Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 258

Search results for: hot wire cutter

258 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
257 Larger Diameter 22 MM-PDC Cutter Greatly Improves Drilling Efficiency of PDC Bit

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

With the increasing speed of oil and gas exploration, development and production at home and abroad, the demand for drilling speed up technology is becoming more and more critical to reduce the development cost. Highly efficient and personalized PDC bit is important equipment in the bottom hole assembly (BHA). Therefore, improving the rock-breaking efficiency of PDC bits will help reduce drilling time and drilling cost. Advances in PDC bit technology have resulted in a leapfrogging improvement in the rate of penetration (ROP) of PDC bits over roller cone bits in soft to medium-hard formations. Recently, with the development of PDC technology, the diameter of the PDC tooth can be further expanded. The maximum diameter of the PDC cutter used in this paper is 22 mm. According to the theoretical calculation, under the same depth of cut (DOC), the 22mm-PDC cutter increases the exposure of the cutter, and the increase of PDC cutter diameter helps to increase the cutting area of the PDC cutter. In order to evaluate the cutting performance of the 22 mm-PDC cutter and the existing commonly used cutters, the 16 mm, 19 mm and 22 mm PDC cutter was selected put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests under different DOCs. The DOCs were 0.5mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm, respectively. The rock sample used in the experiment was limestone. Results of laboratory tests have shown the new 22 mm-PDC cutter technology greatly improved cutting efficiency. On the one hand, as the DOC increases, the mechanical specific energy (MSE) of all cutters decreases, which means that the cutting efficiency increases. On the other hand, under the same DOC condition, the larger the cutter diameter is, the larger the working area of the cutter is, which leads to higher the cutting efficiency. In view of the high performance of the 22 mm-PDC cutters, which was applied to carry out full-scale bit field experiments. The result shows that the bit with 22mm-PDC cutters achieves a breakthrough improvement of ROP than that with conventional 16mm and 19mm cutters in offset well drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, 22 mm-PDC cutters, cutting efficiency, mechanical specific energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
256 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt

Abstract:

This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: wire drawing process, galvanizing, heat treatment, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
255 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
254 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
253 Effect of Microstructure on Wear Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Composite Cutter of Bit

Authors: Fanyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond composite (PDC) cutter is made of diamond powder as raw material, cobalt metal or non-metallic elements as a binder, mixed with WC cemented carbide matrix assembly, through high temperature and high-pressure sintering. PDC bits with PDC cutters are widely used in oil and gas drilling because of their high hardness, good wear resistance and excellent impact toughness. And PDC cutter is the main cutting tool of bit, which seriously affects the service of the PDC bit. The wear resistance of the PDC cutter is measured by cutting granite with a vertical turret lathe (VTL). This experiment can achieve long-distance cutting to obtain the relationship between the wear resistance of the PDC cutter and cutting distance, which is more closely to the real drilling situation. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively, which can also characterize the damage and wear of the PDC cutter. PDC cutters were cut via electrical discharge machining (EDM) and then flattened and polished. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the distribution of binder cobalt and the size of diamond particles in a diamond PDC cutter. The cutting experimental results show that the wear area of the PDC cutter has a good linear relationship with the cutting distance. Simultaneously, the larger the wear area is and the greater the cutting forces are required to maintain the same cutting state. The size and distribution of diamond particles in the polycrystalline diamond layer have a great influence on the wear resistance of the diamond layer. And PDC cutter with fine diamond grains shows more wear resistance than that with coarse grains. The deep leaching process is helpful to reduce the effect of binder cobalt on the wear resistance of the polycrystalline diamond layer. The experimental study can provide an important basis for the application of PDC cutters in oil and gas drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, scanning electron microscope, wear resistance, cutting distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
252 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji

Abstract:

Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
251 Analysis of Roll-Forming for High-Density Wire of Reed

Authors: Yujeong Shin, Seong Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim

Abstract:

In the textile-weaving machine, the reed is the core component to separate thousands of strands of yarn and to produce the fabric in a continuous high-speed movement. In addition, the reed affects the quality of the fiber. Therefore, the wire forming analysis of the main raw materials of the reed needs to be considered. Roll-forming is a key technology among the manufacturing process of reed wire using textile machine. A simulation of roll-forming line in accordance with the reduction rate is performed using LS-DYNA. The upper roller, fixed roller and reed wire are modeled by finite element. The roller is set to be rigid body and the wire of SUS430 is set to be flexible body. We predict the variation of the cross-sectional shape of the wire depending on the reduction ratio.

Keywords: textile machine, reed, rolling, reduction ratio, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
250 Effect of the Tooling Conditions on the Machining Stability of a Milling Machine

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yong-Run Chen, Wei-Cheng Shih, Shen-He Tsui, Kung-Da Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect on the tooling conditions on the machining stabilities of a milling machine tool. The machining stability was evaluated in different feeding direction in the X-Y plane, which was referred as the orientation-dependent machining stability. According to the machining mechanics, the machining stability was determined by the frequency response function of the cutter. Thus, we first conducted the vibration tests on the spindle tool of the milling machine to assess the tool tip frequency response functions along the principal direction of the machine tool. Then, basing on the orientation dependent stability analysis model proposed in this study, we evaluated the variation of the dynamic characteristics of the spindle tool and the corresponding machining stabilities at a specific feeding direction. Current results demonstrate that the stability boundaries and limited axial cutting depth of a specific cutter were affected to vary when it was fixed in the tool holder with different overhang length. The flute of the cutter also affects the stability boundary. When a two flute cutter was used, the critical cutting depth can be increased by 47 % as compared with the four flute cutter. The results presented in study provide valuable references for the selection of the tooling conditions for achieving high milling performance.

Keywords: tooling condition, machining stability, milling machine, chatter

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
249 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
248 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
247 Thermomagnetic Convection of a Ferrofluid in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field Induced a Current Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Peter Woodfield, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao

Abstract:

Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed and experimentally tested. To show this phenomenon, the temperature rise of a hot wire, immersed in DIW and Ferrofluid, as a result of joule heating has been measured using a transient hot-wire technique. When current is applied to the wire, a temperature gradient is imposed on the magnetic fluid resulting in non-uniform magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid that results in a non-uniform magnetic body force which makes the ferrofluid flow as a bulk suspension. For the case of the wire immersed in DIW, free convection is the only means of cooling, while for the case of ferrofluid a combination of both free convection and thermomagnetic convection is expected to enhance the heat transfer from the wire beyond that of DIW. Experimental results at different temperatures and for a range of constant currents applied to the wire show that thermomagnetic convection becomes effective for the currents higher than 1.5A at all temperatures. It is observed that the onset of thermomagnetic convection is directly proportional to the current applied to the wire and that the thermomagnetic convection happens much faster than the free convection. Calculations show that a 35% enhancement in heat transfer can be expected for the ferrofluid compared to DIW, for a 3A current applied to the wire.

Keywords: cooling, ferrofluid, thermomagnetic convection, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
246 Automatic Tofu Stick Cutter to Increase the Production Capacity of Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Chaca Nugraha Zaid, Hikmat Ronaldo, Emerald Falah Brayoga, Azizah Eddy Setiawati, Soviandini Dwiki Kartika Putri, Novita Wijayanti

Abstract:

In the tofu stick production, the manual cutting process takes a half of working day or 4 hours for 21 kg of tofu. This issue has hampered the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to increase the capacity of production to fulfill the market demand. In order to address the issue, the cutting process should be automized to create fast, efficient, and effective tools. This innovation to tackle this problem is an automatic cutter tool that is able to move continuously to cut the tofu into stick size. The tool uses the 78,5-watt electric motor and automatic sensors to drive the cutting tool automatically, resulting faster process time with more uniform size compared to the manual cutter. The component of this tool, i.e., cutting knife and the driver, electric motor, limit switch sensors, riley, Arduino nano, and power supply. The cutting speed cutting speed of this tool is 101,25 mm/s producing 64 tofu sticks. Benefits that can be obtained from the use of automatic tofu stick cutter, i.e. (1) Faster process (2) More uniform cutting result; (3) The quality of the tofu stick is maintained due to minimal contact with humans so that contamination can be suppressed; (4) The cutting knife can be modified to the desired size of the owner.

Keywords: automatic, cutter, small and medium enterprise, tofu stick

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
245 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal

Abstract:

Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
244 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, theoretical model, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
243 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran

Abstract:

Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
242 Composite Components Manufacturing in SAE Formula Student, a Case Study of AGH Racing

Authors: Hanna Faron, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Daniel Prusak, Władysław Hamiga

Abstract:

Interest in composite materials comes out of two basic premises: their supreme mechanical and strength properties,combined with a small specific weight. Origin and evolution of modern composite materials bonds with development of manufacturing of synthetic fibers, which have begun during Second World War. Main condition to achieve intended properties of composite materials is proper bonding of reinforcing layer with appropriate adhesive in manufacturing process. It is one of the fundamental quality evaluation criterion of fabrication processes.

Keywords: SAE, formula student, composite materials, carbon fiber, Aramid fiber, hot wire cutter

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
241 Innovative Three Wire Capacitor Circuit System for Efficiency and Comfort Improvement of Ceiling Fans

Authors: R. K. Saket, K. S. Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system used to increase the efficiency and comfort improvement of permanent split-capacitor ceiling fan. In this innovative circuit, current has been reduced to save electrical power. The system could be used to replace standard single phase motor 2-wire capacitor configuration by cost effective split value X rated of optimized AC capacitors with the auxiliary winding to provide reliable ceiling fan operation and improved machine performance to save power. In basic system operations, comparisons with conventional ceiling fan are described.

Keywords: permanent split-capacitor motor, innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system, standard 2-wire capacitor circuit system, metalized film X-rated capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
240 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
239 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: steel wire, properties, welding process, Ni layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
238 Analysis of Wire Coating for Heat Transfer Flow of a Viscoelastic PTT Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Authors: Rehan Ali Shah, A. M. Siddiqui, T. Haroon

Abstract:

Slip boundary value problem in wire coating analysis with heat transfer is examined. The fluid is assumed to be viscoelastic PTT (Phan-Thien and Tanner). The rheological constitutive equation of PTT fluid model simulates various polymer melts. Therefore, the current consequences are valuable in a number of realistic situations. Effects of slip parameter γ as well as εDec^2 (viscoelastic index) on the axial velocity, shear stress, normal stress, average velocity, volume flux, thickness of coated wire, shear stress, force on the total wire and temperature distribution profiles have been investigated. A new direction is explored to analyze the flow with the slip parameter. The slippage at the boundaries plays an important role in thickness of coated wire. It is noted that as the slip parameter increases the flow rate and thickness of coated wire increases while, temperature distribution decreases. The results reduce to no slip when the slip parameter is vanished. Furthermore, we can obtain the results for Maxwell and viscous model by setting ε and λ equal to zero respectively.

Keywords: wire coating, straight annular die, PTT fluid, heat transfer, slip boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
237 Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Joshua Cox

Abstract:

This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.

Keywords: Taguchi Parameter Design, surface roughness, Wire EDM, dimensional accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
236 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

Abstract:

The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
235 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
234 Numerical Investigation of Wire Mesh Heat Pipe for Spacecraft Applications

Authors: Jayesh Mahitkar, V. K. Singh, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha

Abstract:

Wire Mesh Heat Pipe (WMHP) as an effective component of thermal control system in the payload of spacecraft, utilizing ammonia to transfer efficient amount of heat. One dimensional generic and robust mathematical model with partial-analytical hydraulic approach (PAHA) is developed to study inside behaviour of WMHP. In this model, inside performance during operation is investigated like mass flow rate, and velocity along the wire mesh as well as vapour core is modeled respectively. This numerical model investigate heat flow along length, pressure drop along wire mesh as well as vapour line in axial direction. Furthermore, WMHP is modeled into equivalent resistance network such that total thermal resistance of heat pipe, temperature drop across evaporator end and condenser end is evaluated. This numerical investigation should be carried out for single layer and double layer wire mesh each with heat input at evaporator section is 10W, 20 W and 30 W at condenser temperature maintained at 20˚C.

Keywords: ammonia, heat transfer, modeling, wire mesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
233 The Applications of Wire Print in Composite Material Research and Fabrication Process

Authors: Hsu Yi-Chia, Hoy June-Hao

Abstract:

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) is a rapid proofing method without mold, however, high material and time costs have always been a major disadvantage. Wire-printing is the next generation technology that can more flexible, and also easier to apply on a 3D printer and robotic arms printing. It can create its own construction methods. The research is mainly divided into three parts. The first is about the method of parameterizing the generated paths and the conversion of g-code to the wire-printing. The second is about material attempts and the application of effects. Third, is about the improvement of the operation of mechanical equipment and the design of robotic tool-head. The purpose of this study is to develop a new wire-print method that can efficiently generate line segments and paths in three- dimensions space. The parametric modeling software transforms the digital model into a 3D printer or robotic arms g-code, this article uses thermoplastics/ clay/composites materials for testing. The combination of materials and wire-print process makes architects and designers have the ability to research and develop works and construction in the future.

Keywords: parametric software, wire print, robotic arms fabrication, composite filament additive manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
232 Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Lines with Shield Wire Segmentation against Atmospheric Discharges Using ATPDraw

Authors: Marcio S. da Silva, Jose Mauricio de B. Bezerra, Antonio E. de A. Nogueira

Abstract:

This paper aims to make a performance analysis of shield wire transmission lines against atmospheric discharges when it is made the option of sectioning the shield wire and verify if the tolerability of the change. As a goal of this work, it was established to make complete modeling of a transmission line in the ATPDraw program with shield wire grounded in all the towers and in some towers. The methodology used to make the proposed evaluation was to choose an actual transmission line that served as a case study. From the choice of transmission line and verification of all its topology and materials, complete modeling of the line using the ATPDraw software was performed. Then several atmospheric discharges were simulated by striking the grounded shield wires in each tower. These simulations served to identify the behavior of the existing line against atmospheric discharges. After this first analysis, the same line was reconsidered with shield wire segmentation. The shielding wire segmentation technique aims to reduce induced losses in shield wires and is adopted in some transmission lines in Brazil. With the same conditions of atmospheric discharge the transmission line, this time with shield wire segmentation was again evaluated. The results obtained showed that it is possible to obtain similar performances against atmospheric discharges between a shield wired line in multiple towers and the same line with shield wire segmentation if some precautions are adopted as verification of the ground resistance of the wire segmented shield, adequacy of the maximum length of the segmented gap, evaluation of the separation length of the electrodes of the insulator spark, among others. As a conclusion, it is verified that since the correct assessment and adopted the correct criteria of adjustment a transmission line with shielded wire segmentation can perform very similar to the traditional use with multiple earths. This solution contributes in a very important way to the reduction of energy losses in transmission lines.

Keywords: atmospheric discharges, ATPDraw, shield wire, transmission lines

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231 Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope

Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim

Abstract:

This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.

Keywords: reinforced concrete column, high strength concrete, wire rope, fire resistance test

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
230 Development of Advanced Linear Calibration Technique for Air Flow Sensing by Using CTA-Based Hot Wire Anemometry

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, T. M. Wu, R. C. Chu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop an Advanced linear calibration Technique for air flow sensing by using CTA-based Hot wire Anemometry. It contains a host PC with Human Machine Interface, a wind tunnel, a wind speed controller, an automatic data acquisition module, and nonlinear calibration model. To improve the fitting error by using single fitting polynomial, this study proposes a Multiple three-order Polynomial Fitting Method (MPFM) for fitting the non-linear output of a CTA-based Hot wire Anemometry. The CTA-based anemometer with built-in fitting parameters is installed in the wind tunnel, and the wind speed is controlled by the PC-based controller. The Hot-Wire anemometer's thermistor resistance change is converted into a voltage signal or temperature differences, and then sent to the PC through a DAQ card. After completion measurements of original signal, the Multiple polynomial mathematical coefficients can be automatically calculated, and then sent into the micro-processor in the Hot-Wire anemometer. Finally, the corrected Hot-Wire anemometer is verified for the linearity, the repeatability, error percentage, and the system outputs quality control reports.

Keywords: flow rate sensing, hot wire, constant temperature anemometry (CTA), linear calibration, multiple three-order polynomial fitting method (MPFM), temperature compensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
229 Development of Portable Water Jet Cutter Mobile Hand Tool: Analysis of Nozzle Geometries and Materials

Authors: Razali Bin Abidin

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a portable water jet cutter for soft materials such as meat. Twelve geometries of nozzles were simulated using finite element method. Water pressure was set to 1500 lb/in². Through the simulation, highest average water output speed was 133.04 m/s. The nozzle was fabricated from Al - alloy 5052 with the Factor of Safety~ 3. This indicates that the nozzle made of Al-alloy 5052 is capable of performing the cutting process without any fracture. Preliminary design of mobile water jet hand tool is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: water jet, finite element, Al-alloy 5052, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 272