Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7372

Search results for: power/ground noise

7372 A Study on the Improvement of Mobile Device Call Buzz Noise Caused by Audio Frequency Ground Bounce

Authors: Jangje Park, So Young Kim

Abstract:

The market demand for audio quality in mobile devices continues to increase, and audible buzz noise generated in time division communication is a chronic problem that goes against the market demand. In the case of time-division type communication, the RF Power Amplifier (RF PA) is driven at the audio frequency cycle, and it has various influences on the audio signal. In this paper, we measured the ground bounce noise generated by the peak current flowing through the ground network in the RF PA with the audio frequency; it was confirmed that the noise is the cause of the audible buzz noise during a call. In addition, a grounding method of the microphone device that can improve the buzzing noise was proposed. Considering that the level of the audio signal generated by the microphone device is -38dBV based on 94dB Sound Pressure Level(SPL), even ground bounce noise of several hundred uV will fall within the range of audible noise if it is induced by the audio amplifier. Through the grounding method of the microphone device proposed in this paper, it was confirmed that the audible buzz noise power density at the RF PA driving frequency was improved by more than 5dB under the conditions of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) used in the experiment. A fundamental improvement method was presented regarding the buzzing noise during a mobile phone call.

Keywords: audio frequency, buzz noise, ground bounce, microphone grounding

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7371 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: power integrity, power-aware signal integrity analysis, electromagnetic simulation, channel simulation

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7370 Sound Noise Control of a Steam Ejector in a Typical Power Plant: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing a Silencer-Muffler

Authors: Ali Siami, Masoud Asayesh, Asghar Najafi, Amirhosein Hamedanian

Abstract:

There are so many noise sources in power generation units that these sources can produce high-level sound noise. Therefore, sound noise reduction methods can assist these industries, especially in these days that laws related to environmental issues become more strict. In a typical power plant, so many machines and devices with high-level sound noise are arranged beside of each others. Therefore, the sound source identification and reducing the noise level can be very vital. In this paper, the procedure for designing, manufacturing and testing of a silencer-muffler used for a power plant steam vent is mentioned. This unit is placed near the residential area and so it is very important to reduce the noise emission. For this purpose, in the first step, measurements have done to identify the sound source and the frequency content of noise. The overall level of noise was so high and it was more than 120dB. Then, the appropriate noise control device is designed according to the measurement results and operational conditions. In the next step, the designed silencer-muffler has been manufactured and installed on the steam discharge of the ejector. For validation of the silencer-muffler effect, the acoustic test was done again in operating mode. Finally, the measurement results before and after the installation are compared. The results have confirmed a considerable reduction in noise level resultant of using silencer-muffler in the designed frequency range.

Keywords: silencer-muffler, sound noise control, sound measurement, steam ejector

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7369 Prediction of Conducted EMI Noise in a Converter

Authors: Jon Cobb, Nasir

Abstract:

Due to higher switching frequencies, the conducted Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise is generated in a converter. It degrades the performance of a switching converter. Therefore, it is an essential requirement to mitigate EMI noise of high performance converter. Moreover, it includes two types of emission such as common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) noise. CM noise is due to parasitic capacitance present in a converter and DM noise is caused by switching current. However, there is dire need to understand the main cause of EMI noise. Hence, we propose a novel method to predict conducted EMI noise of different converter topologies during early stage. This paper also presents the comparison of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise due to different SMPS topologies. We also make an attempt to develop an EMI noise model for a converter which allows detailed performance analysis. The proposed method is applied to different converter, as an example, and experimental results are verified the novel prediction technique.

Keywords: EMI, electromagnetic interference, SMPS, switch-mode power supply, common mode, CM, differential mode, DM, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
7368 Design of an Acoustic System for Small-Scale Power Plants

Authors: Mohammadreza Judaki, Hosein Mohammadnezhad Shourkaei

Abstract:

Usually, noise generated by industrial units, is a pollution and disturbs people and causes problems for human health and sometimes these units will be closed because they cannot eliminate this pollution. Small-scale power plants usually are built close to residential areas, and noise generated by these power plants is an important factor in choosing their location and their design. Materials used to reduce noise are studied by measuring their absorption and reflection index numerically and experimentally. We can use MIKI model (Yasushi Miki, 1990) to simulate absorption index by using software like Ansys or Soundflow and compare calculation results with experimental simulation data. We consider high frequency sounds of power plant engines octave band diagram because dB value of high frequency noise is more noticeable for human ears. To prove this, in this study we first will study calculating octave band of engines exhausts and then we will study acoustic behavior of materials that we will use in high frequencies and this will give us our optimum noise reduction plan.

Keywords: acoustic materials, eliminating engine noise, octave level diagram, power plant noise

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7367 A General Strategy for Noise Assessment in Open Mining Industries

Authors: Diego Mauricio Murillo Gomez, Enney Leon Gonzalez Ramirez, Hugo Piedrahita, Jairo Yate

Abstract:

This paper proposes a methodology for the management of noise in open mining industries based on an integral concept, which takes into consideration occupational and environmental noise as a whole. The approach relies on the characterization of sources, the combination of several measurements’ techniques and the use of acoustic prediction software. A discussion about the difference between frequently used acoustic indicators such as Leq and LAV is carried out, aiming to establish common ground for homologation. The results show that the correct integration of this data not only allows for a more robust technical analysis but also for a more strategic route of intervention as several departments of the company are working together. Noise control measurements can be designed to provide a healthy acoustic surrounding in which the exposure workers but also the outdoor community is benefited.

Keywords: environmental noise, noise control, occupational noise, open mining

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7366 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference to signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection

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7365 Signal Processing of Barkhausen Noise Signal for Assessment of Increasing Down Feed in Surface Ground Components with Poor Micro-Magnetic Response

Authors: Tanmaya Kumar Dash, Tarun Karamshetty, Soumitra Paul

Abstract:

The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilized to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal with Fast Fourier transforms while Wavelet transforms has been used to remove noise from the BN signal, with judicious choice of the ‘threshold’ value, when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, the effect of down feed induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with an ultrasonically cleaned, wet polished and a sample ground with spark out technique for benchmarking. Moreover, the FFT analysis has been established, at different sets of applied voltages and applied frequency and the pattern of the BN signal in the frequency domain is analyzed. The study also depicts the wavelet transforms technique with different levels of decomposition and different mother wavelets, which has been used to reduce the noise value in BN signal of materials with poor micro-magnetic response, in order to standardize the procedure for all BN signals depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

Keywords: barkhausen noise analysis, grinding, magnetic properties, signal processing, micro-magnetic response

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7364 A 1.8 GHz to 43 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with 4 dB Noise Figure in 0.1 µm Galium Arsenide Technology

Authors: Mantas Sakalas, Paulius Sakalas

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis and design of a ultrawideband 1.8GHz to 43GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in 0.1 μm Galium Arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT) technology. The feedback based bandwidth extension techniques is analyzed and based on the outcome, a two stage LNA is designed. The impedance fine tuning is implemented by using Transmission Line (TL) structures. The measured performance shows a good agreement with simulation results and an outstanding wideband noise matching. The measured small signal gain was 12 dB, whereas a 3 dB gain flatness in range from 1.8 - 43 GHz was reached. The noise figure was below 4 dB almost all over the entire frequency band of 1.8GHz to 43GHz, the output power at 1 dB compression point was 6 dBm and the DC power consumption was 95 mW. To the best knowledge of the authors the designed LNA outperforms the State of the Art (SotA) reported LNA designs in terms of combined parameters of noise figure within the addressed ultra-wide 3 dB bandwidth, linearity and DC power consumption.

Keywords: feedback amplifiers, GaAs pHEMT, monolithic microwave integrated circuit, LNA, noise matching

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7363 Intrabody Communication Using Different Ground Configurations in Digital Door Lock

Authors: Daewook Kim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Intrabody communication (IBC) is a new way of transferring data using human body as a medium. Minute current can travel though human body without any harm. IBC can remove electrical wires for human area network. IBC can be also a secure communication network system unlike wireless networks which can be accessed by anyone with bad intentions. One of the IBC systems is based on frequency shift keying modulation where individual data are transmitted to the external devices for the purpose of secure access such as digital door lock. It was found that the quality of IBC data transmission was heavily dependent on ground configurations of electronic circuits. Reliable IBC transmissions were not possible when both of the transmitter and receiver used batteries as circuit power source. Transmission was reliable when power supplies were used as power source for both transmitting and receiving sites because the common ground was established through the grounds of instruments such as power supply and oscilloscope. This was due to transmission dipole size and the ground effects of floor and AC power line. If one site used battery as power source and the other site used the AC power as circuit power source, transmission was possible.

Keywords: frequency shift keying, ground, intrabody, communication, door lock

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7362 A Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator with Tail Current-Shaping

Authors: Amir Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this paper, a circuit topology of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) which is suitable for ultra-low-phase noise operations is introduced. To do so, a new low phase noise cross-coupled oscillator by using the general topology of cross-coupled oscillator and adding a differential stage for tail current shaping is designed. In addition, a tail current shaping technique to improve phase noise in differential LC VCOs is presented. The tail current becomes large when the oscillator output voltage arrives at the maximum or minimum value and when the sensitivity of the output phase to the noise is the smallest. Also, the tail current becomes small when the phase noise sensitivity is large. The proposed circuit does not use extra power and extra noisy active devices. Furthermore, this topology occupies small area. Simulation results show the improvement in phase noise by 2.5dB under the same conditions and at the carrier frequency of 1 GHz for GSM applications. The power consumption of the proposed circuit is 2.44 mW and the figure of merit (FOM) with -192.2 dBc/Hz is achieved for the new oscillator.

Keywords: LC oscillator, low phase noise, current shaping, diff mode

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7361 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics

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7360 Identification of the Interior Noise Sources of Rail Vehicles

Authors: Hyo-In Koh, Anders Nordborg, Alex Sievi, Chun-Kwon Park

Abstract:

The noise source for the interior room of the high speed train is constituted by the rolling contact between the wheel and the rail, aerodynamic noise and structure-borne sound generated through the vibrations of bogie, connection points to the carbody. Air-borne sound is radiated through the panels and structures into the interior room of the trains. The high-speed lines are constructed with slab track systems and many tunnels. The interior noise level and the frequency characteristics vary according to types of the track structure and the infrastructure. In this paper the main sound sources and the transfer paths are studied to find out the contribution characteristics of the sources to the interior noise of a high-speed rail vehicle. For the identification of the acoustic power of each parts of the rolling noise sources a calculation model of wheel/rail noise is developed and used. For the analysis of the transmission of the sources to the interior noise noise and vibration are measured during the operation of the vehicle. According to operation speeds, the mainly contributed sources and the paths could be analyzed. Results of the calculations on the source generation and the results of the measurement with a high-speed train are shown and discussed.

Keywords: rail vehicle, high-speed, interior noise, noise source

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7359 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks

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7358 Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Excited by Combined Colored and White Noise Excitations

Authors: Siu-Siu Guo, Qingxuan Shi

Abstract:

In this paper, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems to white noise and colored noise excitations are investigated. By expressing colored noise excitation as a second-order filtered white noise process and introducing colored noise as an additional state variable, the equation of motion for SDOF system under colored noise is then transferred artificially to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system under white noise excitations. As a consequence, corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation governing the joint probabilistic density function (PDF) of state variables increases to 4-dimension (4-D). Solution procedure and computer programme become much more sophisticated. The exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method, widely applied for cases of SDOF systems under white noise excitations, is developed and improved for cases of systems under colored noise excitations and for solving the complex 4-D FPK equation. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is performed to test the approximate EPC solutions. Two examples associated with Gaussian and non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are considered. Corresponding band-limited power spectral densities (PSDs) for colored noise excitations are separately given. Numerical studies show that the developed EPC method provides relatively accurate estimates of the stationary probabilistic solutions. Moreover, statistical parameter of mean-up crossing rate (MCR) is taken into account, which is important for reliability and failure analysis.

Keywords: filtered noise, narrow-banded noise, nonlinear dynamic, random vibration

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7357 Digital Forgery Detection by Signal Noise Inconsistency

Authors: Bo Liu, Chi-Man Pun

Abstract:

A novel technique for digital forgery detection by signal noise inconsistency is proposed in this paper. The forged area spliced from the other picture contains some features which may be inconsistent with the rest part of the image. Noise pattern and the level is a possible factor to reveal such inconsistency. To detect such noise discrepancies, the test picture is initially segmented into small pieces. The noise pattern and level of each segment are then estimated by using various filters. The noise features constructed in this step are utilized in energy-based graph cut to expose forged area in the final step. Experimental results show that our method provides a good illustration of regions with noise inconsistency in various scenarios.

Keywords: forgery detection, splicing forgery, noise estimation, noise

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7356 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

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7355 The Influence of Noise on Aerial Image Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Pengchao Wei, Xiangzhong Fang

Abstract:

Noise is ubiquitous in this world. Denoising is an essential technology, especially in image semantic segmentation, where noises are generally categorized into two main types i.e. feature noise and label noise. The main focus of this paper is aiming at modeling label noise, investigating the behaviors of different types of label noise on image semantic segmentation tasks using K-Nearest-Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network classifier. The performance without label noise and with is evaluated and illustrated in this paper. In addition to that, the influence of feature noise on the image semantic segmentation task is researched as well and a feature noise reduction method is applied to mitigate its influence in the learning procedure.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, denoising, feature noise, image semantic segmentation, k-nearest-neighbor, label noise

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7354 A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram

Authors: Ramesh Rajagopalan, Adam Dahlstrom

Abstract:

Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and power-line interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz power-line interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.

Keywords: notch filter, ECG, transient, pole radius

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7353 An Algorithm for Removal of Noise from X-Ray Images

Authors: Sajidullah Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Wang Yin Chai, Chai Soo See

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an approach to remove impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Many filters have been used for impulse noise removal from color and gray scale images with their own strengths and weaknesses but X-ray images contain Poisson noise and unfortunately there is no intelligent filter which can detect impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Our proposed filter uses the upgraded layer discrimination approach to detect both Impulse and Poisson noise corrupted pixels in X-ray images and then restores only those detected pixels with a simple efficient and reliable one line equation. Our Proposed algorithms are very effective and much more efficient than all existing filters used only for Impulse noise removal. The proposed method uses a new powerful and efficient noise detection method to determine whether the pixel under observation is corrupted or noise free. Results from computer simulations are used to demonstrate pleasing performance of our proposed method.

Keywords: X-ray image de-noising, impulse noise, poisson noise, PRWF

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7352 Dual-Channel Multi-Band Spectral Subtraction Algorithm Dedicated to a Bilateral Cochlear Implant

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Ahmed Ben Hamida, Christian Berger-Vachon

Abstract:

In this paper, a Speech Enhancement Algorithm based on Multi-Band Spectral Subtraction (MBSS) principle is evaluated for Bilateral Cochlear Implant (BCI) users. Specifically, dual-channel noise power spectral estimation algorithm using Power Spectral Densities (PSD) and Cross Power Spectral Densities (CPSD) of the observed signals is studied. The enhanced speech signal is obtained using Dual-Channel Multi-Band Spectral Subtraction ‘DC-MBSS’ algorithm. For performance evaluation, objective speech assessment test relying on Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score is performed to fix the optimal number of frequency bands needed in DC-MBSS algorithm. In order to evaluate the speech intelligibility, subjective listening tests are assessed with 3 deafened BCI patients. Experimental results obtained using French Lafon database corrupted by an additive babble noise at different Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR) showed that DC-MBSS algorithm improves speech understanding for single and multiple interfering noise sources.

Keywords: speech enhancement, spectral substracion, noise estimation, cochlear impalnt

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7351 Using Squeezed Vacuum States to Enhance the Sensitivity of Ground Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers beyond the Standard Quantum Limit

Authors: Giacomo Ciani

Abstract:

This paper reviews the impact of quantum noise on modern gravitational wave interferometers and explains how squeezed vacuum states are used to push the noise below the standard quantum limit. With the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding black holes in September 2015 and subsequent detections including that of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding neutron stars, the ground-based interferometric gravitational wave observatories LIGO and VIRGO have opened the era of gravitational-wave and multi-messenger astronomy. Improving the sensitivity of the detectors is of paramount importance to increase the number and quality of the detections, fully exploiting this new information channel about the universe. Although still in the commissioning phase and not at nominal sensitivity, these interferometers are designed to be ultimately limited by a combination of shot noise and quantum radiation pressure noise, which define an envelope known as the standard quantum limit. Despite the name, this limit can be beaten with the use of advanced quantum measurement techniques, with the use of squeezed vacuum states being currently the most mature and promising. Different strategies for implementation of the technology in the large-scale detectors, in both their frequency-independent and frequency-dependent variations, are presented, together with an analysis of the main technological issues and expected sensitivity gain.

Keywords: gravitational waves, interferometers, squeezed vacuum, standard quantum limit

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7350 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong

Abstract:

Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

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7349 Mapping of Traffic Noise in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

The present work aims at development of traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using the software Lima. Road traffic data were estimated or measured as accurate as possible in order to obtain consistent noise maps. The predicted noise levels at some selected sites are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The maps show that noise levels remain over 50 dBA and can exceed 70 dBA at the nearside of major roads and highways.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GPS

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7348 Evaluation of Musical Conductor Exposure to Noise

Authors: Ahmed Saleh Summan

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a technical report on the evaluation of occupational noise exposures among a musical conductor in a musical rehearsal hall (party–center). A calibrated noise dosimeter was used to measure the personal exposure of a music teacher/conductor for 8 hours in two days of rehearsal involving 90 players. Results showed that noise exposure levels were much higher than the permissible levels regulated 85dBA/8hr by NIOSH. In fact, the first day of measurements recorded the highest exposure levels (91 dBA). A number of factors contributed to these results, such as players number, types of instruments used, and activities. Noise control measures were recommended to solve this situation.

Keywords: noise exposure, music conductors, occupational noise, noise in rooms

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7347 Study the Effect of Leading-Edge Serration at Owl Wing Feathers on Flow-Induced Noise Generation

Authors: Suprabha Islam, Sifat Ullah Tanzil

Abstract:

During past few decades, being amazed by the excellent silent flight of owl, scientists have been trying to demystify the unique features of its wing feathers. Our present study is dedicated to taking our understanding further on this phenomenon. In this present study, a numerical investigation was performed to analyze how the shape of the leading-edge serration at owl wing feathers effects the flow-induced noise generation. For the analysis, an owl inspired single feather wing model was prepared for both with and without serrations at the leading edge. The serration profiles were taken at different positions of the vane length for a single feather. The broadband noise was studied to quantify the local contribution to the total acoustic power generated by the flow, where the results clearly showed the effect of serrations in reducing the noise generation. It was also clearly visible that the shape of the serration has a very strong influence on noise generation. The frequency spectrum of noise was also analyzed and a strong relation was found between the shape of the serration and the noise generation. It showed that the noise suppression is strongly influenced by the height to length ratio of the serration. With the increase in height to length ratio, the noise suppression is enhanced further.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, aerodynamic, biomimetics, serrations

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7346 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha

Abstract:

Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

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7345 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

Abstract:

A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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7344 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

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7343 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyunwon Moon

Abstract:

It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGe

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