beginning of system design. The goal of this work is to maximize the annual energy output of a roof mount PV system. Tables to simplify the design work are developed; the results can be used for engineering project quote directly.

Keywords: optimal inclination, array azimuth, annual output

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
111 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02 mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
110 A Comparative Study of Force Prediction Models during Static Bending Stage for 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending

Authors: Mahesh Chudasama, Harit Raval

Abstract:

Conical sections and shells of metal plates manufactured by 3-roller conical bending process are widely used in the industries. The process is completed by first bending the metal plates statically and then dynamic roller bending sequentially. It is required to have an analytical model to get maximum bending force, for optimum design of the machine, for static bending stage. Analytical models assuming various stress conditions are considered and these analytical models are compared considering various parameters and reported in this paper. It is concluded from the study that for higher bottom roller inclination, the shear stress affects greatly to the static bending force whereas for lower bottom roller inclination it can be neglected.

Keywords: roller-bending, static-bending, stress-conditions, analytical-modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
109 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee

Abstract:

The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
108 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: heat pipe, annular fins, natural convection, condenser heat transfer coefficient, tilt angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
107 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach

Abstract:

This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
106 Numerical Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer Performance in an Inclined Cavity: Nanofluid and Random Temperature

Authors: Hicham Salhi, Mohamed Si-Ameur, Nadjib Chafai

Abstract:

Natural convection of a nanofluid consisting of water and nanoparticles (Ag or TiO2) in an inclined enclosure cavity, has been studied numerically, heated by a (random temperature, based on the random function). The governing equations are solved numerically using the finite-volume. Results are presented in the form of streamlines, isotherms, and average Nusselt number. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to examine explicitly the volume fraction effects of nanoparticles (Ψ= 0.1, 0.2), the Rayleigh number (Ra=103, 104, 105, 106),the inclination angle of the cavity( égale à 0°, 30°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°), types of temperature (constant ,random), types of (NF) (Ag andTiO2). The results reveal that (NPs) addition remarkably enhances heat transfer in the cavity especially for (Ψ= 0.2). Besides, the effect of inclination angle and type of temperature is more pronounced at higher Rayleigh number.

Keywords: nanofluid, natural convection, inclined cavity, random temperature, finite-volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
105 Numerical Investigation of a Slightly Oblique Round Jet Flowing into a Uniform Counterflow Stream

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec

Abstract:

A counterflowing jet is a particular configuration of turbulent jets issuing into a moving ambient which has not carried much attention in literature compared with jet in a coflow or in a crossflow. This is due to the marked instability of the jet in a counterflow coupled with experimental and theoretical difficulties related to the flow inversion phenomenon. Nevertheless, jets in a counterflow are encountered in many engineering applications which required enhanced mixing as combustion, process and environmental engineering. In this work, we propose to investigate a round turbulent jet flowing into a uniform counterflow stream through a numerical approach. A hydrodynamic and thermal study of a slightly oblique round jets issuing into a uniform counterflow stream is carried out for different jet-to-counterflow velocity ratios ranging between 3.1 and 15. It is found that even a slight inclination of the jet in the vertical direction of the flow affects the structure and the velocity field of the counterflowing jet. In addition, the evolution of passive scalar temperature and pertinent length scales are presented at various velocity ratios, confirming that the flow is sensitive to directional perturbations.

Keywords: jet, counterflow, velocity, temperature, jet inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
104 Investigation of Building Loads Effect on the Stability of Slope

Authors: Hadj Brahim Mounia, Belhamel Farid, Souici Messoud

Abstract:

In big cities, construction on sloping land (landslide) is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flat lands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to the difficulties encountered during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. This paper analyses the effect of the number of floors of a building, founded on isolated footing on the stability of the slope using the computer code finite element PLAXIS 2D v. 8.2. The isolated footings of a building in this case were anchored in soil so that the levels of successive isolated footing realize a maximum slope of base of three for two heights, which connects the edges of the nearest footings, according to the Algerian building code DTR-BC 2.331: Shallow foundations. The results show that the embedment of the foundation into the soil reduces the value of the safety factor due to the change of the stress state of the soil by these foundations. The number of floors a building has also influences the safety factor. It has been noticed from this case of study that there is no risk of collapse of slopes for an inclination between 5° and 8°. In the case of slope inclination greater than 10° it has been noticed that the urbanization is prohibited.

Keywords: isolated footings, multi-storeys building, PLAXIS 2D, slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
103 Use of Vegetative Coverage for Slope Stability in the Brazilian Midwest: Case Study

Authors: Weber A. R. Souza, Andre A. N. Dantas, Marcio A. Medeiros, Rafaella F. Costa

Abstract:

The erosive processes are natural phenomena that cause changes in the soil continuously due to the actions of natural erosive agents and their speed can be intensified or retarded by factors such as climate, inclination, type of matrix rock, vegetation and anthropic activities, the latter being very relevant in occupied areas without planning and urban infrastructure. Inadequate housing sites associated with an inefficient urban drainage network and lack of vegetation cover potentiate the erosive processes that, over time, are gaining alarming proportions, as is the case of the erosion in Planaltina in Federal district, a Brazilian state in the central west. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the use of Vetiver grass and Alfalfa as vegetation cover to slope protection. For that, a study was carried out in the scientific literature about the improvement of the soil properties provided by them and verification of the safety factor through the simulation of slopes with different heights and inclination using SLOPE / W software. The Vetiver grass presented little more satisfactory results than the Alfalfa, but these obtained results slightly closer to that of the vetiver grass in less time of planting.

Keywords: erosive processes, planting, slope protection, vegetation cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
102 Tropical Squall Lines in Brazil: A Methodology for Identification and Analysis Based on ISCCP Tracking Database

Authors: W. A. Gonçalves, E. P. Souza, C. R. Alcântara

Abstract:

The ISCCP-Tracking database offers an opportunity to study physical and morphological characteristics of Convective Systems based on geostationary meteorological satellites. This database contains 26 years of tracking of Convective Systems for the entire globe. Then, Tropical Squall Lines which occur in Brazil are certainly within the database. In this study, we propose a methodology for identification of these systems based on the ISCCP-Tracking database. A physical and morphological characterization of these systems is also shown. The proposed methodology is firstly based on the year of 2007. The Squall Lines were subjectively identified by visually analyzing infrared images from GOES-12. Based on this identification, the same systems were identified within the ISCCP-Tracking database. It is known, and it was also observed that the Squall Lines which occur on the north coast of Brazil develop parallel to the coast, influenced by the sea breeze. In addition, it was also observed that the eccentricity of the identified systems was greater than 0.7. Then, a methodology based on the inclination (based on the coast) and eccentricity (greater than 0.7) of the Convective Systems was applied in order to identify and characterize Tropical Squall Lines in Brazil. These thresholds were applied back in the ISCCP-Tracking database for the year of 2007. It was observed that other systems, which were not Squall Lines, were also identified. Then, we decided to call all systems identified by the inclination and eccentricity thresholds as Linear Convective Systems, instead of Squall Lines. After this step, the Linear Convective Systems were identified and characterized for the entire database, from 1983 to 2008. The physical and morphological characteristics of these systems were compared to those systems which did not have the required inclination and eccentricity to be called Linear Convective Systems. The results showed that the convection associated with the Linear Convective Systems seems to be more intense and organized than in the other systems. This affirmation is based on all ISCCP-Tracking variables analyzed. This type of methodology, which explores 26 years of satellite data by an objective analysis, was not previously explored in the literature. The physical and morphological characterization of the Linear Convective Systems based on 26 years of data is of a great importance and should be used in many branches of atmospheric sciences.

Keywords: squall lines, convective systems, linear convective systems, ISCCP-Tracking

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101 The Failure and Energy Mechanism of Rock-Like Material with Single Flaw

Authors: Yu Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates the influence of flaw on failure process of rock-like material under uniaxial compression. In laboratory, the uniaxial compression tests of intact specimens and a series of specimens within single flaw were conducted. The inclination angle of flaws includes 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°. Based on the laboratory tests, the corresponding models of numerical simulation were built and loaded in PFC2D. After analysing the crack initiation and failure modes, deformation field, and energy mechanism for both laboratory tests and numerical simulation, it can be concluded that the influence of flaws on the failure process is determined by its inclination. The characteristic stresses increase as flaw angle rising basically. The tensile cracks develop from gentle flaws (α ≤ 30°) and the shear cracks develop from other flaws. The propagation of cracks changes during failure process and the failure mode of a specimen corresponds to the orientation of the flaw. A flaw has significant influence on the transverse deformation field at the middle of the specimen, except the 75° and 90° flaw sample. The input energy, strain energy and dissipation energy of specimens show approximate increase trends with flaw angle rising and it presents large difference on the energy distribution.

Keywords: failure pattern, particle deformation field, energy mechanism, PFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
100 Three-Dimensional Unsteady Natural Convection and Entropy Generation in an Inclined Cubical Trapezoidal Cavity Subjected to Uniformly Heated Bottom Wall

Authors: Farshid Fathinia

Abstract:

Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers are presented and discussed.While, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low.Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

Keywords: transient natural convection, trapezoidal cavity, three-dimensional flow, entropy generation, second law

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
99 Downhole Logging and Dynamics Data Resolving Lithology-Related Drilling Behavior

Authors: Christopher Viens, Steve Krase

Abstract:

Terms such as “riding a hard streak”, “formation push”, and “fighting formation” are commonly used in the directional drilling world to explain BHA behavior that causes unwanted trajectory change. Theories about downhole directional tendencies are commonly speculated from various personal experiences with little merit due to the lack of hard data to reveal the actual mechanisms behind the phenomenon, leaving interpretation of the root cause up to personal perception. Understanding and identifying in real time the lithological factors that influence the BHA to change or hold direction adds tremendous value in terms reducing sliding time and targeting zones for optimal ROP. Utilizing surface drilling parameters and employing downhole measurements of azimuthal gamma, continuous inclination, and bending moment, a direct measure of the rock related directional phenomenon have been captured and quantified. Furthermore, identifying continuous zones of like lithology with consistent bit to rock interaction has value from a reservoir characterization and completions standpoint. The paper will show specific examples of lithology related directional tendencies from the Spraberry and Wolfcamp in the Delaware Basin.

Keywords: Azimuthal gamma imaging, bending moment, continuous inclination, downhole dynamics measurements, high frequency data

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
98 Chip Morphology and Cutting Forces Investigation in Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, L. Boulanouar, G. List, G. Sutter

Abstract:

The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 m / min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. In these experiments, the chip shape was systematically investigated at each cutting conditions using optical microscopy. The chips produced were collected and polished to measure the thicknesses t2max and t2min, dch the distance between each segments and ɸseg the inclination angle As described in the introduction part, the shear angle f and the inclination angle of a segment ɸseg are differentiated. The angle ɸseg is actually measured on the collected chips while the shear angle f cannot be. The angle ɸ represents the initial shear similar to the one that describes the formation of a continuous chip in the primary shear zone. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: dry high speed, orthogonal turning, chip formation, cutting speed, cutting forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
97 Resilience Assessment for Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Berna Eren Tokgoz, Mahdi Safa, Seokyon Hwang

Abstract:

Power distribution systems are essential and crucial infrastructures for the development and maintenance of a sustainable society. These systems are extremely vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The assessment of resilience focuses on preparedness and mitigation actions under pre-disaster conditions. It also concentrates on response and recovery actions under post-disaster situations. The aim of this study is to present a methodology to assess the resilience of electric power distribution poles against wind-related events. The proposed methodology can improve the accuracy and rapidity of the evaluation of the conditions and the assessment of the resilience of poles. The methodology provides a metric for the evaluation of the resilience of poles under pre-disaster and post-disaster conditions. The metric was developed using mathematical expressions for physical forces that involve various variables, such as physical dimensions of the pole, the inclination of the pole, and wind speed. A three-dimensional imaging technology (photogrammetry) was used to determine the inclination of poles. Based on expert opinion, the proposed metric was used to define zones to visualize resilience. Visual representation of resilience is helpful for decision makers to prioritize their resources before and after experiencing a wind-related disaster. Multiple electric poles in the City of Beaumont, TX were used in a case study to evaluate the proposed methodology.  

Keywords: photogrammetry, power distribution systems, resilience metric, system resilience, wind-related disasters

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96 Linear Stability Analysis of a Regularized Two-Fluid Model for Unstable Gas-Liquid Flows in Long Hilly Terrain Pipelines

Authors: David Alejandro Lazo-Vasquez, Jorge Luis Balino

Abstract:

In the petroleum industry, multiphase flow occurs when oil, gas, and water are transported in the same pipe through large pipeline systems. The flow can take different patterns depending on parameters like fluid velocities, pipe diameter, pipe inclination, and fluid properties. Mainly, intermittent flow is produced by the natural propagation of short and long waves, according to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Stability Theory. To model stratified flow and the onset of intermittent flow, it is crucial to have knowledge of short and long waves behavior. The two-fluid model, frequently employed for characterizing multiphase systems, becomes ill-posed for high liquid and gas velocities and large inclination angles, for short waves can develop infinite growth rates. We are interested in focusing attention on long-wave instability, which leads to the production of roll waves that may grow and result in the transition from stratified flow to intermittent flow. In this study, global and local linear stability analyses for dynamic and kinematic stability criteria predict the regions of stability of the flow for different pipe inclinations and fluid velocities in regularized and non-regularized systems, concurrently. It was possible to distinguish when: wave growth rates are absolutely bounded (stable stratified smooth flow), waves have finite growth rates (unstable stratified wavy flow), and when the equation system becomes elliptic and hyperbolization is needed. In order to bound short wave growth rates and regularize the equation system, we incorporated some lower and higher-order terms like interfacial drag and surface tension, respectively.

Keywords: linear stability analysis, multiphase flow, onset of slugging, two-fluid model regularization

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