Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3522

Search results for: science subjects

3522 Science Subjects Studied and Relation to Income after University Graduation: An Empirical Analysis in Japan

Authors: Kazuo Nishimura, Junichi Hirata, Tadashi Yagi, Junko Urasaka

Abstract:

This paper is an investigation of the effect of science education during the high school education how science graduates of universities are appreciated in the labor market in Japan. We conducted a survey utilizing the internet and analyzed the subjects they were good at and their annual income. The results confirm that among science graduates, workers adept at physics tend to have higher incomes compared to workers good at other subjects. Generational analysis based on the curriculum guideline amendments reveals that the generational difference is small among science majors who are good at physics.

Keywords: curriculum, income, physics, science

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3521 Girls' Underperformance in Science: From Biological Determinism and Feminist Perspectives

Authors: Raza Ullah, Hazir Ullah

Abstract:

There is ample evidence that reveals the outstanding performance of girls in a different range of subjects. However, it is pertinent to mention here that boys have historically dominated girls, particularly in math, physics, and technological subjects across the globe with the exception of few developed countries. This article examines the reasons why girls are underdog in STEM subjects. The article critically analyzes two main approaches towards gender and education: biological determinist and feminist. This article highlights that social factors influencing girls performance in STEM subjects have not analyzed critically, and girls underachieving in science has linked with biological and sex differences. The article concludes that the underperformance of girls in a STEM subject is the direct response of socio-cultural factors. Thus, socio-cultural factors are responsible for the dearth of girls in STEM subjects.

Keywords: gender, underperformance, STEM, education, sex

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3520 Need for E-Learning: An Effective Method in Educating the Persons with Hearing Impairment Using Sign Language

Authors: S. Vijayakumar, S. B. Rathna Kumar, Navnath D Jagadale

Abstract:

Learning and teaching are the challenges ahead in the education of the students with hearing impairment using sign language (SHISL). Either the students or teachers face difficulties in the process of learning/teaching. Communication is one of the main barriers while teaching SHISL. Further, the courses of study or the subjects are limited to SHISL at least in countries like India. Students with hearing impairment mainly opt for sign language as a communication mode. Subjects like physics, chemistry, advanced mathematics etc. are not available in the curriculum for the SHISL since their content and ideas are complex. In India, exemption for language papers is being given for the students with hearing impairment. It may give opportunity to them to secure secondary/ higher secondary qualifications. It is a known fact that students with hearing impairment are facing difficulty in their future carrier. They secure neither a higher study nor a good employment opportunity. Vocational training in various trades will land them in few jobs with few bucks in pocket. However, not all of them are blessed with higher positions in government or private sectors in competitive fields or where the technical knowledge is required. E learning with sign language instructions can be used for teaching languages and science subjects. Computer Based Instruction (CBI), Computer Based Training (CBT), and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) are now part-and-parcel of Modern Education. It will also include signed video clip corresponding to the topic. Learning language subjects will improve the understanding of concepts in different subjects. Learning other science subjects like their hearing counterparts will enable the SHISL to go higher in studies and increase their height to pluck a fruit of the tree of employment.

Keywords: students with hearing impairment using sign language, hearing impairment, language subjects, science subjects, e-learning

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3519 Encouraging the Development of Scientific Literacy in Early Childhood Institutions: Croatian Experience

Authors: L. Vujičić, Ž. Ivković, Ž. Boneta

Abstract:

There is a widespread belief in everyday discourse that science subjects (physics, chemistry and biology) are, along with math, the most difficult school subjects in the education of an individual. This assumption is usually justified by the following facts: low GPA in these subjects, the number of pupils who fail these subjects is high in comparison to other subjects, and the number of pupils interested in continuing their studies in the fields with a focus on science subjects is lower compared to non-science-oriented fields. From that perspective, the project: “Could it be different? How do children explore it?” becomes extremely interesting because it is focused on young children and on the introduction of new methods, with aim of arousing interest in scientific literacy development in 10 kindergartens by applying the methodology of an action research, with an ethnographic approach. We define scientific literacy as a process of encouraging and nurturing the research and explorative spirit in children, as well as their natural potential and abilities that represent an object of scientific research: to learn about exploration by conducting exploration. Upon project completion, an evaluation questionnaire was created for the parents of the children who had participated in the project, as well as for those whose children had not been involved in the project. The purpose of the first questionnaire was to examine the level of satisfaction with the project implementation and its outcomes among those parents whose children had been involved in the project (N=142), while the aim of the second questionnaire was to find out how much the parents of the children not involved (N=154) in this activity were interested in this topic.

Keywords: documenting, early childhood education, evaluation questionnaire for parents, scientific literacy development

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3518 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

Abstract:

This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: education, science, technology and national development, challenges

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3517 A Research on Flipped-Classroom Teaching Model in English for Academic Purpose Teaching

Authors: Li Shuang

Abstract:

With rigid teaching procedures and limited academic performance assessment methods, traditional teaching model stands in the way of college English reform in China, which features EAP (English for Academic Purpose) teaching. Flipped-classroom teaching, which has been extensively applied to science subjects teaching, however, covers the shortage of traditional teaching model in EAP teaching, via creatively inverting traditional teaching procedures. Besides, the application of flipped-classroom teaching model in EAP teaching also proves that this new teaching philosophy is not confined to science subjects teaching; it goes perfectly well with liberal-arts subjects teaching. Data analysis, desk research survey, and comparative study are referred to in the essay so as to prove its feasibility and advantages in EAP teaching.

Keywords: EAP, traditional teaching method, flipped-classroom teaching model, teaching model design

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3516 Incidence and Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome in Different Occupational Sector of Society

Authors: Vergeena Varghese, G. Gajalakshmi, Jayarajini Vasanth

Abstract:

The present study deals with the indication of prevalence of dry eye and evaluates environmental risk factors attributed to dry eye in different occupational sectors. 240 subjects above 20 years and below 45 years of age were screened for dry eye. Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire based history and Schirmer’s test were used to diagnose dry eye. For Schirmer’s test Whatman strip and paracaine drop used as an anesthetic. Subject’s demographics include age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, occupation history and working environment. Out of a total of 240 subjects, 52 subjects were positive for dry eye syndrome (21.7%). The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14subjects (26.9%) out of a total of 40 subjects. In the construction sector, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome had 12 subjects (23.1%) out of 40 subjects and 9 subjects (17.3%) out of 40 subjects in agriculture sector. 7 subjects (13.5%) who had dry eye out of 40 subjects in the transport sector and in industrial 6 subjects (11.5%). In a normal sector, this was taken as control group had dry eye in 4 subjects (7.7%) out of 40 subjects. We also found the prevalence of dry eye in OS was higher than OD. Dry eye is a most common ocular condition. The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14 members than other sector. There was a significant correlation between environmental and occupational factors to cause dry eye. Excessive exposure to sunlight, wind, high temperature, and air pollution, electromagnetic radiation are the factors affect the tear film and ocular surface causing the dry eye syndrome.

Keywords: DES – dry eye syndrome, Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire, schirmer’s test, whatman vstrip

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3515 Developing an Indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Program: A Three Universities Collaboration

Authors: Mishack Thiza Gumbo

Abstract:

The participatory action research study reported in this paper aims to explore indigenous mathematics, science, and technology to develop an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme ultimately. The study is based on an ongoing collaborative project between the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Departments of the University of South Africa, University of Botswana and Chinhoyi University of Technology. The study targets the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s students and indigenous knowledge holders in these three contexts as research participants. They will be interviewed; documents of existing Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programmes will be analysed; mathematics, science and technology-related artefacts will also be collected and analysed. Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education are traditionally referred to as gateway subjects because the world economy revolves around them. Scores of scholars call for the indigenisation of research and methodologies so that research can suit and advance indigenous knowledge and sustainable development. There are ethnomathematics, ethnoscience and ethnotechnology which exist in indigenous contexts such as blacksmithing, woodcarving, textile-weaving and dyeing, but the current curricula and research in institutions of learning reflect the Western notions of these subjects. Indigenisation of the academic programmecontributes toward the decolonisation of education. Hence, the development of an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme, which will be jointly offered by the three universities mentioned above, will contribute to the transformation of higher education in this sense.

Keywords: indigenous, mathematics, science, technology, master's program, universities, collaboration

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3514 Improving Mathematics and Engineering Interest through Programming

Authors: Geoffrey A. Wright

Abstract:

In an attempt to address shortcomings revealed in international assessments and lamented in legislation, many schools are reducing or eliminating elective courses, applying the rationale that replacing "non-essential" subjects with core subjects, such as mathematics and language arts, will better position students in the global market. However, there is evidence that systematically pairing a core subject with another complementary subject may lead to greater overall learning in both subjects. In this paper, we outline the methods and preliminary findings from a study we conducted analyzing the influence learning programming has on student mathematical comprehension and ability. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate in what ways two subjects might complement each other, and to better understand the principles and conditions that encourage what we call lateral transfer, the synergistic effect that occurs when a learner studies two complementary subjects.

Keywords: programming, engineering, technology, complementary subjects

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3513 Secondary Science Teachers' Views about Purposes of Practical Works in School Science

Authors: Kew-Cheol Shim, Sung-Hwan Moon, Ji-Hyon Kil, Kyoungho Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to examine views of secondary school science teachers about purposes to use practical works in school science. The instrument to survey consisted eighteen items, which were categorized into four components as follows: ‘Scientific inquiry’, ‘Scientific knowledge’, ‘Science-related attitude’, and ‘STS (science-technology-society)’. Subjects were 152 secondary school science teachers (male 70 and female 82; middle school 50 and high school 102), who are teaching in 42 schools of 8 provinces. On the survey, science teachers were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scale (from 1 to 5) how they thought of using practical works on purposes with domains of science objectives in school. They had positive views about using practical works for improving scientific inquiry process skills, science-related attitudes, and perceptions about STS literacy, and acquiring scientific knowledge. They would have the most willingness of using practical works for ‘Scientific Inquiry’ among domains of science objectives in school.

Keywords: secondary school, science teacher, practical work, scientific inquiry, scientific knowledge, scientific attitude, STS

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3512 A Study on Pakistani Students’ Attitude towards Learning Mathematics and Science at Secondary Level

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

Student’s success in Mathematics and Science depends upon their learning attitude towards both subjects. It also influences the participation rate of the learner. The present study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitude towards Mathematics and Science at Secondary level. Students of the both gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 276 students and 20 teachers from 10 Government schools from Lahore District. Questionnaire and interview were selected as tool for data collection. The results showed that Pakistani students’ positive attitude towards learning Mathematics and Science. There was a significance difference between the students’ attitude towards learning Mathematics and no significance difference was found in the students’ attitude towards learning Science at Secondary level.

Keywords: attitude, mathematics, science, secondary level

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3511 Effects of Obesity and Family History of Diabetes on the Association of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population

Authors: Jae Woong Sull

Abstract:

Lipid levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is one of the candidate genes of cardiovascular diseases. A total of 2,304 persons were chosen from a Hospital (N=4,294) in South Korea. Female subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 2.03 -fold (p=0.0001) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL) than subjects with the CC genotype. Male subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 1.34 -fold (p=0.0019) higher risk than subjects with the CC genotype. When analyzed by body mass index, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with BMI>=25.69 (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.07, P=0.0037) than in male lean subjects. When analyzed by family history of diabetes, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with positive family history of low physical activity (OR=4.82, 95% CI: 1.86-12.5, P=0.0012) than in male subjects with negative family history of diabetes. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.

Keywords: CETP, diabetes, obesity, polymorphisms

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3510 [Keynote Speech]: Guiding Teachers to Make Lessons Relevant, Appealing, and Personal (RAP) for Academically-Low-Achieving Students in STEM Subjects

Authors: Nazir Amir

Abstract:

Teaching approaches to present science and mathematics content amongst academically-low-achieving students may need to be different than approaches that are adopted for the more academically-inclined students, primarily due to the different learning needs and learning styles of these students. In crafting out lessons to motivate and engage these students, teachers need to consider the backgrounds of these students and have a good understanding of their interests so that lessons can be presented in ways that appeal to them, and made relevant not just to the world around them, but also to their personal experiences. This presentation highlights how the author worked with a Professional Learning Community (PLC) of teachers in crafting out fun and feasible classroom teaching approaches to present science and mathematics content in ways that are made Relevant, Appealing, and Personal (RAP) to groups of academically-low-achieving students in Singapore. Feedback from the students and observations from their work suggest that they were engaged through the RAP-modes of instruction, and were able to appreciate the role of science and mathematics through a variety of low-cost design-based STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) activities. Such results imply that teachers teaching academically-low-achieving students, and those in under-resourced communities, could consider infusing RAP-infused instructions into their lessons in getting students develop positive attitudes towards STEM subjects.

Keywords: STEM Education, STEAM Education, Curriculum Instruction, Academically At-Risk Students, Singapore

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3509 The Effect of Malaria Parasitaemia on Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels of Asymptomatic HIV Subjects in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Rosemary Adanma Analike, Adesuwa Peace Eidangbe

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the effect of malaria parasitaemia on serum reproductive hormone levels of asymptomatic HIV adult subjects. A total of 271 participants aged between 17 and 58 ears were conveniently recruited. 135 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects participated in the study; 67 of them had malaria parasitaemia. 136 HIV seropositive control subjects, 68 of them had malaria parasitaemia. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the determination of HIV status by immunoassay and immunochromatography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay for serum LH, FSH, Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and PSA levels, CD4+T cell counts by Cyflow method, thick and thin films determination of malaria parasitaemia count and density by WHO. Student's t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare means. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone amongst the groups at P<0.05, respectively. The serum levels of LH, FSH, and PSA were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects than in asymptomatic HIV subjects with malaria parasitaemia (P<0.05 in each case). Also, the serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, and progesterone were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects compared with malaria-infected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, respectively). The mean MP counts and MP density were significantly higher in asymptomatic HIV subjects compared to HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). The mean serum levels of testosterone were significantly lower in both malaria-infected and malaria uninfected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). In conclusion, Malaria and HIV co-infection might increase the burden of hypogonadism as well as primary testicular failure, hyperprogesteronaemia, elevated levels of estrogen, and PSA in adult males asymptomatic HIV subjects.

Keywords: malaria parasitaemia, HIV, CD4, reproductive hormones

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3508 Focus Group Study Exploring Researchers Perspective on Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn

Abstract:

Knowledge about the factors that influence the exchange between research and society is of the utmost importance for developing collaboration between different actors, especially in future science policy development and the creation of support structures for researchers. Among other things, how researchers look at the surrounding open science policy environment and what conditions and attitudes they have for interacting with it. This paper examines the Finnish researchers' attitudes towards open science policies in 2020. Open science is an integrated part of researchers' daily lives and supports not only the effectiveness of research outputs but also the quality of research. Open science policy in ideal situation is seen as a supporting structure that enables the exchange between research and society, but in other situation, it can end up being red tape generating obstacles and hindering possibilities of making science in an efficient way. Results of this study were carried out through focus group interviews. This qualitative research method was selected because it aims to understand the phenomenon under study. In addition, focus group interviews produce diverse and rich material that would not be available with other research methods. Focus group interviews have well-established applications in social science, especially in understanding the perspectives and experiences of research subjects. In this study, focus groups were used in studying the mindset and actions of researchers. Each group's size was between 4-10 people, and the aim was to bring out different perspectives on the subject. The interviewer enabled the presentation of different perceptions and opinions, and the focus group interviews were recorded and written as text. The material was analysed using grounded theory method. The results are presented as thematic areas, theoretical model, and as direct quotations. Attitudes towards open science policy can vary greatly depending on the research area. This study shows that the open science policy demands in medicine, technology, and natural sciences compared to social sciences, educational sciences, and the humanities, varies somewhat. The variation in attitudes between different research areas can thus be largely explained by the fact that the research output and ethical code vary significantly between certain subjects. This study aims to increase understanding of the nuances to what extent open science policies should be tailored for different disciplines and research areas.

Keywords: focus group interview, grounded theory, open science policy, science policy

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3507 Lipid Profile of Civil Servants in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Sedodo Nupo, Clara Berstien Oguntona, Babatunde Oguntona, Oluseyi Akinloye, P. A. Olunusi Adeboye

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are now becoming dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigated the lipid profile of civil servants. A cross-sectional study was carried out among randomly selected 202 male and 298 female civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on history of non-communicable diseases and physical activity pattern of the respondents. The blood pressures of the subjects were measured and classified using World Health Organization criteria. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Ethical approval was obtained from Ogun State Ministry of Health. Data collected were analysed using Statistical package for social science version 17.1. Results showed that majority (76%) of the subjects were within the age range of 20 - 40 years, 75% earned between N58,500 - N98,000 monthly and 68% were sedentary. The mean energy intake of men and women were 3942±38 kcal and 2791±3 kcal respectively, while the protein intake for men was 65±49 g/day and 54.28±40 g/day for women. Desirable TC level (<200 mg/dl) was found in 80% of the selected subjects while the normal TG (<150 mg/dl) and LDL (<129 mg/dl) was found in 95% and 90% subjects respectively. The mean TC was 78.91±11 mg/dl and 62.69±9 mg/dl in men and women respectively. The study showed that most of the subjects had normal lipid in terms of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Keywords: high density lipoprotein, morbidity, mortality, triglycerides

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3506 Juvenile Delinquency of Senior High School Students in Surabaya, Indonesia

Authors: Herdina Indrijati

Abstract:

This research aims to describe teenager delinquency behavior (Juvenile Delinquency) of senior high school students in Surabaya, Indonesia. Juvenile Delinquency is a broad range of behaviors start from socially unacceptable behavior (overreact in school), violation (escape from home) to crimes (like stealing). This research uses quantitative descriptive method using 498 students who come from 8 different schools in Surabaya as subjects. Juvenile Delinquency behavior form questionnaire has been completed by subjects and was used to measure and describe the behavior. The result of this research is presented in statistic descriptive forms. Result shows that 169 subjects skip school, 55 subjects get out of home without parent’s permission, 110 subjects engage in smoking behavior, 74 subjects damage other people properties, 32 subjects steal, 16 subjects exploit others and 7 subjects engage in drug abuse. Frequency of the top five mentioned behavior are 1-10 times. It is also found that subject’s peers are most likely to be the victim of Juvenile Delinquency. The reasons teenagers engage in Juvenile Delinquency include (1) feeling tired, bored or lazy – that contributes to their skip school behavior (2) Having a lot of problem with parents - contrives them to run away from home, (3) accidentally damage other people’s properties, (4) financial problems – force them to steal and exploit, (5) feeling like having a lot of life problems – that makes them do drugs (6) trying smoking for experience.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, senior high school, student

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3505 Influence of Bilateral and Unilateral Flatfoot on Pelvic Alignment

Authors: Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Enas Elsayed Abutaleb

Abstract:

Background: The changes in foot posture possibly generate changes in the pelvic alignment, although, there is lack of evidence about the effects of bilateral and unilateral flatfoot on possible changes in pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flatfoot on the sagittal and frontal planes of pelvic postures. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects, aged 18–40 years, were assigned into three groups. 20 healthy subjects, 19 subjects with bilateral flexible second-degree flat foot, and 17 subjects with unilateral flexible second-degree flat foot. 3D assessment of the pelvis using the formetric-II device was used to evaluate pelvic alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes by measuring pelvic inclination and pelvic tilt angles. Results: ANOVA test with LSD test were used for statistical analysis. Both Unilateral and bilateral second degree flatfoot produced significant (P < 0.05) pelvic anteversion in comparison to the healthy subjects (P < 0.05), but the bilateral flatfoot subjects seemed to have more anteversion than the unilateral subjects. Unilateral flatfoot caused a significant (P<0.05) lateral pelvic tilt in the direction of the affected side in comparison to the healthy and bilateral flatfoot subjects. Conclusion: The bilateral and unilateral second degree flatfoot changed pelvic alignment. Both of them led to increases of pelvic anteversion while the unilateral one caused lateral pelvic tilt toward the affected side. Thus, foot posture should be considered when assessing patients with pelvic misalignment and disorders.

Keywords: bilateral flatfoot, unilateral flatfoot, pelvic alignment, foot posture

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3504 Cognitive Theory and the Design of Integrate Curriculum

Authors: Bijan Gillani, Roya Gillani

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a pedagogical model where engineering provides the interconnection to integrate the other topics of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The author(s) will first present a brief discussion of cognitive theory and then derive an integrated pedagogy to use engineering and technology, such as drones, sensors, camera, iPhone, radio waves as the nexus to an integrated curriculum development for the other topics of STEM. Based on this pedagogy, one example developed by the author(s) called “Drones and Environmental Science,” will be presented that uses a drone and related technology as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget’s cognitive theory to create environments that promote the integration of different STEM subjects that relate to environmental science.

Keywords: cogntive theories, drone, environmental science, pedagogy

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3503 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: H. Nagendra, Vinod Kumar, S. Mukherjee

Abstract:

In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: cognitive enhancement, video games, EEG band powers, deaf and dumb subjects

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3502 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

Abstract:

Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: attractiveness, body image, body shape, nutritional status

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3501 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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3500 Attitudes of the Staff in the Faculty of Science and Technology towards the E-Office Documentary System of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Narinee Sophatsathit, Yuwadee Nitutorn

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of the staff in the Faculty of Science and Technology towards the e-office documentary system of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The subjects of this study included 98 staffs of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Questionnaires were used to ask the attitude of the staffs towards the implementation of e-office system. The results showed that most of the users of e-office are female with the age between 31-40 years old, master degree of education and in the academic positions. They have working experiences between 1-5 years and reported the time of using e-office between 8:30-12:30 during the weekday with the frequency of 3-5 times/day. Most of them reported their opinions on the e-office at high level (x=3.84) and problems and obstacles in using e-office at high level, as well (x=3.63).

Keywords: attitudes, e-office, staff, documentary system

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3499 Students’ Satisfaction towards Science Project Subjects Based on Education Quality Assurance

Authors: Satien Janpla, Radasa Pojard

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to study bachelor's degree students’ satisfaction towards the course of Science Project based on education quality assurance. It is a case study of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The findings can be used as a guideline for analysis and revision of the content and the teaching/learning process of the subject. Moreover, other interesting factors such as teaching method can be developed based on education quality assurance. Population in this study included 267 students in year 3 and year 4 of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who registered in the subject of Science Project in semester 1/2556. The research tool was a questionnaire and the research statistics included arithmetic mean and SD. The results showed that the study of bachelor degree students’ satisfaction towards the subject of Science Project based on education quality assurance reported high satisfaction with the average of 3.51. Students from different departments showed no difference in their satisfaction.

Keywords: satisfaction, science project subject, education quality assurance, students

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3498 Merits and Demerits of Participation of Fellow Examinee as Subjects in Observed Structured Practical Examination in Physiology

Authors: Mohammad U. A. Khan, Md. D. Hossain

Abstract:

Background: Department of Physiology finds difficulty in managing ‘subjects’ in practical procedure. To avoid this difficulty fellow examinees of other group may be used as subjects. Objective: To find out the merits and demerits of using fellow examinees as subjects in the practical procedure. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Noakhali Medical College, Bangladesh during May-June’14. Forty-two 1st year undergraduate medical students from a selected public medical college of Bangladesh were enrolled for the study purposively. Consent of students and authority was taken. Eighteen of them were selected as subjects and designated as subject-examinees. Other fellow examinees (non-subject) examined their blood pressure and pulse as part of ‘observed structured practical examination’ (OSPE). The opinion of all examinees regarding the merits and demerits of using fellow examinee as subjects in the practical procedure was recorded. Result: Examinees stated that they could perform their practical procedure without nervousness (24/42, 57.14%), accurately and comfortably (14/42, 33.33%) and subjects were made available without wasting time (2/42, 4.76%). Nineteen students (45.24%) found no disadvantage and 2 (4.76%) felt embracing when the subject was of opposite sex. The subject-examinees narrated that they could learn from the errors done by their fellow examinee (11/18, 61.1%). 75% non-subject examinees expressed their willingness to be subject so that they can learn from their fellows’ error. Conclusion: Using fellow examinees as subjects is beneficial for both the non-subject and subject examinees. Funding sources: Navana, Beximco, Unihealth, Square & Acme Pharma, Bangladesh Ltd.

Keywords: physiology, teaching, practical, OSPE

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3497 Analysis of Basic Science Curriculum as Correlates of Secondary School Students' Achievement in Science Test in Oyo State

Authors: Olubiyi Johnson Ezekiel

Abstract:

Basic science curriculum is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of manner to produce individuals in a holistic and integrated person, who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The main focus of this study is to determine the relationship between students’ achievement in junior school certificate examination (JSCE) and senior school basic science achievement test (SSBSAT) on the basis of all the components of basic science. The study employed the descriptive research of the survey type and utilized junior school certificate examination and senior school basic science achievement test(r = .87) scores as instruments. The data collected were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation, Spearman rank correlation, regression analysis and analysis of variance. The result of the finding revealed that the mean effects of the achievement in all the components of basic science on SSBSAT are significantly different from zero. Based on the results of the findings, it was concluded that the relationship between students’ achievement in JSCE and SSBSAT was weak and to achieve a unit increase in the students’ achievement in the SSBSAT when other subjects are held constant, we have to increase the learning of: -physics by 0.081 units; -chemistry by 0.072 units; -biology by 0.025 units and general knowledge by 0.097 units. It was recommended among others, that general knowledge aspect of basic science should be included in either physics or chemistry aspect of basic science.

Keywords: basic science curriculum, students’ achievement, science test, secondary school students

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3496 Correlation between Diabetic Cataract, HBA1C and Gurakhu, a Clinical Study in Chhattisgarh State

Authors: A. Bhattacharya, Sanjay Gupta, S. H. Bodakhe

Abstract:

HbA1c is form of the haemoglobin that is used to measure the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Guraku’s basic components are nicotine and jaggery, jaggery is made up of sugarcane so can have a diabetogenic potential which is exacerbated in presence of nicotine. This work had done with the aim to find correlation between Diabetic cataract, HbA1c and Guraku. Subjects were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study total 75 subjects were included. In the study it was found that people consuming Guraku had a high level of HbA1c thus are more prone to the development of diabetic cataract. Male subjects are the more than female subjects. Most of the subjects belong to the lower socioeconomical class and not very educated. It could be concluded that this type of study could be useful in indentifying number of subjects suffering from diabetic cataract whose condition get worse by use of nicotine product like Guraku and preventive measure to be taken in prevention of this type of diabetic complication.

Keywords: diabetic cataract, HbA1c, Guraku, diabetogenic potential

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3495 Effects of Physical Activity on the Association of CETP Gene with HDL Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population

Authors: Jae Woong Sull, Sun Ha Jee

Abstract:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of coronary artery disease. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for HDL cholesterol levels have implicated cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) as possibly causal. We tested for the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CETP gene and HDL cholesterol levels in Korean population. Subjects were selected from the Korean Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiative study in the Bundang-Gu area. A total of 2,304 individuals from Bundang-Gu were recruited in 2008. Other subjects were selected from the Severance Hospital (N=4,294). SNP rs6499861 in the CETP gene was associated with mean HDL cholesterol levels (effect per allele -2.044 mg/dL, p=7.23×10-7). Subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 1.46 -fold (range 1.24–1.72-fold) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL) than subjects with the CC genotype. When analyzed by gender, the association of CETP was stronger in women than in men. When analyzed by physical activity behavior, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with low physical activity (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92, P=0.0001) than in male subjects with high physical activity. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.

Keywords: CETP, HDL cholesterol, physical activity, polymorphisms

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3494 Facilitating Career Development of Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine: Towards Increasing Understanding, Participation, Progression and Retention through an Intersectionality Perspective

Authors: Maria Tsouroufli, Andrea Mondokova, Subashini Suresh

Abstract:

Background: The under-representation of women and consequent failure to fulfil their potential contribution to Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths, and Medicine (STEMM) subjects in the UK is an issue that the Higher Education sector is being encouraged to address. Focus: The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers, facilitators, and incentives that influence diverse groups of women who have embarked upon a related career in STEMM subjects. The project will address a number of interconnected research questions: 1. How do participants perceive the barriers, facilitators and incentives for women in terms of research, teaching and management/leadership at each stage of their development towards forging a career in STEMM? 2. How might gender intersect with ethnicity, pregnancy/maternity and academic grade in the career experiences of women in STEMM? 3. How do participants perceive the example of female role models in emulating them as a career model? 4. How do successful females in STEMM see themselves as role models and what strategies do they employ to promote their careers? 5. How does institutional culture manifest itself as a barrier or facilitator for women in STEMM subjects in the institution? Methodology and Theoretical framework: A mixed-methodology will be employed in a case study of one university. The study will draw on extant quantitative data for context and involve conducting a qualitative inquiry to discover the perceptions of staff and students around the key concepts under study (career progression, sense of belonging and tenure, role-models, personal satisfaction, perceived gender in/equality, institutional culture). The analysis will be informed by an intersectionality framework, feminist and gender theory, and organisational psychology and human resource management perspectives. Implications: Preliminary findings will be collected in 2017. Conclusions will be drawn and used to inform recruitment and retention, and the development and implementation of initiatives to enhance the experiences and outcomes of women working and studying in STEMM subjects in Higher Education.

Keywords: under-representation, women, STEMM subjects, intersectionality

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3493 Anti-lipidemic and Hematinic Potentials of Moringa Oleifera Leaves: A Clinical Trial on Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Rural Nigerian Community

Authors: Ifeoma C. Afiaenyi, Elizabeth K. Ngwu, Rufina N. B. Ayogu

Abstract:

Diabetes has crept into the rural areas of Nigeria, causing devastating effects on its sufferers; most of them could not afford diabetic medications. Moringa oleifera has been used extensively in animal models to demonstrate its antilipidaemic and haematinic qualities; however, there is a scarcity of data on the effect of graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters in human diabetic subjects. The study determined the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic subjects in Ukehe, a rural Nigerian community. Twenty-four adult male and female diabetic subjects were purposively selected for the study. These subjects were shared into four groups of six subjects each. The diets used in the study were isocaloric. A control group (diabetics, group 1) was fed diets without Moringa oleifera leaves. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20g, 40g and 60g of Moringa oleifera leaves daily, respectively, in addition to the diets. The subjects' lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured prior to the feeding trial and at the end of the feeding trial. The feeding trial lasted for fourteen days. The data obtained were analyzed using the computer program Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) for windows version 21. A Paired-samples t-test was used to compare the means of values collected before and after the feeding trial within the groups and significance was accepted at p < 0.05. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean total cholesterol of the subjects in groups 1, 2 and 3 after the feeding trial. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean triglyceride levels of the subjects in group 1 after the feeding trial. Groups 1 and 3 subjects had a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in their mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. Groups 1, 2 and 4 had a significant (p < 0.05) increase in their mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean hemoglobin level was observed only in group 4 subjects. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean packed cell volume of group 4 subjects. It was only in group 4 that a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean white blood cells of the subjects was also observed. The changes observed in the parameters assessed were not dose-dependent. Therefore, a similar study of longer duration and more samples is imperative to authenticate these results.

Keywords: anemia, diabetic subjects, lipid profile, moringa oleifera

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