Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: decarbonization

16 Integrated Modeling of Transformation of Electricity and Transportation Sectors: A Case Study of Australia

Authors: T. Aboumahboub, R. Brecha, H. B. Shrestha, U. F. Hutfilter, A. Geiges, W. Hare, M. Schaeffer, L. Welder, M. Gidden


The proposed stringent mitigation targets require an immediate start for a drastic transformation of the whole energy system. The current Australian energy system is mainly centralized and fossil fuel-based in most states with coal and gas-fired plants dominating the total produced electricity over the recent past. On the other hand, the country is characterized by a huge, untapped renewable potential, where wind and solar energy could play a key role in the decarbonization of the Australia’s future energy system. However, integrating high shares of such variable renewable energy sources (VRES) challenges the power system considerably due to their temporal fluctuations and geographical dispersion. This raises the concerns about flexibility gap in the system to ensure the security of supply with increasing shares of such intermittent sources. One main flexibility dimension to facilitate system integration of high shares of VRES is to increase the cross-sectoral integration through coupling of electricity to other energy sectors alongside the decarbonization of the power sector and reinforcement of the transmission grid. This paper applies a multi-sectoral energy system optimization model for Australia. We investigate the cost-optimal configuration of a renewable-based Australian energy system and its transformation pathway in line with the ambitious range of proposed climate change mitigation targets. We particularly analyse the implications of linking the electricity and transport sectors in a prospective, highly renewable Australian energy system.

Keywords: decarbonization, energy system modelling, renewable energy, sector coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
15 Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Smart Micro-Grids and Decentralised Sector-Coupling

Authors: C. Trapp, A. Vijay, M. Khorasani


Decentralised micro-grids with sector coupling can combat the spatial and temporal intermittence of renewable energy by combining power, transportation and infrastructure sectors. Intelligent energy conversion concepts such as electrolysers, hydrogen engines and fuel cells combined with energy storage using intelligent batteries and hydrogen storage form the back-bone of such a system. This paper describes a micro-grid based on Photo-Voltaic cells, battery storage, innovative modular and scalable Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) electrolyzer with an efficiency of up to 73%, high-pressure hydrogen storage as well as cutting-edge combustion-engine based Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant with more than 85% efficiency at the university campus to address the challenges of decarbonization whilst eliminating the necessity for expensive high-voltage infrastructure.

Keywords: sector coupling, micro-grids, energy self-sufficiency, decarbonization, AEM electrolysis, hydrogen CHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
14 Stationary Gas Turbines in Power Generation: Past, Present and Future Challenges

Authors: Michel Moliere


In the next decades, the thermal power generation segment will survive only if it achieves deep mutations, including drastical abatements of CO2 emissions and strong efficiency gains. In this challenging perspective, stationary gas turbines appear as serious candidates to lead the energy transition. Indeed, during the past decades, these turbomachines have made brisk technological advances in terms of efficiency, reliability, fuel flex (including the combustion of hydrogen), and the ability to hybridize with regenrables. It is, therefore, timely to summarize the progresses achieved by gas turbines in the recent past and to examine what are their assets to face the challenges of the energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, gas turbines, decarbonization, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
13 Membranes for Direct Lithium Extraction (DLE)

Authors: Amir Razmjou, Elika Karbassi Yazdi


Several direct lithium extraction (DLE) technologies have been developed for Li extraction from different brines. Although laboratory studies showed that they can technically recover Li to 90%, challenges still remain in developing a sustainable process that can serve as a foundation for the lithium dependent low-carbon economy. There is a continuing quest for DLE technologies that do not need extensive pre-treatments, fewer materials, and have simplified extraction processes with high Li selectivity. Here, an overview of DLE technologies will be provided with an emphasis on the basic principles of the materials’ design for the development of membranes with nanochannels and nanopores with Li ion selectivity. We have used a variety of building blocks such as nano-clay, organic frameworks, Graphene/oxide, MXene, etc., to fabricate the membranes. Molecular dynamic simulation (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to reveal new mechanisms by which high Li selectivity was obtained.

Keywords: lithium recovery, membrane, lithium selectivity, decarbonization

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
12 Life Cycle Assessment of Todays and Future Electricity Grid Mixes of EU27

Authors: Johannes Gantner, Michael Held, Rafael Horn, Matthias Fischer


At the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2015 a global agreement on the reduction of climate change was achieved stating CO₂ reduction targets for all countries. For instance, the EU targets a reduction of 40 percent in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990. In order to achieve this ambitious goal, the environmental performance of the different European electricity grid mixes is crucial. First, the electricity directly needed for everyone’s daily life (e.g. heating, plug load, mobility) and therefore a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity grid mix reduces the overall environmental impacts of a country. Secondly, the manufacturing of every product depends on electricity. Thereby a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix results in a further decrease of environmental impacts of every product. As a result, the implementation of the two-degree goal highly depends on the decarbonization of the European electricity mixes. Currently the production of electricity in the EU27 is based on fossil fuels and therefore bears a high GWP impact per kWh. Due to the importance of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix, not only today but also in future, within the European research projects, CommONEnergy and Senskin, time-dynamic Life Cycle Assessment models for all EU27 countries were set up. As a methodology, a combination of scenario modeling and life cycle assessment according to ISO14040 and ISO14044 was conducted. Based on EU27 trends regarding energy, transport, and buildings, the different national electricity mixes were investigated taking into account future changes such as amount of electricity generated in the country, change in electricity carriers, COP of the power plants and distribution losses, imports and exports. As results, time-dynamic environmental profiles for the electricity mixes of each country and for Europe overall were set up. Thereby for each European country, the decarbonization strategies of the electricity mix are critically investigated in order to identify decisions, that can lead to negative environmental effects, for instance on the reduction of the global warming of the electricity mix. For example, the withdrawal of the nuclear energy program in Germany and at the same time compensation of the missing energy by non-renewable energy carriers like lignite and natural gas is resulting in an increase in global warming potential of electricity grid mix. Just after two years this increase countervailed by the higher share of renewable energy carriers such as wind power and photovoltaic. Finally, as an outlook a first qualitative picture is provided, illustrating from environmental perspective, which country has the highest potential for low-carbon electricity production and therefore how investments in a connected European electricity grid could decrease the environmental impacts of the electricity mix in Europe.

Keywords: electricity grid mixes, EU27 countries, environmental impacts, future trends, life cycle assessment, scenario analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
11 Numerical Simulation of the Production of Ceramic Pigments Using Microwave Radiation: An Energy Efficiency Study Towards the Decarbonization of the Pigment Sector

Authors: Pedro A. V. Ramos, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


Global warming mitigation is one of the main challenges of this century, having the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be null or negative in 2050. Industry electrification is one of the main paths to achieving carbon neutrality within the goals of the Paris Agreement. Microwave heating is becoming a popular industrial heating mechanism due to the absence of direct GHG emissions, but also the rapid, volumetric, and efficient heating. In the present study, a mathematical model is used to simulate the production using microwave heating of two ceramic pigments, at high temperatures (above 1200 Celsius degrees). The two pigments studied were the yellow (Pr, Zr)SiO₂ and the brown (Ti, Sb, Cr)O₂. The chemical conversion of reactants into products was included in the model by using the kinetic triplet obtained with the model-fitting method and experimental data present in the Literature. The coupling between the electromagnetic, thermal, and chemical interfaces was also included. The simulations were computed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The geometry includes a moving plunger to allow for the cavity impedance matching and thus maximize the electromagnetic efficiency. To accomplish this goal, a MATLAB controller was developed to automatically search the position of the moving plunger that guarantees the maximum efficiency. The power is automatically and permanently adjusted during the transient simulation to impose stationary regime and total conversion, the two requisites of every converged solution. Both 2D and 3D geometries were used and a parametric study regarding the axial bed velocity and the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries was performed. Moreover, a Verification and Validation study was carried out by comparing the conversion profiles obtained numerically with the experimental data available in the Literature; the numerical uncertainty was also estimated to attest to the result's reliability. The results show that the model-fitting method employed in this work is a suitable tool to predict the chemical conversion of reactants into the pigment, showing excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher velocities lead to higher thermal efficiencies and thus lower energy consumption during the process. This work concludes that the electromagnetic heating of materials having high loss tangent and low thermal conductivity, like ceramic materials, maybe a challenge due to the presence of hot spots, which may jeopardize the product quality or even the experimental apparatus. The MATLAB controller increased the electromagnetic efficiency by 25% and global efficiency of 54% was obtained for the titanate brown pigment. This work shows that electromagnetic heating will be a key technology in the decarbonization of the ceramic sector as reductions up to 98% in the specific GHG emissions were obtained when compared to the conventional process. Furthermore, numerical simulations appear as a suitable technique to be used in the design and optimization of microwave applicators, showing high agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: automatic impedance matching, ceramic pigments, efficiency maximization, high-temperature microwave heating, input power control, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
10 The Legal and Regulatory Gaps of Blockchain-Enabled Energy Prosumerism

Authors: Karisma Karisma, Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani


This study aims to conduct a high-level strategic dialogue on the lack of consensus, consistency, and legal certainty regarding blockchain-based energy prosumerism so that appropriate institutional and governance structures can be put in place to address the inadequacies and gaps in the legal and regulatory framework. The drive to achieve national and global decarbonization targets is a driving force behind climate goals and policies under the Paris Agreement. In recent years, efforts to ‘demonopolize’ and ‘decentralize’ energy generation and distribution have driven the energy transition toward decentralized systems, invoking concepts such as ownership, sovereignty, and autonomy of RE sources. The emergence of individual and collective forms of prosumerism and the rapid diffusion of blockchain is expected to play a critical role in the decarbonization and democratization of energy systems. However, there is a ‘regulatory void’ relating to individual and collective forms of prosumerism that could prevent the rapid deployment of blockchain systems and potentially stagnate the operationalization of blockchain-enabled energy sharing and trading activities. The application of broad and facile regulatory fixes may be insufficient to address the major regulatory gaps. First, to the authors’ best knowledge, the concepts and elements circumjacent to individual and collective forms of prosumerism have not been adequately described in the legal frameworks of many countries. Second, there is a lack of legal certainty regarding the creation and adaptation of business models in a highly regulated and centralized energy system, which inhibits the emergence of prosumer-driven niche markets. There are also current and prospective challenges relating to the legal status of blockchain-based platforms for facilitating energy transactions, anticipated with the diffusion of blockchain technology. With the rise of prosumerism in the energy sector, the areas of (a) network charges, (b) energy market access, (c) incentive schemes, (d) taxes and levies, and (e) licensing requirements are still uncharted territories in many countries. The uncertainties emanating from this area pose a significant hurdle to the widespread adoption of blockchain technology, a complementary technology that offers added value and competitive advantages for energy systems. The authors undertake a conceptual and theoretical investigation to elucidate the lack of consensus, consistency, and legal certainty in the study of blockchain-based prosumerism. In addition, the authors set an exploratory tone to the discussion by taking an analytically eclectic approach that builds on multiple sources and theories to delve deeper into this topic. As an interdisciplinary study, this research accounts for the convergence of regulation, technology, and the energy sector. The study primarily adopts desk research, which examines regulatory frameworks and conceptual models for crucial policies at the international level to foster an all-inclusive discussion. With their reflections and insights into the interaction of blockchain and prosumerism in the energy sector, the authors do not aim to develop definitive regulatory models or instrument designs, but to contribute to the theoretical dialogue to navigate seminal issues and explore different nuances and pathways. Given the emergence of blockchain-based energy prosumerism, identifying the challenges, gaps and fragmentation of governance regimes is key to facilitating global regulatory transitions.

Keywords: blockchain technology, energy sector, prosumer, legal and regulatory.

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
9 Retrofitting Cement Plants with Oxyfuel Technology for Carbon Capture

Authors: Peloriadi Konstantina, Fakis Dimitris, Grammelis Panagiotis


Methods for carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play a key role in the reduction of industrial CO₂ emissions, especially in the cement industry, which accounts for 7% of global emissions. Cement industries around the world have committed to address this problem by reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The aim of the work to be presented was to contribute to the decarbonization strategy by integrating the 1st generation oxyfuel technology in cement production plants. This technology has been shown to improve fuel efficiency while providing one of the most cost-effective solutions when compared to other capture methods. A validated simulation of the cement plant was thus used as a basis to develop an oxyfuel retrofitted cement process. The process model for the oxyfuel technology is developed on the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) PLUSTM simulation software. This process consists of an Air Separation Unit (ASU), an oxyfuel cement plant with coal and alternative solid fuel (ASF) as feedstock, and a carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU). A detailed description and analysis of the CPU will be presented, including the findings of a literature review and simulation results, regarding the effects of flue gas impurities during operation. Acknowledgment: This research has been conducted in the framework of the EU funded AC2OCEM project, which investigates first and the second generation oxyfuel concepts.

Keywords: oxyfuel technology, carbon capture and storage, CO₂ processing unit, cement, aspen plus

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8 Thermodynamics Analysis of Transcritical HTHP Cycles Using Eco-Friendly Refrigerant and low-Grade Waste Heat Recovery: A Theoretical Evaluation

Authors: Adam Y. Sulaiman, Donal F. Cotter, Ming J. Huang, Neil J. Hewitt


Decarbonization of the industrial sector in developed countries has become indispensable for addressing climate change. Industrial processes including drying, distillation, and injection molding require a process heat exceeding 180°C, rendering the subcriticalHigh-Temperature heat pump(HTHP) technique unsuitable. A transcritical HTHP utilizing ecologically friendly working fluids is a highly recommended system that incorporates the features of high-energy efficiency, extended operational range, and decarbonizing the industrial sector. This paper delves into the possibility and feasibility of leveraging the HTTP system to provide up to 200°C of heat using R1233zd(E) as a working fluid. Using a steady-state model, various transcritical HTHP cycle configurations aretheoretically compared,analyzed, and evaluatedin this study. The heat transfer characteristics for the evaporator and gas cooler are investigated, as well as the cycle's energy, exergetic, and environmental performance. Using the LMTD method, the gas cooler's heat transfer coefficient, overall length, and heat transfer area were calculated. The findings indicate that the heat sink pressure level, as well as the waste heat temperature provided to the evaporator, have a significant impact on overall cycle performance. The investigation revealed the potential challenges and barriers, including the length of the gas cooler and the lubrication of the compression process. The basic transcritical HTTP cycle with additional IHX was demonstrated to be the most efficient cycle across a variety of heat source temperatures ranging from 70 to 90 °C based on theoretical energetic and exergetic performance.

Keywords: high-temperature heat pump, transcritical cycle, refrigerants, gas cooler, energy, exergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7 Impact of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Generation Technology on Distribution Network Development

Authors: Sreto Boljevic


In the absence of considerable investment in electricity generation, transmission and distribution network (DN) capacity, the demand for electrical energy will quickly strain the capacity of the existing electrical power network. With anticipated growth and proliferation of Electric vehicles (EVs) and Heat pump (HPs) identified the likelihood that the additional load from EV changing and the HPs operation will require capital investment in the DN. While an area-wide implementation of EVs and HPs will contribute to the decarbonization of the energy system, they represent new challenges for the existing low-voltage (LV) network. Distributed energy resources (DER), operating both as part of the DN and in the off-network mode, have been offered as a means to meet growing electricity demand while maintaining and ever-improving DN reliability, resiliency and power quality. DN planning has traditionally been done by forecasting future growth in demand and estimating peak load that the network should meet. However, new problems are arising. These problems are associated with a high degree of proliferation of EVs and HPs as load imposes on DN. In addition to that, the promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES). High distributed generation (DG) penetration and a large increase in load proliferation at low-voltage DNs may have numerous impacts on DNs that create issues that include energy losses, voltage control, fault levels, reliability, resiliency and power quality. To mitigate negative impacts and at a same time enhance positive impacts regarding the new operational state of DN, CHP system integration can be seen as best action to postpone/reduce capital investment needed to facilitate promotion and maximize benefits of EVs, HPs and RES integration in low-voltage DN. The aim of this paper is to generate an algorithm by using an analytical approach. Algorithm implementation will provide a way for optimal placement of the CHP system in the DN in order to maximize the integration of RES and increase in proliferation of EVs and HPs.

Keywords: combined heat & power (CHP), distribution networks, EVs, HPs, RES

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
6 Assessment of Hydrogen Demand for Different Technological Pathways to Decarbonise the Aviation Sector in Germany

Authors: Manish Khanra, Shashank Prabhu


The decarbonization of hard-to-abate sectors is currently high on the agenda in the EU and its member states, as these sectors have substantial shares in overall GHG emissions while it is facing serious challenges to decarbonize. In particular, the aviation sector accounts for 2.8% of global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. These emissions are anticipated to grow dramatically unless immediate mitigating efforts are implemented. Hydrogen and its derivatives based on renewable electricity can have a key role in the transition towards CO₂-neutral flights. The substantial shares of energy carriers in the form of drop-in fuel, direct combustion and Hydrogen-to-Electric are promising in most scenarios towards 2050. For creating appropriate policies to ramp up the production and utilisation of hydrogen commodities in the German aviation sector, a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of supply-demand sites is essential. The objective of this research work is to assess the demand for hydrogen-based alternative fuels in the German aviation sector to achieve the perceived goal of the ‘Net Zero’ scenario by 2050. Here, the analysis of the technological pathways for the production and utilisation of these fuels in various aircraft options is conducted for reaching mitigation targets. Our method is based on data-driven bottom-up assessment, considering production and demand sites and their spatial distribution. The resulting energy demand and its spatial distribution with consideration of technology diffusion lead to a possible transition pathway of the aviation sector to meet short-term and long-term mitigation targets. Additionally, to achieve mitigation targets in this sector, costs and policy aspects are discussed, which would support decision-makers from airline industries, policymakers and the producers of energy commodities.

Keywords: the aviation sector, hard-to-abate sectors, hydrogen demand, alternative fuels, technological pathways, data-driven approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
5 Renovate to nZEB of an Existing Building in the Mediterranean Area: Analysis of the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for the HVAC System

Authors: M. Baratieri, M. Beccali, S. Corradino, B. Di Pietra, C. La Grassa, F. Monteleone, G. Morosinotto, G. Puglisi


The energy renovation of existing buildings represents an important opportunity to increase the decarbonization and the sustainability of urban environments. In this context, the work carried out has the objective of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of an energy renovate of a public building destined for offices located on the island of Lampedusa in the Mediterranean Sea. By applying the Italian transpositions of European Directives 2010/31/EU and 2009/28/EC, the building has been renovated from the current energy requirements of 111.7 kWh/m² to 16.4 kWh/m². The result achieved classifies the building as nZEB (nearly Zero Energy Building) according to the Italian national definition. The analysis was carried out using in parallel a quasi-stationary software, normally used in the professional field, and a dynamic simulation model often used in the academic world. The proposed interventions cover the components of the building’s envelope, the heating-cooling system and the supply of energy from renewable sources. In these latter points, the analysis has focused more on assessing two aspects that affect the supply of renewable energy. The first concerns the use of advanced logic control systems for air conditioning units in order to increase photovoltaic self-consumption. With these adjustments, a considerable increase in photovoltaic self-consumption and a decrease in the electricity exported to the Island's electricity grid have been obtained. The second point concerned the evaluation of the building's energy classification considering the real efficiency of the heating-cooling plant. Normally the energy plants have lower operational efficiency than the designed one due to multiple reasons; the decrease in the energy classification of the building for this factor has been quantified. This study represents an important example for the evaluation of the best interventions for the energy renovation of buildings in the Mediterranean Climate and a good description of the correct methodology to evaluate the resulting improvements.

Keywords: heat pumps, HVAC systems, nZEB renovation, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
4 Cross-Sectoral Energy Demand Prediction for Germany with a 100% Renewable Energy Production in 2050

Authors: Ali Hashemifarzad, Jens Zum Hingst


The structure of the world’s energy systems has changed significantly over the past years. One of the most important challenges in the 21st century in Germany (and also worldwide) is the energy transition. This transition aims to comply with the recent international climate agreements from the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) to ensure sustainable energy supply with minimal use of fossil fuels. Germany aims for complete decarbonization of the energy sector by 2050 according to the federal climate protection plan. One of the stipulations of the Renewable Energy Sources Act 2017 for the expansion of energy production from renewable sources in Germany is that they cover at least 80% of the electricity requirement in 2050; The Gross end energy consumption is targeted for at least 60%. This means that by 2050, the energy supply system would have to be almost completely converted to renewable energy. An essential basis for the development of such a sustainable energy supply from 100% renewable energies is to predict the energy requirement by 2050. This study presents two scenarios for the final energy demand in Germany in 2050. In the first scenario, the targets for energy efficiency increase and demand reduction are set very ambitiously. To build a comparison basis, the second scenario provides results with less ambitious assumptions. For this purpose, first, the relevant framework conditions (following CUTEC 2016) were examined, such as the predicted population development and economic growth, which were in the past a significant driver for the increase in energy demand. Also, the potential for energy demand reduction and efficiency increase (on the demand side) was investigated. In particular, current and future technological developments in energy consumption sectors and possible options for energy substitution (namely the electrification rate in the transport sector and the building renovation rate) were included. Here, in addition to the traditional electricity sector, the areas of heat, and fuel-based consumptions in different sectors such as households, commercial, industrial and transport are taken into account, supporting the idea that for a 100% supply from renewable energies, the areas currently based on (fossil) fuels must be almost completely be electricity-based by 2050. The results show that in the very ambitious scenario a final energy demand of 1,362 TWh/a is required, which is composed of 818 TWh/a electricity, 229 TWh/a ambient heat for electric heat pumps and approx. 315 TWh/a non-electric energy (raw materials for non-electrifiable processes). In the less ambitious scenario, in which the targets are not fully achieved by 2050, the final energy demand will need a higher electricity part of almost 1,138 TWh/a (from the total: 1,682 TWh/a). It has also been estimated that 50% of the electricity revenue must be saved to compensate for fluctuations in the daily and annual flows. Due to conversion and storage losses (about 50%), this would mean that the electricity requirement for the very ambitious scenario would increase to 1,227 TWh / a.

Keywords: energy demand, energy transition, German Energiewende, 100% renewable energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3 Decentralized Peak-Shaving Strategies for Integrated Domestic Batteries

Authors: Corentin Jankowiak, Aggelos Zacharopoulos, Caterina Brandoni


In a context of increasing stress put on the electricity network by the decarbonization of many sectors, energy storage is likely to be the key mitigating element, by acting as a buffer between production and demand. In particular, the highest potential for storage is when connected closer to the loads. Yet, low voltage storage struggles to penetrate the market at a large scale due to the novelty and complexity of the solution, and the competitive advantage of fossil fuel-based technologies regarding regulations. Strong and reliable numerical simulations are required to show the benefits of storage located near loads and promote its development. The present study was restrained from excluding aggregated control of storage: it is assumed that the storage units operate independently to one another without exchanging information – as is currently mostly the case. A computationally light battery model is presented in detail and validated by direct comparison with a domestic battery operating in real conditions. This model is then used to develop Peak-Shaving (PS) control strategies as it is the decentralized service from which beneficial impacts are most likely to emerge. The aggregation of flatter, peak- shaved consumption profiles is likely to lead to flatter and arbitraged profile at higher voltage layers. Furthermore, voltage fluctuations can be expected to decrease if spikes of individual consumption are reduced. The crucial part to achieve PS lies in the charging pattern: peaks depend on the switching on and off of appliances in the dwelling by the occupants and are therefore impossible to predict accurately. A performant PS strategy must, therefore, include a smart charge recovery algorithm that can ensure enough energy is present in the battery in case it is needed without generating new peaks by charging the unit. Three categories of PS algorithms are introduced in detail. First, using a constant threshold or power rate for charge recovery, followed by algorithms using the State Of Charge (SOC) as a decision variable. Finally, using a load forecast – of which the impact of the accuracy is discussed – to generate PS. A performance metrics was defined in order to quantitatively evaluate their operating regarding peak reduction, total energy consumption, and self-consumption of domestic photovoltaic generation. The algorithms were tested on load profiles with a 1-minute granularity over a 1-year period, and their performance was assessed regarding these metrics. The results show that constant charging threshold or power are far from optimal: a certain value is not likely to fit the variability of a residential profile. As could be expected, forecast-based algorithms show the highest performance. However, these depend on the accuracy of the forecast. On the other hand, SOC based algorithms also present satisfying performance, making them a strong alternative when the reliable forecast is not available.

Keywords: decentralised control, domestic integrated batteries, electricity network performance, peak-shaving algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2 Modeling and Energy Analysis of Limestone Decomposition with Microwave Heating

Authors: Sofia N. Gonçalves, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


The energy transition is spurred by structural changes in energy demand, supply, and prices. Microwave technology was first proposed as a faster alternative for cooking food. It was found that food heated instantly when interacting with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The dielectric properties account for a material’s ability to absorb electromagnetic energy and dissipate this energy in the form of heat. Many energy-intense industries could benefit from electromagnetic heating since many of the raw materials are dielectric at high temperatures. Limestone sedimentary rock is a dielectric material intensively used in the cement industry to produce unslaked lime. A numerical 3D model was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics to study the limestone continuous processing under microwave heating. The model solves the two-way coupling between the Energy equation and Maxwell’s equations as well as the coupling between heat transfer and chemical interfaces. Complementary, a controller was implemented to optimize the overall heating efficiency and control the numerical model stability. This was done by continuously matching the cavity impedance and predicting the required energy for the system, avoiding energy inefficiencies. This controller was developed in MATLAB and successfully fulfilled all these goals. The limestone load influence on thermal decomposition and overall process efficiency was the main object of this study. The procedure considered the Verification and Validation of the chemical kinetics model separately from the coupled model. The chemical model was found to correctly describe the chosen kinetic equation, and the coupled model successfully solved the equations describing the numerical model. The interaction between flow of material and electric field Poynting vector revealed to influence limestone decomposition, as a result from the low dielectric properties of limestone. The numerical model considered this effect and took advantage from this interaction. The model was demonstrated to be highly unstable when solving non-linear temperature distributions. Limestone has a dielectric loss response that increases with temperature and has low thermal conductivity. For this reason, limestone is prone to produce thermal runaway under electromagnetic heating, as well as numerical model instabilities. Five different scenarios were tested by considering a material fill ratio of 30%, 50%, 65%, 80%, and 100%. Simulating the tube rotation for mixing enhancement was proven to be beneficial and crucial for all loads considered. When uniform temperature distribution is accomplished, the electromagnetic field and material interaction is facilitated. The results pointed out the inefficient development of the electric field within the bed for 30% fill ratio. The thermal efficiency showed the propensity to stabilize around 90%for loads higher than 50%. The process accomplished a maximum microwave efficiency of 75% for the 80% fill ratio, sustaining that the tube has an optimal fill of material. Electric field peak detachment was observed for the case with 100% fill ratio, justifying the lower efficiencies compared to 80%. Microwave technology has been demonstrated to be an important ally for the decarbonization of the cement industry.

Keywords: CFD numerical simulations, efficiency optimization, electromagnetic heating, impedance matching, limestone continuous processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
1 A Microwave Heating Model for Endothermic Reaction in the Cement Industry

Authors: Sofia N. Gonçalves, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


Microwave technology has been gaining importance in contributing to decarbonization processes in high energy demand industries. Despite the several numerical models presented in the literature, a proper Verification and Validation exercise is still lacking. This is important and required to evaluate the physical process model accuracy and adequacy. Another issue addresses impedance matching, which is an important mechanism used in microwave experiments to increase electromagnetic efficiency. Such mechanism is not available in current computational tools, thus requiring an external numerical procedure. A numerical model was implemented to study the continuous processing of limestone with microwave heating. This process requires the material to be heated until a certain temperature that will prompt a highly endothermic reaction. Both a 2D and 3D model were built in COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the two-way coupling between Maxwell and Energy equations, along with the coupling between both heat transfer phenomena and limestone endothermic reaction. The 2D model was used to study and evaluate the required numerical procedure, being also a benchmark test, allowing other authors to implement impedance matching procedures. To achieve this goal, a controller built in MATLAB was used to continuously matching the cavity impedance and predicting the required energy for the system, thus successfully avoiding energy inefficiencies. The 3D model reproduces realistic results and therefore supports the main conclusions of this work. Limestone was modeled as a continuous flow under the transport of concentrated species, whose material and kinetics properties were taken from literature. Verification and Validation of the coupled model was taken separately from the chemical kinetic model. The chemical kinetic model was found to correctly describe the chosen kinetic equation by comparing numerical results with experimental data. A solution verification was made for the electromagnetic interface, where second order and fourth order accurate schemes were found for linear and quadratic elements, respectively, with numerical uncertainty lower than 0.03%. Regarding the coupled model, it was demonstrated that the numerical error would diverge for the heat transfer interface with the mapped mesh. Results showed numerical stability for the triangular mesh, and the numerical uncertainty was less than 0.1%. This study evaluated limestone velocity, heat transfer, and load influence on thermal decomposition and overall process efficiency. The velocity and heat transfer coefficient were studied with the 2D model, while different loads of material were studied with the 3D model. Both models demonstrated to be highly unstable when solving non-linear temperature distributions. High velocity flows exhibited propensity to thermal runways, and the thermal efficiency showed the tendency to stabilize for the higher velocities and higher filling ratio. Microwave efficiency denoted an optimal velocity for each heat transfer coefficient, pointing out that electromagnetic efficiency is a consequence of energy distribution uniformity. The 3D results indicated the inefficient development of the electric field for low filling ratios. Thermal efficiencies higher than 90% were found for the higher loads and microwave efficiencies up to 75% were accomplished. The 80% fill ratio was demonstrated to be the optimal load with an associated global efficiency of 70%.

Keywords: multiphysics modeling, microwave heating, verification and validation, endothermic reactions modeling, impedance matching, limestone continuous processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 65