Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: superlattice

10 Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with 100% Spin- Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Fabrizio Cossu, Udo Schwingenschlogl


By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain.

Keywords: manganite, strain, 2DEG, superlattice

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9 Investigating the Energy Gap and Wavelength of (AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs)ₘ/(GaAs)ₙ Superlattices in Terms of Material Thickness and Al Mole Fraction Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method

Authors: Matineh Sadat Hosseini Gheidari, Vahid Reza Yazdanpanah


In this paper, we used the empirical tight-binding method (ETBM) with sp3s* approximation and considering the first nearest neighbor with spin-orbit interactions in order to model superlattice structure (SLS) of (AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs)ₘ/(GaAs)ₙ grown on GaAs (100) substrate at 300K. In the next step, we investigated the behavior of the energy gap and wavelength of this superlattice in terms of different thicknesses of core materials and Al mole fractions. As a result of this survey, we found out that as the Al composition increases, the energy gap of this superlattice has an upward trend and ranges from 1.42-1.63 eV. Also, according to the wavelength range that we gained from this superlattice in different Al mole fractions and various thicknesses, we can find a suitable semiconductor for a special light-emitting diode (LED) application.

Keywords: energy gap, empirical tight-binding method, light-emitting diode, superlattice, wavelength

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8 Effect of the Aluminum Fraction “X” on the Laser Wavelengths in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Superlattices

Authors: F.Bendahma, S.Bentata


In this paper, we study numerically the eigenstates existing in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattice with structural disorder in trimer height barrier (THB). Aluminium concentration x takes at random two different values, one of them appears only in triply and remains inferior to the second in the studied structure. In spite of the presence of disorder, the system exhibits two kinds of sets of propagating states lying below the barrier due to the characteristic structure of the superlattice. This result allows us to note the existence of a single laser emission in trimer and wavelengths are obtained in the mid-infrared.

Keywords: infrared (IR), laser emission, superlattice, trimer

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7 Half-Metallicity in a BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 Superlattice: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Ulrich Eckern, Udo Schwingenschlogl


We present first principles results for the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of the BiFeO3 /La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 heterostructure as obtained by spin polarized calculations using density functional theory. The electronic states of the heterostructure are compared to those of the bulk compounds. Structural relaxation turns out to have only a minor impact on the chemical bonding, even though the oxygen octahedra in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 develop some distortions due to the interface strain. While a small charge transfer affects the heterointerfaces, our results demonstrate that the half-metallic character of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 is fully maintained.

Keywords: BiFeO3, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, superlattice, half-metallicity

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6 Effects of Position and Shape of Atomic Defects on the Band Gap of Graphene Nano-Ribbon Superlattices

Authors: Zeinab Jokar, Mohammad Reza Moslemi


In this work, we study the behavior of introducing atomic size vacancy in a graphene nanoribbon superlattice. Our investigations are based on the density functional theory (DFT) with the Local Density Approximation in Atomistix Toolkit (ATK). We show that, in addition to its shape, the position of vacancy has a major impact on the electrical properties of a graphene nanoribbon superlattice. We show that the band gap of an armchair graphene nanoribbon may be tuned by introducing an appropriate periodic pattern of vacancies. The band gap changes in a zig-zag manner similar to the variation of the band gap of a graphene nanoribbon by changing its width.

Keywords: AGNR, antidot, atomistic toolKit, vacancy

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5 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau


The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

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4 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation

Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu


Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.

Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonics

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3 InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiode Array ns-Response

Authors: Utpal Das, Sona Das


InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have recently seen rapid development. However, in small pixel size large format FPAs, the occurrence of high mesa sidewall surface leakage current is a major constraint necessitating proper surface passivation. A simple pixel isolation technique in InAs/GaSb T2SL detector arrays without the conventional mesa etching has been proposed to isolate the pixels by forming a more resistive higher band gap material from the SL, in the inter-pixel region. Here, a single step femtosecond (fs) laser anneal of the T2SL structure of the inter-pixel T2SL regions, have been used to increase the band gap between the pixels by QW-intermixing and hence increase isolation between the pixels. The p-i-n photodiode structure used here consists of a 506nm, (10 monolayer {ML}) InAs:Si (1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML) GaSb SL as the bottom n-contact layer grown on an n-type GaSb substrate. The undoped absorber layer consists of 1.3µm, (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL. The top p-contact layer is a 63nm, (10ML)InAs:Be(1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML)GaSb T2SL. In order to improve the carrier transport, a 126nm of graded doped (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL layer was added between the absorber and each contact layers. A 775nm 150fs-laser at a fluence of ~6mJ/cm² is used to expose the array where the pixel regions are masked by a Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) cap. Here, in the inter-pixel regions, the p+ layer have been reactive ion etched (RIE) using CH₄+H₂ chemistry and removed before fs-laser exposure. The fs-laser anneal isolation improvement in 200-400μm pixels due to spatially selective quantum well intermixing for a blue shift of ~70meV in the inter-pixel regions is confirmed by FTIR measurements. Dark currents are measured between two adjacent pixels with the Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) caps used as contacts. The T2SL quality in the active photodiode regions masked by the Ti-Au cap is hardly affected and retains the original quality of the detector. Although, fs-laser anneal of p+ only etched p-i-n T2SL diodes show a reduction in the reverse dark current, no significant improvement in the full RIE-etched mesa structures is noticeable. Hence for a 128x128 array fabrication of 8μm square pixels and 10µm pitch, SU8 polymer isolation after RIE pixel delineation has been used. X-n+ row contacts and Y-p+ column contacts have been used to measure the optical response of the individual pixels. The photo-response of these 8μm and other 200μm pixels under a 2ns optical pulse excitation from an Optical-Parametric-Oscillator (OPO), shows a peak responsivity of ~0.03A/W and 0.2mA/W, respectively, at λ~3.7μm. Temporal response of this detector array is seen to have a fast response ~10ns followed typical slow decay with ringing, attributed to impedance mismatch of the connecting co-axial cables. In conclusion, response times of a few ns have been measured in 8µm pixels of a 128x128 array. Although fs-laser anneal has been found to be useful in increasing the inter-pixel isolation in InAs/GaSb T2SL arrays by QW inter-mixing, it has not been found to be suitable for passivation of full RIE etched mesa structures with vertical walls on InAs/GaSb T2SL.

Keywords: band-gap blue-shift, fs-laser-anneal, InAs/GaSb T2SL, Inter-pixel isolation, ns-Response, photodiode array

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2 Theoretical Investigation of the Origin of Interfacial Ferromagnetism of (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m Superlattices

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Iogann Tolbatov, Mousumi U. Kahaly


Metal to insulator transition and interfacial magnetism of the LaNiO₃ based superlattice are main interest due to thickness dependent electronic response and tunable magnetic behavior. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of recently experimentally synthesized (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m superlattices with varying LaNiO₃ thickness using density functional theory. The effect of the on-site Coulomb interaction is discussed. In switching from zero to finite U value for Ni atoms, LaNiO₃ shows transitions from half-metallic to metallic character, while spinning ordering changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM). For CaMnO₃, U < 3 eV on Mn atoms results in G-type anti-FM spin ordering whereas increasing U value yields FM ordering. In superlattices, metal to insulator transition was achieved with a reduction of LaNiO₃ thickness. The system with one layer of LaNiO₃ yields insulating character. Increasing LaNiO₃ to two layers and above results in the onset of the metallic character with a major contribution from Ni and Mn 3d eg states. Our results for interfacial ferromagnetism, induced Ni magnetic moments and novel antiferromagnetically coupled Ni atoms are consistent with the recent experimental findings. The possible origin of the emergent magnetism is proposed in terms of the exchange interaction and Anderson localization.

Keywords: density functional theory, interfacial magnetism, metal-insulator transition, Ni magnetism.

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1 Physical Aspects of Shape Memory and Reversibility in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape memory alloys take place in a class of smart materials by exhibiting a peculiar property called the shape memory effect. This property is characterized by the recoverability of two certain shapes of material at different temperatures. These materials are often called smart materials due to their functionality and their capacity of responding to changes in the environment. Shape memory materials are used as shape memory devices in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, bioengineering, metallurgy, building industry and many engineering fields. The shape memory effect is performed thermally by heating and cooling after first cooling and stressing treatments, and this behavior is called thermoelasticity. This effect is based on martensitic transformations characterized by changes in the crystal structure of the material. The shape memory effect is the result of successive thermally and stress-induced martensitic transformations. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermoelasticity and superelasticity by means of deformation in the low-temperature product phase and high-temperature parent phase region, respectively. Superelasticity is performed by stressing and releasing the material in the parent phase region. Loading and unloading paths are different in the stress-strain diagram, and the cycling loop reveals energy dissipation. The strain energy is stored after releasing, and these alloys are mainly used as deformation absorbent materials in control of civil structures subjected to seismic events, due to the absorbance of strain energy during any disaster or earthquake. Thermal-induced martensitic transformation occurs thermally on cooling, along with lattice twinning with cooperative movements of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears, and ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned martensite structures, and twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress-induced martensitic transformation by stressing the material in the martensitic condition. Thermal induced transformation occurs with the cooperative movements of atoms in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110} - type planes of austenite matrix which is the basal plane of martensite. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in the metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high-temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shear and twinning is not uniform in copper-based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of complex layered structures, depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered parent phase lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper-based CuAlMn and CuZnAl alloys. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit superlattice reflections inherited from the parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that diffraction angles and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging duration at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close to each other. This result refers to the rearrangement of atoms in a diffusive manner.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, reversibility, superelasticity, twinning, detwinning

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