Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8290

Search results for: number of blades

8290 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius type wind turbine, number of blades, renewable energy, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
8289 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
8288 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
8287 Design and Analysis of Blade Length and Number of Blades of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Ali Gul, Bhart Kumar, Samiullah Ansari

Abstract:

The current research is focused on the study of various lengths of blades (i.e. 1 to 5m) and several bladed rotors (3,5,7 & 9) of small horizontal axis wind turbine under low wind conditions usingQBlade software. Initially, the rotor was designed using airfoil SG6043 with five different lengths of the blades. Subsequently, simulations were carried out in which, under low wind regimes, the power output was observed. Further, four rotors having 3,5,7 & 9 blades were analyzed. However, the most promising coefficient of performance (CP) was observed at the 3-bladed rotor. Both studies established a clear view of harvesting wind energy at low wind speeds that can be mobilized in the energy sector. That suggests the utilization of wind energy at the domestic levelwhich is acceleratory growing in the last few decades.

Keywords: small HAWT, QBlade, BEM, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
8286 Environmental Impacts on the Appearance of Disbonds in Metal Rotor Blades of Mi-2 Helicopters

Authors: Piotr Synaszko, Michał Sałaciński, Andrzej Leski

Abstract:

This paper describes the analysis of construction Mi-2 helicopter rotor blades in order to determine the causes of appearance disbonds. Authors describe construction of rotor blade with impact on bonded joins and areas of water migration. They also made analysis which determines possibility of disbond between critical parts of rotor blades based on more than one hundred non-destructive inspections results. They showed which parts of the blades most likely to damage. The main source of damage is water presence.

Keywords: disbonds, environmental effect, helicopter rotor blades, service life extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
8285 Improvement of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion Resistances of Turbine Blades Using Laser Cladding

Authors: Sami I. Jafar, Sami A. Ajeel, Zaman A. Abdulwahab

Abstract:

The turbine blades used in electric power plants are made of low alloy steel type 52. These blades will be subjected to fatigue and also at other times to fatigue corrosion with aging time. Due to their continuous exposure to cyclic rotational stresses in corrosive steam environments, The current research aims to deal with this problem using the laser cladding method for low alloy steel type 52, which works to re-compose the metallurgical structure and improve the mechanical properties by strengthening the resulting structure, which leads to an increase in fatigue and wears resistance, therefore, an increase in the life of these blades is observed.

Keywords: fatigue, fatigue corrosion, turbine blades, laser cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
8284 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
8283 Analyzing the Feasibility of Low-Cost Composite Wind Turbine Blades for Residential Energy Production

Authors: Aravindhan Nepolean, Chidamabaranathan Bibin, Rajesh K., Gopinath S., Ashok Kumar R., Arun Kumar S., Sadasivan N.

Abstract:

Wind turbine blades are an important parameter for surging renewable energy production. Optimizing blade profiles and developing new materials for wind turbine blades take a lot of time and effort. Even though many standards for wind turbine blades have been developed for large-scale applications, they are not more effective in small-scale applications. We used acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene to make small-scale wind turbine blades in this study (ABS). We chose the material because it is inexpensive and easy to machine into the desired form. They also have outstanding chemical, stress, and creep resistance. The blade measures 332 mm in length and has a 664 mm rotor diameter. A modal study of blades is carried out, as well as a comparison with current e-glass fiber. They were able to balance the output with less vibration, according to the findings. Q blade software is used to simulate rotating output. The modal analysis testing and prototype validation of wind turbine blades were used for experimental validation.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, e-glass fiber, modal, renewable energy, q-blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
8282 Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C-Section Blades

Authors: K. Youssef, Ç. Hüseyin

Abstract:

The blades of a wind turbine have the most important job of any wind turbine component; they must capture the wind and convert it into usable mechanical energy. The objective of this work is to determine the mechanical power of single big C-section of vertical wind turbine for wind car in a two-dimensional model. The wind car has a vertical axis with 3 single big C-section blades mounted at an angle of 120°. Moreover, the three single big C-section blades are directly connected to wheels by using various kinds of links. Gears are used to convert the wind energy to mechanical energy to overcome the load exercised on the main shaft under low speed. This work allowed a comparison of drag characteristics and the mechanical power between the single big C-section blades with the previous work on 3 C-section and 3 double C-section blades for wind car. As a result obtained from the flow chart the torque and power curves of each case study are illustrated and compared with each other. In particular, drag force and torque acting on each types of blade was taken at an airflow speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 13.056 rad/s.

Keywords: blade, vertical wind turbine, drag characteristics, mechanical power

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
8281 Numerical Investigation and Optimization of the Effect of Number of Blade and Blade Type on the Suction Pressure and Outlet Mass Flow Rate of a Centrifugal Fan

Authors: Ogan Karabas, Suleyman Yigit

Abstract:

Number of blade and blade type of centrifugal fans are the most decisive factor on the field of application, noise level, suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate. Nowadays, in order to determine these effects on centrifugal fans, numerical studies are carried out in addition to experimental studies. In this study, it is aimed to numerically investigate the changes of suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate values of a centrifugal fan according to the number of blade and blade type. Centrifugal fans of the same size with forward, backward and straight blade type were analyzed by using a simulation program and compared with each other. This analysis was carried out under steady state condition by selecting k-Ɛ turbulence model and air is assumed incompressible. Then, 16, 32 and 48 blade centrifugal fans were again analyzed by using same simulation program, and the optimum number of blades was determined for the suction pressure and the outlet mass flow rate. According to the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the suction pressure in the 32 blade fan was twice the value obtained in the 16 blade fan. In addition, the outlet mass flow rate increased by 45% with the increase in the number of blade from 16 to 32. There is no significant change observed on the suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate when the number of blades increased from 32 to 48. In the light of the analysis results, the optimum blade number was determined as 32.

Keywords: blade type, centrifugal fan, cfd, outlet mass flow rate, suction pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
8280 Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Methods for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: E. Tandis, E. Assareh

Abstract:

Designing the optimal shape of MW wind turbine blades is provided in a number of cases through evolutionary algorithms associated with mathematical modeling (Blade Element Momentum Theory). Evolutionary algorithms, among the optimization methods, enjoy many advantages, particularly in stability. However, they usually need a large number of function evaluations. Since there are a large number of local extremes, the optimization method has to find the global extreme accurately. The present paper introduces a new population-based hybrid algorithm called Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm (GBBA). This algorithm is meant to design the optimal shape for MW wind turbine blades. The current method employs crossover and neighborhood searching operators taken from the respective Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Bees Algorithm (BA) to provide a method with good performance in accuracy and speed convergence. Different blade designs, twenty-one to be exact, were considered based on the chord length, twist angle and tip speed ratio using GA results. They were compared with BA and GBBA optimum design results targeting the power coefficient and solidity. The results suggest that the final shape, obtained by the proposed hybrid algorithm, performs better compared to either BA or GA. Furthermore, the accuracy and speed convergence increases when the GBBA is employed

Keywords: Blade Design, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Bees Algorithm, Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm, Large Wind Turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
8279 Linear Dynamic Stability Analysis of a Continuous Rotor-Disk-Blades System

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, S. E. Khadem, S. Bab, M. Najafee

Abstract:

Nowadays, using rotating systems like shafts and disks in industrial machines have been increased constantly. Dynamic stability is one of the most important factors in designing rotating systems. In this study, linear frequencies and stability of a coupled continuous flexible rotor-disk-blades system are studied. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is utilized to model the blade and shaft. The equations of motion are extracted using the extended Hamilton principle. The equations of motion have been simplified using the Coleman and complex transformations method. The natural frequencies of the linear part of the system are extracted, and the effects of various system parameters on the natural frequencies and decay rates (stability condition) are clarified. It can be seen that the centrifugal stiffening effect applied to the blades is the most important parameter for stability of the considered rotating system. This result highlights the importance of considering this stiffing effect in blades equation.

Keywords: rotating shaft, flexible blades, centrifugal stiffness, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
8278 Model the Off-Shore Ocean-Sea Waves to Generate Electric Power by Design of a Converting Device

Authors: Muthana A. M. Jameel Al-Jaboori

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present a mathematical model to design a system able to generate electricity from ocean-sea waves. We will use the basic principles of the transfer of the energy potential of waves in a chamber to force the air inside a vertical or inclined cylindrical column, which is topped by a wind turbine to rotate the electric generator. The present mathematical model included a high number of variables such as the wave, height, width, length, velocity, and frequency, as well as others for the energy cylindrical column, like varying diameters and heights, and the wave chamber shape diameter and height. While for the wells wind turbine the variables included the number of blades, length, width, and clearance, as well as the rotor and tip radius. Additionally, the turbine rotor and blades must be made from the light and strong material for a smooth blade surface. The variables were too vast and high in number. Then the program was run successfully within the MATLAB and presented very good modeling results.

Keywords: water wave, models, Wells turbine, MATLAB program

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8277 Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Seung Ki Lee, Richard Kyung

Abstract:

In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.

Keywords: blades, drag force, national advisory committee for aeronautics airfoils, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
8276 Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case

Authors: S. Bennoud, S. Hocine, H. Slme

Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets. Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation. The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling. The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Keywords: brayton cycle, turbine blades cooling, turbojet cycle, turbojet performances

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
8275 Calculating of the Heat Exchange in a Rotating Pipe: Application to the Cooling of Turbine Blades

Authors: A. Miloud

Abstract:

In this work, the results of numerical simulations of the turbulent flow with 3D heat transfer are presented for the case of two U-shaped channels and rotating rectangular section. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of the corrugated walls of the heated portion on the improved cooling, in particular the influence of the wavelength. The calculations were performed for a Reynolds number ranging from 10 000 to 100 000, two values of the number of rotation (Ro = 0.0 to 0.14) and a ratio of the restricted density to 0.13. In these simulations, ANSYS FLUENT code was used to solve the Reynolds equations expressing relations between different fields averaged variables over time. Model performance k-omega SST model and RSM are evaluated through a comparison of the numerical results for each model and the experimental and numerical data available. In this work, detailed average temperature predictions, the scope of the secondary flow and distributions of local Nusselt are presented. It turns out that the corrugated configuration further urges the heat exchange provided to reduce the velocity of the coolant inside the channel.

Keywords: cooling blades, corrugated walls, model k-omega SST and RSM, fluent code, rotation effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
8274 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

Abstract:

A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
8273 Numerical Simulation of Aeroelastic Influence Exerted by Kinematic and Geometrical Parameters on Oscillations' Frequencies and Phase Shift Angles in a Simulated Compressor of Gas Transmittal Unit

Authors: Liliia N. Butymova, Vladimir Y. Modorsky, Nikolai A. Shevelev

Abstract:

Prediction of vibration processes in gas transmittal units (GTU) is an urgent problem. Despite numerous scientific publications on the problem of vibrations in general, there are not enough works concerning FSI-modeling interaction processes between several deformable blades in gas-dynamic flow. Since it is very difficult to solve the problem in full scope, with all factors considered, a unidirectional dynamic coupled 1FSI model is suggested for use at the first stage, which would include, from symmetry considerations, two blades, which might be considered as the first stage of solving more general bidirectional problem. ANSYS CFX programmed multi-processor was chosen as a numerical computation tool. The problem was solved on PNRPU high-capacity computer complex. At the first stage of the study, blades were believed oscillating with the same frequency, although oscillation phases could be equal and could be different. At that non-stationary gas-dynamic forces distribution over the blades surfaces is calculated in run of simulation experiment. Oscillations in the “gas — structure” dynamic system are assumed to increase if the resultant of these gas-dynamic forces is in-phase with blade oscillation, and phase shift (φ=0). Provided these oscillation occur with phase shift, then oscillations might increase or decrease, depending on the phase shift value. The most important results are as follows: the angle of phase shift in inter-blade oscillation and the gas-dynamic force depends on the flow velocity, the specific inter-blade gap, and the shaft rotation speed; a phase shift in oscillation of adjacent blades does not always correspond to phase shift of gas-dynamic forces affecting the blades. Thus, it was discovered, that asynchronous oscillation of blades might cause either attenuation or intensification of oscillation. It was revealed that clocking effect might depend not only on the mutual circumferential displacement of blade rows and the gap between the blades, but also on the blade dynamic deformation nature.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, ANSYS CFX, oscillation, phase shift, clocking effect, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
8272 Rotor Concepts for the Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan

Authors: Christoph Speer

Abstract:

Decentralized ventilation systems should combine a small and economical design with high aerodynamic and thermal efficiency. The Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan (CHRF) provides the ability to meet these requirements by using only one cross flow fan with a large number of blades to generate both airflows and which simultaneously acts as a regenerative counter flow heat exchanger. The successful development of the first laboratory prototype has shown the potential of this ventilation system. Occurring condensate on the surfaces of the fan blades during the cold and dry season can be recovered through the characteristic mode of operation. Hence the CHRF provides the possibility to avoid the need for frost protection and condensate drain. Through the implementation of system-specific solutions for flow balancing and summer bypass the required functionality is assured. The scalability of the CHRF concept allows the use in renovation as well as in new buildings from single-room devices through to systems for office buildings. High aerodynamic and thermal efficiency and the lower number of required mechatronic components should enable a reduction in investment as well as operating costs. The rotor is the key component of the system, the requirements and possible implementation variants are presented.

Keywords: CHRF, counter flow heat recovery fan, decentralized ventilation system, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
8271 A Theoretical Approach of Tesla Pump

Authors: Cristian Sirbu-Dragomir, Stefan-Mihai Sofian, Adrian Predescu

Abstract:

This paper aims to study Tesla pumps for circulating biofluids. It is desired to make a small pump for the circulation of biofluids. This type of pump will be studied because it has the following characteristics: It doesn’t have blades which results in very small frictions; Reduced friction forces; Low production cost; Increased adaptability to different types of fluids; Low cavitation (towards 0); Low shocks due to lack of blades; Rare maintenance due to low cavity; Very small turbulences in the fluid; It has a low number of changes in the direction of the fluid (compared to rotors with blades); Increased efficiency at low powers.; Fast acceleration; The need for a low torque; Lack of shocks in blades at sudden starts and stops. All these elements are necessary to be able to make a small pump that could be inserted into the thoracic cavity. The pump will be designed to combat myocardial infarction. Because the pump must be inserted in the thoracic cavity, elements such as Low friction forces, shocks as low as possible, low cavitation and as little maintenance as possible are very important. The operation should be performed once, without having to change the rotor after a certain time. Given the very small size of the pump, the blades of a classic rotor would be very thin and sudden starts and stops could cause considerable damage or require a very expensive material. At the same time, being a medical procedure, the low cost is important in order to be easily accessible to the population. The lack of turbulence or vortices caused by a classic rotor is again a key element because when it comes to blood circulation, the flow must be laminar and not turbulent. The turbulent flow can even cause a heart attack. Due to these aspects, Tesla's model could be ideal for this work. Usually, the pump is considered to reach an efficiency of 40% being used for very high powers. However, the author of this type of pump claimed that the maximum efficiency that the pump can achieve is 98%. The key element that could help to achieve this efficiency or one as close as possible is the fact that the pump will be used for low volumes and pressures. The key elements to obtain the best efficiency for this model are the number of rotors placed in parallel and the distance between them. The distance between them must be small, which helps to obtain a pump as small as possible. The principle of operation of such a rotor is to place in several parallel discs cut inside. Thus the space between the discs creates the vacuum effect by pulling the liquid through the holes in the rotor and throwing it outwards. Also, a very important element is the viscosity of the liquid. It dictates the distance between the disks to achieve a lossless power flow.

Keywords: lubrication, temperature, tesla-pump, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
8270 Fracture Energy Corresponding to the Puncture/Cutting of Nitrile Rubber by Pointed Blades

Authors: Ennouri Triki, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

Resistance to combined puncture/cutting by pointed blades is an important property of gloves materials. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach derived from the fracture mechanics theory to calculate the fracture energy associated to the puncture/cutting of nitrile rubber. The proposed approach is also based on the application of a sample pre-strained during the puncture/cutting test in order to remove the contribution of friction. It was validated with two different pointed blade angles of 22.5° and 35°. Results show that the applied total fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting is controlled by three energies, one is the fracture energy or the intrinsic strength of the material, the other reflects the friction energy between a pointed blade and the material. For an applied pre-strain energy (or tearing energy) of high value, the friction energy is completely removed. Without friction, the total fracture energy is constant. In that case, the fracture contribution of the tearing energy is marginal. Growth of the crack is thus completely caused by the puncture/cutting by a pointed blade. Finally, results suggest that the value of the fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting by pointed blades is obtained at a frictional contribution of zero.

Keywords: elastomer, energy, fracture, friction, pointed blades

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
8269 Reusing of HSS Hacksaw Blades as Rough Machining Tool

Authors: Raja V., Chokkalingam B.

Abstract:

For rough cutting, in many industries and educational institutions using carbon steels or HSS single point cutting tools in center lathe machine. In power hacksaw blades, only the cutter teeth region used to parting off the given material. The portions other than the teeth can be used as a single point cutting tool for rough turning and facing on soft materials. The hardness and Tensile strength of this used Power hacksaw blade is almost same as conventional cutting tools. In this paper, the effect of power hacksaw blades over conventional tool has been compared. Thickness of the blade (1.6 mm) is very small compared to its length and width. Hence, a special tool holding device is designed to hold the tool.

Keywords: hardness, high speed steels, power hacksaw blade, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
8268 Experimental Study of Particle Deposition on Leading Edge of Turbine Blade

Authors: Yang Xiao-Jun, Yu Tian-Hao, Hu Ying-Qi

Abstract:

Breathing in foreign objects during the operation of the aircraft engine, impurities in the aircraft fuel and products of incomplete combustion can produce deposits on the surface of the turbine blades. These deposits reduce not only the turbine's operating efficiency but also the life of the turbine blades. Based on the small open wind tunnel, the simulation of deposits on the leading edge of the turbine has been carried out in this work. The effect of film cooling on particulate deposition was investigated. Based on the analysis, the adhesive mechanism for the molten pollutants’ reaching to the turbine surface was simulated by matching the Stokes number, TSP (a dimensionless number characterizing particle phase transition) and Biot number of the test facility and that of the real engine. The thickness distribution and growth trend of the deposits have been observed by high power microscope and infrared camera under different temperature of the main flow, the solidification temperature of the particulate objects, and the blowing ratio. The experimental results from the leading edge particulate deposition demonstrate that the thickness of the deposition increases with time until a quasi-stable thickness is reached, showing a striking effect of the blowing ratio on the deposition. Under different blowing ratios, there exists a large difference in the thickness distribution of the deposition, and the deposition is minimal at the specific blow ratio. In addition, the temperature of main flow and the solidification temperature of the particulate have a great influence on the deposition.

Keywords: deposition, experiment, film cooling, leading edge, paraffin particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8267 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen

Abstract:

With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Reinforced fibre composite, Wind turbine blades, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode, Stochastic process.

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
8266 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
8265 Mistuning in Radial Inflow Turbines

Authors: Valentina Futoryanova, Hugh Hunt

Abstract:

One of the common failure modes of the diesel engine turbochargers is high cycle fatigue of the turbine wheel blades. Mistuning of the blades due to the casting process is believed to contribute to the failure mode. Laser vibrometer is used to characterize mistuning for a population of turbine wheels through the analysis of the blade response to piezo speaker induced noise. The turbine wheel design under investigation is radial and is typically used in 6-12 L diesel engine applications. Amplitudes and resonance frequencies are reviewed and summarized. The study also includes test results for a paddle wheel that represents a perfectly tuned system and acts as a reference. Mass spring model is developed for the paddle wheel and the model suitability is tested against the actual data. Randomization is applied to the stiffness matrix to model the mistuning effect in the turbine wheels. Experimental data is shown to have good agreement with the model.

Keywords: vibration, radial turbines, mistuning, turbine blades, modal analysis, periodic structures, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
8264 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
8263 Evaluation of an Air Energy Recovery System in Greenhouse Fed by an Axial Air Extractor

Authors: Eugueni Romantchik, Gilbero Lopez, Diego Terrazas

Abstract:

The residual wind energy recovery from axial air extractors in greenhouses represents a constant source of clean energy production, which reduces production costs by reducing energy consumption costs. The objective of this work is to design, build and evaluate a residual wind energy recovery system. This system consists of a wind turbine placed at an optimal distance, a cone in the air discharge and a mechanism to vary the blades angle of the wind turbine. The system energy balance was analyzed, measuring the main energy parameters such as voltage, amperage, air velocities and angular speeds of the rotors. Tests were carried in a greenhouse with extractor Multifan 130 (1.2 kW, 550 rpm and 1.3 m of diameter) without cone and with cone, with the wind turbine (3 blades with 1.2 m in diameter). The implementation of the system allowed recovering up to 55% of the motor's energy. With the cone installed, the electric energy recovered was increased by 10%. Experimentally, it was shown that changing in 3 degrees the original angle of the wind turbine blades, the angular velocity increases 17.7%.

Keywords: air energy, exhaust fan, greenhouse, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
8262 Wax Patterns for Integrally Cast Rotors/Stators of Aeroengine Gas Turbines

Authors: Pradyumna R., Sridhar S., A. Satyanarayana, Alok S. Chauhan, Baig M. A. H.

Abstract:

Modern turbine engines for aerospace applications need precision investment cast components such as integrally cast rotors and stators, for their hot end turbine stages. Traditionally, these turbines are used as starter engines. In recent times, such engines are also used for strategic missile applications. The rotor/stator castings consist of a central hub (shrouded in some designs) over which a number of aerofoil shaped blades are located. Since these components cannot be machined, investment casting is the only available route for manufacture and hence stringent dimensional aerospace quality has to be in-built in the casting process itself. In the process of investment casting, pattern generation by injection of wax into dedicated dies/moulds is the first critical step. Traditional approach deals in producing individual blades with hub/shroud features through wax injection and assembly of a set of such injected patterns onto a dedicated and precisely manufactured fixture to wax-weld and generate an integral wax pattern, a process known as the ‘segmental approach’. It is possible to design a single-injection die with retractable metallic inserts in the case of untwisted blades of stator patterns without the shroud. Such an approach is also possible for twisted blades of rotors with highly complex design of inter-blade inserts and retraction mechanisms. DMRL has for long established methods and procedures for the above to successfully supply precision castings for various defence related projects. In recent times, urea based soluble insert approach has also been successfully applied to overcome the need to design and manufacture a precision assembly fixture, leading to substantial reduction in component development times. Present paper deals in length various approaches tried and established at DMRL to generate precision wax patterns for aerospace quality turbine rotors and stators. In addition to this, the importance of simulation in solving issues related to wax injection is also touched upon.

Keywords: die/mold and fixtures, integral rotor/stator, investment casting, wax patterns, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
8261 Numerical Aeroacoustics Investigation of Eroded and Coated Leading Edge of NACA 64- 618 Airfoil

Authors: Zeinab Gharibi, B. Stoevesandt, J. Peinke

Abstract:

Long term surface erosion of wind turbine blades, especially at the leading edge, impairs aerodynamic performance; therefore, lowers efficiency of the blades mostly in the high-speed rotor tip regions. Blade protection provides significant improvements in annual energy production, reduces costly downtime, and protects the integrity of the blades. However, this protection still influences the aerodynamic behavior, and broadband noise caused by interaction between the impinging turbulence and blade’s leading edge. This paper presents an extensive numerical aeroacoustics approach by investigating the sound power spectra of the eroded and coated NACA 64-618 wind turbine airfoil and evaluates aeroacoustics improvements after the protection procedure. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), different quasi 2D numerical grids were implemented and special attention was paid to the refinement of the boundary layers. The noise sources were captured and decoupled with acoustic propagation via the derived formulation of Curle’s analogy implemented in OpenFOAM. Therefore, the noise spectra were compared for clean, coated and eroded profiles in the range of chord-based Reynolds number (1.6e6 ≤ Re ≤ 11.5e6). Angle of attack was zero in all cases. Verifications were conducted for the clean profile using available experimental data. Sensitivity studies for the far-field were done on different observational positions. Furthermore, beamforming studies were done simulating an Archimedean spiral microphone array for far-field noise directivity patterns. Comparing the noise spectra of the coated and eroded geometries, results show that, coating clearly improves aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the eroded airfoil.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, leading edge, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 132