Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3670

Search results for: operating hours

3670 A Study on the Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Bhaven N. Tandel, Athira Rajeev


Sequencing batch reactor process is a suspended growth process operating under non-steady state conditions which utilizes a fill and draw reactor with complete mixing during the batch reaction step (after filling) and where the subsequent steps of aeration and clarification occur in the same tank. All sequencing batch reactor systems have five steps in common, which are carried out in sequence as follows, (1) fill (2) react (3) settle (sedimentation/clarification) (4) draw (decant) and (5) idle. The study was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor of dimensions 44cmx30cmx70cm with a working volume of 40 L. Mechanical stirrer of 100 rpm was used to provide continuous mixing in the react period and oxygen was supplied by fish tank aerators. The duration of a complete cycle of sequencing batch reactor was 8 hours. The cycle period was divided into different phases in sequence as follows-0.25 hours fill phase, 6 hours react period, 1 hour settling phase, 0.5 hours decant period and 0.25 hours idle phase. The study consisted of two runs, run 1 and run 2. Run 1 consisted of 6 hours aerobic react period and run 2 consisted of 3 hours aerobic react period followed by 3 hours anoxic react period. The influent wastewater used for the study had COD, BOD, NH3-N and TKN concentrations of 308.03±48.94 mg/L, 100.36±22.05 mg/L, 14.12±1.18 mg/L, and 24.72±2.21 mg/L respectively. Run 1 had an average COD removal efficiency of 41.28%, BOD removal efficiency of 56.25%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 86.19% and TKN removal efficiency of 54.4%. Run 2 had an average COD removal efficiency of 63.19%, BOD removal efficiency of 73.85%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 90.74% and TKN removal efficiency of 65.25%. It was observed that run 2 gave better performance than run 1 in the removal of COD, BOD and TKN.

Keywords: municipal waste water, aerobic, anoxic, sequencing batch reactor

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3669 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha


This paper presents the effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e. absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and it is very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, interference of waves, operating pressure, optimal operating frequency, stack performance, standing wave, thermoacoustic refrigerator

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3668 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst

Authors: Sirada Sripinun


This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature, and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at a lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating conditions, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46% respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.

Keywords: hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene

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3667 Failure Analysis of Electrode, Nozzle Plate, and Powder Injector during Air Plasma Spray Coating

Authors: Nemes Alexandra


The aim of the research is to develop an optimum microstructure of steel coatings on aluminum surfaces for application on the crankcase cylinder bores. For the proper design of the microstructure of the coat, it is important to control the plasma gun unit properly. The maximum operating time was determined while the plasma gun could optimally work before its destruction. Objectives: The aim of the research is to determine the optimal operating time of the plasma gun between renovations (the renovation shall involve the replacement of the test components of the plasma gun: electrode, nozzle plate, powder injector. Methodology: Plasma jet and particle flux analysis with PFI (PFI is a diagnostic tool for all kinds of thermal spraying processes), CT reconstruction and analysis on the new and the used plasma guns, failure analysis of electrodes, nozzle plates, and powder injectors, microscopic examination of the microstructure of the coating. Contributions: As the result of the failure analysis detailed above, the use of the plasma gun was maximized at 100 operating hours in order to get optimal microstructure for the coat.

Keywords: APS, air plasma spray, failure analysis, electrode, nozzle plate, powder injector

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3666 Effect of Chilling Accumulation on Fruit Yield of Olive Trees in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed H. El-Sheikh, Hoda F. Zahran


Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is considered as a Mediterranean tree which belongs to genus Olea that may comprise about 35 species. In fact, the crop requires mild to cool winters with a chilling accumulation from November to February with average temperatures varying between two groups of accumulated chilling hours (h1) of less than 7.2 °C (C1) and other group (h2) of less than 10 °C (C2) for flower bud differentiation. This work aims at studying the impact of chilling accumulation hours on the fruit yield of olive trees in Borg El Arab City, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt as a case study. Trees were aged around 7 years in 2010 and were exposed to chilling accumulation hours of h1, which was average of 280 hours under C1, and average h2 was around 150 hours under C2 the resulted fruit yield was around 0.5 kg/tree. On the hand, trees were aged around 7 years at 2016 showed that when average of h1 was around 390 hours under C1 and average h2 was around 220 hours under C2 then fruit yield was around 10 kg/tree. Increasing of fruit yield proved chilling accumulation effect on olive trees.

Keywords: chilling accumulation, fruit yield, Olea europaea, olive

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3665 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman


Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

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3664 Operating Speed Models on Tangent Sections of Two-Lane Rural Roads

Authors: Dražen Cvitanić, Biljana Maljković


This paper presents models for predicting operating speeds on tangent sections of two-lane rural roads developed on continuous speed data. The data corresponds to 20 drivers of different ages and driving experiences, driving their own cars along an 18 km long section of a state road. The data were first used for determination of maximum operating speeds on tangents and their comparison with speeds in the middle of tangents i.e. speed data used in most of operating speed studies. Analysis of continuous speed data indicated that the spot speed data are not reliable indicators of relevant speeds. After that, operating speed models for tangent sections were developed. There was no significant difference between models developed using speed data in the middle of tangent sections and models developed using maximum operating speeds on tangent sections. All developed models have higher coefficient of determination then models developed on spot speed data. Thus, it can be concluded that the method of measuring has more significant impact on the quality of operating speed model than the location of measurement.

Keywords: operating speed, continuous speed data, tangent sections, spot speed, consistency

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3663 Forecasting 24-Hour Ahead Electricity Load Using Time Series Models

Authors: Ramin Vafadary, Maryam Khanbaghi


Forecasting electricity load is important for various purposes like planning, operation, and control. Forecasts can save operating and maintenance costs, increase the reliability of power supply and delivery systems, and correct decisions for future development. This paper compares various time series methods to forecast 24 hours ahead of electricity load. The methods considered are the Holt-Winters smoothing, SARIMA Modeling, LSTM Network, Fbprophet, and Tensorflow probability. The performance of each method is evaluated by using the forecasting accuracy criteria, namely, the mean absolute error and root mean square error. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) residential energy consumption data is used to train the models. The results of this study show that the SARIMA model is superior to the others for 24 hours ahead forecasts. Furthermore, a Bagging technique is used to make the predictions more robust. The obtained results show that by Bagging multiple time-series forecasts, we can improve the robustness of the models for 24 hours ahead of electricity load forecasting.

Keywords: bagging, Fbprophet, Holt-Winters, LSTM, load forecast, SARIMA, TensorFlow probability, time series

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3662 Economical Working Hours per Workday for a Production Worker under Hazardous Environment

Authors: Mohammed Darwish


Workplace injuries cost organizations significant amount of money. Causes of injuries at workplace are very well documented in the literature and attributed to variety of reasons. One important reason is the long working-hours. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model that finds the optimal working-hours at workplace. The developed model minimizes the expected total cost which consists of the expected cost incurred due to unsafe conditions of workplace, the other cost is related to the lost production due to work incidents, and the production cost.

Keywords: 8-hour workday, mathematical model, optimal working hours, workplace injuries

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3661 The Effect of Applying Surgical Safety Checklist on Surgical Team’s Knowledge and Performance in Operating Room

Authors: Soheir Weheida, Amal E. Shehata, Samira E. Aboalizm


The aim of this study was to examine the effect of surgical safety checklist on surgical team’s knowledge and performance in operating room. Subjects: A convenience sample 151 (48 head nurse, 45 nurse, 37 surgeon and 21 anesthesiologist) which available in operating room at two different hospitals was included in the study. Setting: The study was carried out at operating room in Menoufia University and Shebin Elkom Teaching Hospitals, Egypt. Tools: I: Surgical safety: Surgical team knowledge assessment structure interview schedule. II: WHO surgical safety observational Checklist. III: Post Surgery Culture Survey scale. Results: There was statistical significant improvement of knowledge mean score and performance about surgical safety especially in post and follow up than pre intervention, before patients entering the operating, before induction of anesthesia, skin incision and post skin closure and before patient leaves operating room, P values (P < 0.001). Improvement of communication post intervention than pre intervention between surgical team’s (4.74 ± 0.540). About two thirds (73.5 %) of studied sample strongly agreed on surgical safety in operating room. Conclusions: Implementation of surgical safety checklist has a positive effect on improving knowledge, performance and communication between surgical teams and these seems to have a positive effect on improve patient safety in the operating room.

Keywords: knowledge, operating room, performance, surgical safety checklist

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3660 Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi


This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.

Keywords: sleep, apnea patient, operating model, hospital

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3659 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren


The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: nurse, public hospitals, working conditions, working schedules

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3658 The Potential of Hybrid Microgrids for Mitigating Power Outage in Lebanon

Authors: R. Chedid, R. Ghajar


Lebanon electricity crisis continues to escalate. Rationing hours still apply across the country but with different rates. The capital Beirut is subjected to 3 hours cut while other cities, town and villages may endure 9 to 14 hours of power shortage. To mitigate this situation, private diesel generators distributed illegally all over the country are being used to bridge the gap in power supply. Almost each building in large cities has its own generator and individual villages may have more than one generator supplying their loads. These generators together with their private networks form incomplete and ill-designed and managed microgrids (MG) but can be further developed to become renewable energy-based MG operating in island- or grid-connected modes. This paper will analyze the potential of introducing MG to help resolve the energy crisis in Lebanon. It will investigate the usefulness of developing MG under the prevailing situation of existing private power supply service providers and in light of the developed national energy policy that supports renewable energy development. A case study on a distribution feeder in a rural area will be analyzed using HOMER software to demonstrate the usefulness of introducing photovoltaic (PV) arrays along the existing diesel generators for all the stakeholders; namely, the developers, the customers, the utility and the community at large. Policy recommendations regarding MG development in Lebanon will be presented on the basis of the accumulated experience in private generation and the privatization and public-private partnership laws.

Keywords: decentralized systems, distributed generation, microgrids, renewable energy

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3657 Virtualization and Visualization Based Driver Configuration in Operating System

Authors: Pavan Shah


In an Embedded system, Virtualization and visualization technology can provide us an effective response and measurable work in a software development environment. In addition to work of virtualization and virtualization can be easily deserved to provide the best resource sharing between real-time hardware applications and a healthy environment. However, the virtualization is noticeable work to minimize the I/O work and utilize virtualization & virtualization technology for either a software development environment (SDE) or a runtime environment of real-time embedded systems (RTMES) or real-time operating system (RTOS) eras. In this Paper, we particularly focus on virtualization and visualization overheads data of network which generates the I/O and implementation of standardized I/O (i.e., Virto), which can work as front-end network driver in a real-time operating system (RTOS) hardware module. Even there have been several work studies are available based on the virtualization operating system environment, but for the Virto on a general-purpose OS, my implementation is on the open-source Virto for a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this paper, the measurement results show that implementation which can improve the bandwidth and latency of memory management of the real-time operating system environment (RTMES) for getting more accuracy of the trained model.

Keywords: virtualization, visualization, network driver, operating system

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3656 Disclosure of Financial Risk on Sharia Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Renny Wulandari


This study aims to determine how the influence of Non Performing Financing, Financing Deposit Ratio, Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue and Net Income Margin on the disclosure of financial risk in Sharia banks. To achieve these objectives conducted associative research method with data source in the form of secondary data that is annual report data with period 2013-2016. The population in this study is the sharia banking industry in Indonesia and who issued the annual financial statements. A method of sampling use probability sampling. Analysis in this research is with SEM-PLS. The result is Net Income Margin has a significant effect on financial risk disclosure while Non Performing Financing (NPF) Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR), Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue (OEOR) have no effect on the disclosure of financial risk in sharia bank.

Keywords: Sharia banks, disclosure of risk financial, non performing financing, financing deposit ratio, operating expenses and operating revenue, net income margin

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3655 Experiential Learning: A Case Study for Teaching Operating System Using C and Unix

Authors: Shamshuddin K., Nagaraj Vannal, Diwakar Kulkarni, Raghavendra Nakod


In most of the universities and colleges Operating System (OS) course is treated as theoretical and usually taught in a classroom using conventional teaching methods. In this paper we are presenting a new approach of teaching OS through experiential learning, the course is designed to suit the requirement of undergraduate engineering program of Instrumentation Technology. This new approach has benefited us to improve our student’s programming skills, presentation skills and understanding of the operating system concepts.

Keywords: pedagogy, interactive learning, experiential learning, OS, C, UNIX

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3654 Solving Operating Room Scheduling Problem by Using Dispatching Rule

Authors: Yang-Kuei Lin, Yin-Yi Chou


In this research, we have considered operating room scheduling problem. The objective is to minimize total operating cost. The total operating cost includes idle cost and overtime cost. We have proposed a dispatching rule that can guarantee to find feasible solutions for the studied problem efficiently. We compared the proposed dispatching rule with the optimal solutions found by solving Inter Programming, and other solutions found by using modified existing dispatching rules. The computational results indicates that the proposed heuristic can find near optimal solutions efficiently.

Keywords: assignment, dispatching rule, operation rooms, scheduling

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3653 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa


The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

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3652 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi


An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.

Keywords: building insulation material, moisture content, operating temperature, thermal conductivity

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3651 Direct Cost of Anesthesia in Traumatic Patients with Massive Bleeding: A Prospective Micro-Costing Study

Authors: Asamaporn Puetpaiboon, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart, Nalinee Kovitwanawong, Osaree Akaraborworn


Traumatic patients with massive bleeding require intensive resuscitation. The actual cost of anesthesia per case has never been clarified, so our study aimed to quantify the direct cost, and cost-to-charge ratio of anesthetic care in traumatic patients with intraoperative massive bleeding. This study was a prospective, observational, cost analysis study, conducted in Prince of Songkla University hospital, Thailand, with traumatic patients, of any mechanisms being recruited. Massive bleeding was defined as estimated blood loss of at least one blood volume in 24 hours, or a half of blood volume in 3 hours. The cost components were identified by the micro-costing method, and valued by the bottom-up approach. The direct cost was divided into 4 categories: the labor cost, the capital cost, the material cost and the cost of drugs. From September 2017 to August 2018, 10 patients with multiple injuries were included. Seven patients had motorcycle accidents, two patients fell from a height and another one was in a minibus accident. Two patients died on the operating table, and another two died within 48 hours. The median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8. The median intraoperative blood loss was 3,500 ml. The median direct cost, per case, was 250 United States Dollars (2017 exchange rate), and the cost-to-charge ratio was 0.53. In summary, the direct cost was nearly half of the hospital charge, for these traumatic patients with massive bleeding. However, our study did not analyze the indirect cost.

Keywords: cost, cost-to-charge ratio, micro-costing, trauma

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3650 Intelligent Decision Support for Wind Park Operation: Machine-Learning Based Detection and Diagnosis of Anomalous Operating States

Authors: Angela Meyer


The operation and maintenance cost for wind parks make up a major fraction of the park’s overall lifetime cost. To minimize the cost and risk involved, an optimal operation and maintenance strategy requires continuous monitoring and analysis. In order to facilitate this, we present a decision support system that automatically scans the stream of telemetry sensor data generated from the turbines. By learning decision boundaries and normal reference operating states using machine learning algorithms, the decision support system can detect anomalous operating behavior in individual wind turbines and diagnose the involved turbine sub-systems. Operating personal can be alerted if a normal operating state boundary is exceeded. The presented decision support system and method are applicable for any turbine type and manufacturer providing telemetry data of the turbine operating state. We demonstrate the successful detection and diagnosis of anomalous operating states in a case study at a German onshore wind park comprised of Vestas V112 turbines.

Keywords: anomaly detection, decision support, machine learning, monitoring, performance optimization, wind turbines

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3649 Demand and Supply Management for Electricity Markets: Econometric Analysis of Electricity Prices

Authors: Ioana Neamtu


This paper investigates the potential for demand-side management for the system price in the Nordic electricity market and the price effects of introducing wind-power into the system. The model proposed accounts for the micro-structure of the Nordic electricity market by modeling each hour individually, while still accounting for the relationship between the hours within a day. This flexibility allows us to explore the differences between peak and shoulder demand hours. Preliminary results show potential for demand response management, as indicated by the price elasticity of demand as well as a small but statistically significant decrease in price, given by the wind power penetration. Moreover, our study shows that these effects are stronger during day-time and peak hours,compared to night-time and shoulder hours.

Keywords: structural model, GMM estimation, system of equations, electricity market

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3648 Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: A Study Based on Data Logging Information

Authors: Mina Salamatmanesh, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Tim Ramsay, Josee Lagacé, Lindsey Sikora, JoAnne Whittingham


Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common disorders that presents at birth and in early childhood. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been adopted based on the assumption that with early identification of HL, children will have access to optimal amplification and intervention at younger ages, therefore, taking advantage of the brain’s maximal plasticity. One particular challenge for parents in the early years is achieving consistent hearing aid (HA) use which is critical to the child’s development and constitutes the first step in the rehabilitation process. This study examined the consistency of hearing aid use in young children based on data logging information documented during audiology sessions in the first three years after hearing aid fitting. Methodology: The first 100 children who were diagnosed with bilateral HL before 72 months of age since 2003 to 2015 in a pediatric audiology clinic and who had at least two hearing aid follow-up sessions with available data logging information were included in the study. Data from each audiology session (age of child at the session, average hours of use per day (for each ear) in the first three years after HA fitting) were collected. Clinical characteristics (degree of hearing loss, age of HA fitting) were also documented to further understanding of factors that impact HA use. Results: Preliminary analysis of the results of the first 20 children shows that all of them (100%) have at least one data logging session recorded in the clinical audiology system (Noah). Of the 20 children, 17(85%) have three data logging events recorded in the first three years after HA fitting. Based on the statistical analysis of the first 20 cases, the median hours of use in the first follow-up session after the hearing aid fitting in the right ear is 3.9 hours with an interquartile range (IQR) of 10.2h. For the left ear the median is 4.4 and the IQR is 9.7h. In the first session 47% of the children use their hearing aids ≤5 hours, 12% use them between 5 to 10 hours and 22% use them ≥10 hours a day. However, these children showed increased use by the third follow-up session with a median (IQR) of 9.1 hours for the right ear and 2.5, and of 8.2 hours for left ear (IQR) IQR is 5.6 By the third follow-up session, 14% of children used hearing aids ≤5 hours, while 38% of children used them ≥10 hours. Based on the primary results, factors like age and level of HL significantly impact the hours of use. Conclusion: The use of data logging information to assess the actual hours of HA provides an opportunity to examine the: a) challenges of families of young children with HAs, b) factors that impact use in very young children. Data logging when used collaboratively with parents, can be a powerful tool to identify problems and to encourage and assist families in maximizing their child’s hearing potential.

Keywords: hearing loss, hearing aid, data logging, hours of use

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3647 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearing Operating With Nanolubricants

Authors: R. Hariprakash, K. Prabhakaran Nair


In this paper, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings operating under nano lubricants are presented. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used in turbo machines of power plants to support heavy load. In power plants, bearings are getting failure because of its inability to support the heavy load due to various reasons. Failures of bearings make the power plant to be shutdown. The load carrying capacity of journal bearing mainly depends upon the viscosity of the lubricants. The addition of nano particles on commercially available lubricant may enhance the viscosity of lubricant and in turn, change the performance characteristics. In the literature, though many studies have been carried out for the hydrodynamic bearing operating under Newtonian and non-Newtonian lubricants, studies on hydrodynamic bearings operating under nano lubricants is scarce. Thus, it is felt that there is a need to recompute the performance characteristics of journal bearings operating under nano lubricants.

Keywords: hydrodynamic, journal, bearing, analysis

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3646 Bio-Equivalence of Doxycycline in Two Preparations in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub


The present study was designed to investigate the bio-equivalence of doxycycline in Dolistin® and Colidox® at a dose rate of 10 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight in 48 clinically normal broiler chickens. After oral administration, plasma levels of doxycycline peaked after 2 hours post-dosing without significant differences between the two products and it could be detected therapeutically and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most micro-organisms sensitive to doxycycline for 12 hours. The disposition kinetics of doxycycline in the two products following oral administration revealed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax.) were 22.65 and 21.80 µg/ml and attained at (Tmax.) 2.10 and 2.20 hours, respectively. Doxycycline in both of the products was eliminated with half- lives (t0.5α) equal to 7.70 and 6.93 hours, respectively. The mean systemic bio availabilities of doxycycline in both of the products after oral administration in chickens were 80.60 and 79.70%, respectively. It was concluded that doxycycline in the form of Dolistin® and Colidox® needs a dose equivalent to 20 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight a day is better to keep the plasma concentration higher than the MIC.

Keywords: tetracyclines, doxycycline, bioavailability, broilers, chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
3645 The Determination of Operating Reserve in Small Power Systems Based on Reliability Criteria

Authors: H. Falsafi Falsafizadeh, R. Zeinali Zeinali


This paper focuses on determination of total Operating Reserve (OR) level, consisting of spinning and non-spinning reserves, in two small real power systems, in such a way that the system reliability indicator would comply with typical industry standards. For this purpose, the standard used by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) – i.e., 1 day outage in 10 years or 0.1 days/year is relied. The simulation of system operation for these systems that was used for the determination of total operating reserve level was performed by industry standard production simulation software in this field, named PLEXOS. In this paper, the operating reserve which meets an annual Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) of approximately 0.1 days per year is determined in the study year. This reserve is the minimum amount of reserve required in a power system and generally defined as a percentage of the annual peak.

Keywords: frequency control, LOLE, operating reserve, system reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3644 A Model for Operating Rooms Scheduling

Authors: Jose Francisco Ferreira Ribeiro, Alexandre Bevilacqua Leoneti, Andre Lucirton Costa


This paper presents a mathematical model in binary variables 0/1 to make the assignment of surgical procedures to the operating rooms in a hospital. The proposed mathematical model is based on the generalized assignment problem, which maximizes the sum of preferences for the use of the operating rooms by doctors, respecting the time available in each room. The corresponding program was written in Visual Basic of Microsoft Excel, and tested to schedule surgeries at St. Lydia Hospital in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Keywords: generalized assignment problem, logistics, optimization, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3643 The Optimum Aeration Time of Wastewater Treatment by Surface Aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Anat Thanpinta


This research aimed to study on the efficiency of wastewater treatment by comparing the different aeration times of surface aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. In doing so, the operation of surface aerators was divided into 2 groups which included the groups of 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day. As a result of the study, it was found that the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the forms of DO, BOD, turbidity and NO2- by 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day of surface aerators was not statistically different [Sig. = .644, .488, .716 and .054 > α (.05)] while the efficiency in the forms of NO3- and P was significantly different at the statistical level of .01 [Sig. = .001 and .000 < α (.01)].

Keywords: aeration time, surface aerator, wastewater treatment, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3642 Applying Energy Consumption Schedule and Comparing It with Load Shifting Technique in Residential Load

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasy


Energy consumption schedule (ECS) technique shifts usage of loads from on peak hours and redistributes them throughout the day according to residents’ operating time preferences. This technique is used as form of indirect control from utility to improve the load curve and hence its load factor and reduce customer’s total electric bill as well. Similarly, load shifting technique achieves ECS purposes but as direct control form applied from utility. In this paper, ECS is simulated twice as optimal constrained mathematical formula, solved by using CVX program in MATLAB® R2013b. First, it is utilized for single residential building with ten apartments to determine max allowable energy consumption per hour for each residential apartment. Then, it is used for single apartment with number of shiftable domestic devices, where operating schedule is deduced using previous simulation output results as constraints. The paper ends by giving differences between ECS technique and load shifting technique via literature and simulation. Based on results assessment, it will be shown whether using ECS or load shifting is more beneficial to both customer and utility.

Keywords: energy consumption schedule, load shifting, comparison, demand side mangement

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
3641 Factors Affecting Students' Performance in the Examination

Authors: Amylyn F. Labasano


A significant number of empirical studies are carried out to investigate factors affecting college students’ performance in the academic examination. With a wide-array of literature-and studies-supported findings, this study is limited only on the students’ probability of passing periodical exams which is associated with students’ gender, absences in the class, use of reference book, and hours of study. Binary logistic regression was the technique used in the analysis. The research is based on the students’ record and data collected through survey. The result reveals that gender, use of reference book and hours of study are significant predictors of passing an examination while students’ absenteeism is an insignificant predictor. Females have 45% likelihood of passing the exam than their male classmates. Students who use and read their reference book are 38 times more likely pass the exam than those who do not use and read their reference book. Those who spent more than 3 hours in studying are four (4) times more likely pass the exam than those who spent only 3 hours or less in studying.

Keywords: absences, binary logistic regression, gender, hours of study prediction-causation method, periodical exams, random sampling, reference book

Procedia PDF Downloads 233