Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Laurence Stamford

25 Integrating Circular Economy Framework into Life Cycle Analysis: An Exploratory Study Applied to Geothermal Power Generation Technologies

Authors: Jingyi Li, Laurence Stamford, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid


Renewable electricity has become an indispensable contributor to achieving net-zero by the mid-century to tackle climate change. Unlike solar, wind, or hydro, geothermal was stagnant in its electricity production development for decades. However, with the significant breakthrough made in recent years, especially the implementation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in various regions globally, geothermal electricity could play a pivotal role in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. Life cycle assessment has been applied to analyze specific geothermal power generation technologies, which proposed suggestions to optimize its environmental performance. For instance, selecting a high heat gradient region enables a higher flow rate from the production well and extends the technical lifespan. Although such process-level improvements have been made, the significance of geothermal power generation technologies so far has not explicitly displayed its competitiveness on a broader horizon. Therefore, this review-based study integrates a circular economy framework into life cycle assessment, clarifying the underlying added values for geothermal power plants to complete the sustainability profile. The derived results have provided an enlarged platform to discuss geothermal power generation technologies: (i) recover the heat and electricity from the process to reduce the fossil fuel requirements; (ii) recycle the construction materials, such as copper, steel, and aluminum for future projects; (iii) extract the lithium ions from geothermal brine and make geothermal reservoir become a potential supplier of the lithium battery industry; (iv) repurpose the abandoned oil and gas wells to build geothermal power plants; (v) integrate geothermal energy with other available renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) to provide heat and electricity as a hybrid system at different weather; (vi) rethink the fluids used in stimulation process (EGS only), replace water with CO2 to achieve negative emissions from the system. These results provided a new perspective to the researchers, investors, and policymakers to rethink the role of geothermal in the energy supply network.

Keywords: climate, renewable energy, R strategies, sustainability

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24 Using Blackboard to Enhance Academic Writing Classes

Authors: Laurence Craven


Academic writing is one of the most important class a freshman will take, as it provides the skill needed to formulate an academic essay in any discipline. Written assignments are the most common form of assessment in higher education and thus it is of paramount importance for students to master the skill of academic writing. This presentation aims to give practitioners multiple ways to enhance their academic writing classes using the Blackboard environment, with a view to improving student performance. The presentation will include ways to improve assessment and give corrective feedback. It will also provide ideas on how to increase variety in teaching lessons, assigning homework and on organizing materials.

Keywords: academic writing, assessment, e-learning, technology

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23 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller


A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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22 The Distribution of HLA-DQA1*01:02 and HLA-DQB1*06:02 Frequencies in Thais and Asians: Genetics Database Insight for COVID-19 Severity

Authors: Jinu Phonamontham


Introduction: Coronavirus, also referred to as COVID-19, is a virus caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus. The pandemic has caused over 10 million cases and 500,000 deaths worldwide through the end of June 2020. In a previous study, HLA-DQA1*01:02 allele was associated with COVID-19 disease (p-value = 0.0121). Furthermore, there was a statistical significance between HLA- DQB1*06:02 and COVID-19 in the Italian population by Bonferroni’s correction (p-value = 0.0016). Nevertheless, there is no data describing the distribution of HLA alleles as a valid marker for the prediction of COVID-19 in the Thai population. Objective: We want to investigate the prevalence of HLA-DQA1*01:02 and HLA-DQB1*06:02 alleles that are associated with severe COVID-19 in the Thai population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we recruited 200 healthy Thai individuals. Genomic DNA samples were isolated from EDTA blood using the Genomic DNA Mini Kit. HLA genotyping was conducted using the Lifecodes HLA SSO typing kits (Immucor, West Avenue, Stamford, USA). Results: The frequency of HLA-DQA1 alleles in Thai population, consisting of HLA-DQA1*01:01 (27.75%), HLA-DQA1*01:02 (24.50%), HLA-DQA1*03:03 (13.00%), HLA-DQA1*06:01 (10.25%) and HLA-DQA1*02:01 (6.75%). Furthermore, the distributions of HLA-DQB1 alleles were HLA-DQB1*05:02 (21.50%), HLA-DQB1*03:01 (15.75%), HLA-DQB1*05:01 (14.50%), HLA-DQB1*03:03 (11.00%) and HLA-DQB1*02:02 (8.25%). Particularly, HLA- DQA1*01:02 (29.00%) allele was the highest frequency in the NorthEast group, but there was not a significant difference when compared with the other regions in Thais (p-value = 0.4202). HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele was similarly distributed in Thai population, and there was no significant difference between Thais and China (3.8%) and South Korea (6.36%), and Japan (8.2.%) with p-value > 0.05. Whereas South Africa (15.7%) has a significance with Thais by p-value of 0.0013. Conclusions: This study supports the specific genotyping of the .HLA-DQA1*01:02 and HLA-DQB1*06:02 alleles to screen severe COVID-19 in Thai and many populations.

Keywords: HLA-DQA1*01:02, HLA-DQB1*06:02, Asian, Thai population

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21 Droning the Pedagogy: Future Prospect of Teaching and Learning

Authors: Farha Sattar, Laurence Tamatea, Muhammad Nawaz


Drones, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are playing an important role in real-world problem-solving. With the new advancements in technology, drones are becoming available, affordable and user- friendly. Use of drones in education is opening new trends in teaching and learning practices in an innovative and engaging way. Drones vary in types and sizes and possess various characteristics and capabilities which enhance their potential to be used in education from basic to advanced and challenging learning activities which are suitable for primary, middle and high school level. This research aims to provide an insight to explore different types of drones and their compatibility to be used in teaching different subjects at various levels. Research focuses on integrating the drone technology along with Australian curriculum content knowledge to reinforce the understanding of the fundamental concepts and helps to develop the critical thinking and reasoning in the learning process.

Keywords: critical thinking, drone technology, drone types, innovative learning

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20 Update on Genetic Diversity for Lamotrigine Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Authors: Natida Thongsima, Patompong Satapornpong


Introduction: Lamotrigine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. However, lamotrigine leads to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consist of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Moreover, lamotrigine-induced SCARs is usually manifested between 2 and 8 weeks after treatment initiation. A previous study, there was found the association between HLA-B*15:02 and lamotrigine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions in the Thai population (odds ratio 4.89; 95% CI 1.28–18.66; p-value = 0.014). Therefore, the distribution of pharmacogenetics markers that a major role in predicting the culprit drugs for SCARs in many populations. Objective: In this study, we want to investigate the prevalence of the HLA-B allele, which correlations in lamotrigine-induced SCARs in a healthy Thai population. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 350 healthy Thai individuals and were approved by the ethics committee of Rangsit University. HLA-B alleles were genotyped by the Lifecodes HLA SSO typing kits (Immucor, West Avenue, Stamford, USA). Results: The results presented HLA-B allele frequency in healthy Thai population were 14.71% (HLA-B*46:01), 8.57% (HLA-B*15:02), 6.71% (HLA-B*40:01), 5.86% (HLA-B*13:01), 5.71% (HLA-B*58:01), 5.14% (HLA-B*38:02), 4.86% (HLA-B*18:01), 4.59% (HLA-B*51:01), 3.86% (HLA-B*44:03) and 2.71% (HLA-B*07:05). Especially, the HLA-B*15:02 allele was the high frequency in the Thais (8.57%), Han Chinese (7.30%), Vietnamese (13.50%), Malaysian (6.06%) and Indonesian (11.60%). Notwithstanding, this allele was much lower in other populations, namely, Africans, Caucasians and Japanese. Conclusions: Although the samples size of the healthy Thai population in this research was limited, there were found the frequency of the HLA-B*15:02 allele could predisposition toward lamotrigine-induced SCARs in Thailand.

Keywords: lamotrigine, cutaneous adverse drug reactions, HLA-B, Thai population

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19 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko


Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, flavonoids, terpenoids, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative

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18 Assembly Solution for Modular Buildings: Development of a Plug-In Self-Locking Device Designed for Light-Framed Structures

Authors: Laurence Picard, André Bégin-Drolet, Pierre Blanchet


The prefabricated construction industry has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction by its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. Faced with the global housing crisis, prefabrication should be the first choice for erecting buildings quickly and at a low cost. However, the reality is quite different; manufacturers focus their operations mainly on single-home construction. This is explained by the lack of a suitable and efficient assembly solution for erecting large-scale buildings. Indeed, it is difficult to maintain the coveted advantages of prefabrication with a laborious on-site assembly and a colossal load of additional operations such as the installation of fasteners and the internal finishing. In the desire to maximize the benefits of prefabrication and make it a smart choice even for large buildings, an automated connection solution is developed. The plug-in self-locking device was developed accordingly to the product design phases: on-site observations, the definition of the problem and product requirements, solution generation, prototyping, fabricating and testing.

Keywords: assembly solution, automation, construction productivity, modular connection, modular buildings, plug-in device, self-lock mechanism

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17 Experimental Quantification and Modeling of Dissolved Gas during Hydrate Crystallization: CO₂ Hydrate Case

Authors: Amokrane Boufares, Elise Provost, Veronique Osswald, Pascal Clain, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Didier Dalmazzone


Gas hydrates have long been considered as problematic for flow assurance in natural gas and oil transportation. On the other hand, they are now seen as future promising materials for various applications (i.e. desalination of seawater, natural gas and hydrogen storage, gas sequestration, gas combustion separation and cold storage and transport). Nonetheless, a better understanding of the crystallization mechanism of gas hydrate and of their formation kinetics is still needed for a better comprehension and control of the process. To that purpose, measuring the real-time evolution of the dissolved gas concentration in the aqueous phase during hydrate formation is required. In this work, CO₂ hydrates were formed in a stirred reactor equipped with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) probe coupled to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. A method was first developed to continuously measure in-situ the CO₂ concentration in the liquid phase during solubilization, supersaturation, hydrate crystallization and dissociation steps. Thereafter, the measured concentration data were compared with those of equilibrium concentrations. It was observed that the equilibrium is instantly reached in the liquid phase due to the fast consumption of dissolved gas by the hydrate crystallization. Consequently, it was shown that hydrate crystallization kinetics is limited by the gas transfer at the gas-liquid interface. Finally, we noticed that the liquid-hydrate equilibrium during the hydrate crystallization is governed by the temperature of the experiment under the tested conditions.

Keywords: gas hydrate, dissolved gas, crystallization, infrared spectroscopy

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16 'Freud and Jung: Dissenting Friends'; An Analysis of the Foundations of the Psychoanalytical Theory in Theirs Letters

Authors: Laurence Doremus


Freud as the builder of psychoanalysis as a discipline had created the science with Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a psychiatry specialist from Zurich who was very important in the Freudian theory. The knowledge about the foundation of psychoanalysis is often focused on the influence of the works from Breuer or Charcot in the Freudian praxis, at least at the beginning of his career, and Jung's influence is often under-estimated. The paper focuses on the importance of the Jungian contributions in Freud's theories at the beginning of the creation of the discipline in the 1910s. We often meet Jungian schools on the first hand and Freudian schools, on the other hand in the academic field, but the Freudian field has to admit the importance of the Jungian theories in Freudian science. And also, the dialectical energy which appears in the letters exchanged between both of the fathers of psychoanalysis is important to understand the foundations of Freud Theory. That's why the paper will analyze in detail the correspondence between them in an epistemological and historical approach. Effectively the letters were translated and published (in French but also in English and other languages) lately in history and are still not well knew by the researchers in the psychoanalytical field. We well explain how Freud was helped by Jung despite his desire to build the theory. We analyze how the second topic named 'unconscious, preconscious, and conscious', is the result of the first topic that Jung built with Freud. The paper is a contribution to the knowledge we should have about the intense friendship between the two protagonists.

Keywords: Carl Gustav Jung, correspondence, Freud's letters, psychoanalytic theory

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15 A Taxonomy of the Informational Content of Virtual Heritage Serious Games

Authors: Laurence C. Hanes, Robert J. Stone


Video games have reached a point of huge commercial success as well as wide familiarity with audiences both young and old. Much attention and research have also been directed towards serious games and their potential learning affordances. It is little surprise that the field of virtual heritage has taken a keen interest in using serious games to present cultural heritage information to users, with applications ranging from museums and cultural heritage institutions, to academia and research, to schools and education. Many researchers have already documented their efforts to develop and distribute virtual heritage serious games. Although attempts have been made to create classifications of the different types of virtual heritage games (somewhat akin to the idea of game genres), no formal taxonomy has yet been produced to define the different types of cultural heritage and historical information that can be presented through these games at a content level, and how the information can be manifested within the game. This study proposes such a taxonomy. First the informational content is categorized as heritage or historical, then further divided into tangible, intangible, natural, and analytical. Next, the characteristics of the manifestation within the game are covered. The means of manifestation, level of demonstration, tone, and focus are all defined and explained. Finally, the potential learning outcomes of the content are discussed. A demonstration of the taxonomy is then given by describing the informational content and corresponding manifestations within several examples of virtual heritage serious games as well as commercial games. It is anticipated that this taxonomy will help designers of virtual heritage serious games to think about and clearly define the information they are presenting through their games, and how they are presenting it. Another result of the taxonomy is that it will enable us to frame cultural heritage and historical information presented in commercial games with a critical lens, especially where there may not be explicit learning objectives. Finally, the results will also enable us to identify shared informational content and learning objectives between any virtual heritage serious and/or commercial games.

Keywords: informational content, serious games, taxonomy, virtual heritage

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14 Modified Mangrove Pens for Polyculture System in Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) and Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Production

Authors: Laurence G. Almoguera, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Armando N. Espino, Marvin M. Cinense


The mangrove pens were modified to produce mud crab (Scylla serrata) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) in a polyculture system. The modification of mangrove pens was done by adding excavations inside the pen. The water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, and temperature) were monitored, the recovery and the production rate in each pen were evaluated. The experiment was conducted for a rearing period of 143 days in nine mangrove pens, each having an area of 32 m² with an average net enclosure height of 3 m from the soil surface. The three different pens constructed (existing design - with canal only, with 43% excavation by area, and 54% excavation by area) were designated as T₁, T₂, and T₃, respectively. All experimental units were stocked with 31 pieces of crablets (with 33.3 g average weight) and additional 130 pieces of milkfish fingerlings (with 0.11 g average weight) to the modified mangrove pens. The water quality parameters recorded in the pens were favorable for the growth and recovery of the mud crab and milkfish, except for dissolved oxygen (DO). It was found to be the reason for the total mortality of the stocked milkfish. For mud crab, the highest mean recovery was recorded in T₂ (34.41%), followed by T₃ (26.91%) and the lowest in T1 (21.50%). The production rate followed the same trend as the recovery, where T₂ (74.49 g/m²) obtained the highest, followed by T₃ (55 g/m2) and the lowest was in T₁ (34.87 g/m²). The statistical analysis revealed that the variations of the mud crab recovery were not significant, while in terms of production rate, modified mangrove pens were found to be more effective than the existing design. Due to the total mortality of the cultured milkfish, the current set-up of modified mangrove pens was found to be not suitable for the polyculture system of milkfish and mud crab production.

Keywords: aquasilviculture, milkfish, modified mangrove pen, mud crab, polyculture, production rate

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13 Photomicrograph-Based Neuropathology Consultation in Tanzania; The Utility of Static-Image Neurotelepathology in Low- And Middle-Income Countries

Authors: Francis Zerd, Brian E. Moore, Atuganile E. Malango, Patrick W. Hosokawa, Kevin O. Lillehei, Laurence Lemery Mchome, D. Ryan Ormond


Introduction: Since neuropathologic diagnosis in the developing world is hampered by limitations in technical infrastructure, trained laboratory personnel, and subspecialty-trained pathologists, the use of telepathology for diagnostic support, second-opinion consultations, and ongoing training holds promise as a means of addressing these challenges. This research aims to assess the utility of static teleneuropathology in improving neuropathologic diagnoses in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Consecutive neurosurgical biopsy and resection specimens obtained at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, were selected for retrospective, blinded static-image neuropathologic review followed by on-site review by an expert neuropathologist. Results: A total of 75 neuropathologic cases were reviewed. The agreement of static images and on-site glass diagnosis was 71% with strict criteria and 88% with less stringent criteria. This represents an overall improvement in diagnostic accuracy from 36% by general pathologists to 71% by a neuropathologist using static telepathology (or 76% to 88% with less stringent criteria). Conclusions: Telepathology offers a suitable means of providing diagnostic support, second-opinion consultations, and ongoing training to pathologists practicing in resource-limited countries. Moreover, static digital teleneuropathology is an uncomplicated, cost-effective, and reliable way to achieve these goals.

Keywords: neuropathology, resource-limited settings, static image, Tanzania, teleneuropathology

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12 Reusability of Coimmobilized Enzymes

Authors: Aleksandra Łochowicz, Daria Świętochowska, Loredano Pollegioni, Nazim Ocal, Franck Charmantray, Laurence Hecquet, Katarzyna Szymańska


Multienzymatic cascade reactions are nowadays widely used in pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetics industries to produce high valuable compounds. They can be carried out in two ways, step by step and one-pot. If two or more enzymes are in the same reaction vessel is necessary to work out the compromise to run the reaction in optimal conditions for each enzyme. So far most of the reports of multienzymatic cascades concern on usage of free enzymes. Unfortunately using free enzymes as catalysts of reactions accomplish high cost. What is more, free enzymes are soluble in solvents which makes reuse impossible. To overcome this obstacle enzymes can be immobilized what provides heterogeneity of biocatalyst that enables reuse and easy separation of the enzyme from solvents and reaction products. Usually, immobilization increase also the thermal and operational stability of enzyme. The advantages of using immobilized multienzymes are enhanced enzyme stability, improved cascade enzymatic activity via substrate channeling, and ease of recovery for reuse. The one-pot immobilized multienzymatic cascade can be carried out in mixed or coimmobilized type. When biocatalysts are coimmobilized on the same carrier the are in close contact to each other which increase the reaction rate and catalytic efficiency, and eliminate the lag time. However, in this type providing the optimal conditions both in the process of immobilization and cascade reaction for each enzyme is complicated. Herein, we examined immobilization of 3 enzymes: D-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis, commercially available catalase and transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. As a support we used silica monoliths with hierarchical structure of pores. Then we checked their stability and reusability in one-pot cascade of L-erythrulose and hydroxypuryvate acid synthesis.

Keywords: biocatalysts, enzyme immobilization, multienzymatic reaction, silica carriers

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11 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys


During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: comfort, dentists, garment, thermal

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10 A Temporal QoS Ontology For ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien


Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. Indeed, a user operation, such as adding a new constraint on existing planning constraints can cause temporal inconsistencies, which can lead to system failures. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are given.

Keywords: system requirement specification, ERTMS/ETCS, temporal ontologies, domain ontologies

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9 Assessment of Acquired Language Disorders in Bilingual French-English Adults in Ontario: Current Practice and Challenges

Authors: Sophie Laurence, Catherine Rivard


The assessment of acquired language disorders in the adult population, whether for a bilingual or monolingual adult, is a complex process that requires the speech-language pathologist (SLP) to make a judicious choice when selecting the assessment method and tools. However, this task is even more complex with Ontario's bilingual population due to the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate tools for this population. Numerous researches examined language assessment of the pediatric bilingual population; however, few studies have focused on assessing acquired language disorders in bilingual adults. This study's main objective is to identify the challenges that SLPs encounter when assessing language in the bilingual English-French adult population in Ontario to ultimately be able to serve this population in the future better. An online questionnaire was made available to 1325 members of the College of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists of Ontario (CASLPO) who work with the adult population. The answers to this questionnaire (n = 71) allowed us to identify the tools and strategies most commonly used by SLPs in current practice, identify the assessment challenges faced by SLPs, and determine the causes of these challenges as well as potential solutions. In an English and French assessment, the Western Aphasia Battery, the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Boston Naming Test were the three tools that respondents deemed to be the most relevant for the assessment. Besides, the results revealed that limited access to SLPs and interpreters who speak the client's language and the lack of standardized and normalized assessment tools for Ontario's French-speaking and bilingual English-French clientele are at the heart of the challenges of current SLP practice. Consistent with these findings, respondents highlighted two potential solutions to address these challenges: SLPs have access to standardized/normalized tools for the population under study and better access to SLPs and interpreters who speak the client's language.

Keywords: assessment, acquired language disorders, bilingualism, speech-Language pathology, adult population

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8 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence


Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

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7 Improving Collective Health and Social Care through a Better Consideration of Sex and Gender: Analytical Report by the French National Authority for Health

Authors: Thomas Suarez, Anne-Sophie Grenouilleau, Erwan Autin, Alexandre Biosse-Duplan, Emmanuelle Blondet, Laurence Chazalette, Marie Coniel, Agnes Dessaigne, Sylvie Lascols, Andrea Lasserre, Candice Legris, Pierre Liot, Aline Metais, Karine Petitprez, Christophe Varlet, Christian Saout


Background: The role of biological sex and gender identity -whether assigned or chosen- as health determinants are far from a recent discovery: several reports have stressed out how being a woman or a man could affect health on various scales. However, taking it into consideration beyond stereotypes and rigid binary assumptions still seems to be a work in progress. Method: The report is a synthesis on a variety of specific topics, each of which was studied by a specialist from the French National Authority for Health (HAS), through an analysis of existing literature on both healthcare policy construction process and instruments (norms, data analysis, clinical trials, guidelines, and professional practices). This work also implied a policy analysis of French recent public health laws and a retrospective study of guidelines with a gender mainstreaming approach. Results: The analysis showed that though sex and gender were well-known determinants of health, their consideration by both public policy and health operators was often incomplete, as it does not incorporate how sex and gender interact, as well as how they interact with other factors. As a result, the health and social care systems and their professionals tend to reproduce some stereotypical and inadequate habits. Though the data available often allows to take sex and gender into consideration, such data is often underused in practice guidelines and policy formulation. Another consequence is a lack of inclusiveness towards transgender or intersex persons. Conclusions: This report first urges for raising awareness of all the actors of health, in its broadest definition, that sex and gender matter beyond first-look conclusions. It makes a series of recommendations in order to reshape policy construction in the health sector on the one hand and to design public health instruments to make them more inclusive regarding sex and gender on the other hand. The HAS finally committed to integrate sex and gender preoccupations in its workings methods, to be a driving force in the spread of these concerns.

Keywords: biological sex, determinants of health, gender, healthcare policy instruments, social accompaniment

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6 Effect of Water Addition on Catalytic Activity for CO2 Purification from Oxyfuel Combustion

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin


Oxyfuel combustion is a promising method that enables to obtain a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor ( ̴10%), unburned components such as CO and NO, which must be cleaned before the use of CO2. Our objective is then the final treatment of CO and NO by catalysis. Three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of NO, CO and hydrocarbons. Pt and/or Rh ensure a quasi-complete removal of NOx, CO and HC and there is also a growing interest in partly replacing Pt with less-expensive Pd. The use of alumina and ceria as support ensures, respectively, the stabilization of such species in active state and discharging or storing oxygen to control the oxidation of CO and HC and the reduction of NOx. In this work, we will compare different metals (Pd, Rh and Pt) supported on Al2O3 and CeO2, for CO2 purification from oxyfuel combustion. The catalyst must reduce NO by CO in an oxidizing environment, in the presence of CO2 rich stream and resistant to water. In this study, Al2O3 and CeO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% M/Support where M = Pd, Rh or Pt catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2], rhodium [Rh(NO3)3] and platinum [Pt(NO2)2(NO3)2]. Materials were characterized by BET surface area, H2 chemisorption, and TEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200 mL.min−1, with same GHSV (2.24x104 h-1). The catalytic performances of the samples were investigated with and without water. It shows that the total oxidation of CO occurred over the different materials. This study evidenced an important effect of the nature of the metals, supports and the presence or absence of H2O during the reduction of NO by CO in oxyfuel combustions conditions. Rh based catalysts show that the addition of water has a very positive influence especially on the Rh catalyst on CeO2. Pt based catalysts keep a good activity despite the addition of water on the both supports studied. For the NO reduction, addition of water act as a poison with Pd catalysts. The interesting results of Rh based catalysts with water can be explained by a production of hydrogen through the water gas shift reaction. The produced hydrogen acts as a more effective reductant than CO for NO removal. Furthermore, in TWCs, Rh is the main component responsible for NOx reduction due to its especially high activity for NO dissociation. Moreover, cerium oxide is a promotor for WGSR.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, environmental chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis

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5 Abatement of NO by CO on Pd Catalysts: Influence of the Support in Oxyfuel Combustion Conditions

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin


The CO2 emitted from anthropic activities is perceived as a constraint in industrial activity due to taxes, stringent environmental regulations, impact on global warming… To limit these CO2 emissions, reuse of CO2 represents a promising alternative, with important applications in chemical industry and for power generation. However, CO2 valorization process requires a gas as pure as possible Oxyfuel-combustion that enables obtaining a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor (10%) is then interesting. Nevertheless to decrease the amount of the by-products found with the CO2 (especially CO and NOx which are harmful to the environment) a catalytic treatment must be applied. Nowadays three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The use of Pd attracted considerable attention on the basis of economic factors (the high cost and scarcity of Pt and Rh). This explains the large number of studies concerning the CO-NO reaction on Pd in the recent years. In the present study, we will compare a series of Pd materials supported on different oxides for CO2 purification from the oxyfuel combustion system, by reducing NO with CO in an oxidizing environment containing CO2 rich stream and presence of 8.2% of water. Al2O3, CeO2, MgO, SiO2 and TiO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% Pd/Support catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2]. The obtained samples were subsequently characterized by H2 chemisorption, BET surface area and TEM. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200mL.min−1, in the same GHSV. The catalytic performance of the Pd catalysts for CO2 purification revealed that: -The support material has a strong influence on the catalytic activity of 1wt.% Pd supported catalysts. depending of the nature of support, the Pd-based catalysts activity changes. -The highest reduction of NO with CO is obtained in the following ranking: TiO2>CeO2>Al2O3. -The supports SiO2 and MgO should be avoided for this reaction, -Total oxidation of CO occurred over different materials, -CO2 purification can reach 97%, -The presence of H2O has a positive effect on the NO reduction due to the production of the reductant H2 from WGS reaction H2O+CO → H2+CO2

Keywords: carbon dioxide, environmental chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, oxyfuel combustion

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4 Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Supermarket Refrigeration System: Effects of Location and Choice of Architecture

Authors: Yasmine Salehy, Yann Leroy, Francois Cluzel, Hong-Minh Hoang, Laurence Fournaison, Anthony Delahaye, Bernard Yannou


Taking into consideration all the life cycle of a product is now an important step in the eco-design of a product or a technology. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a standard tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a system or a process. Despite the improvement in refrigerant regulation through protocols, the environmental damage of refrigeration systems remains important and needs to be improved. In this paper, the environmental impacts of refrigeration systems in a typical supermarket are compared using the LCA methodology under different conditions. The system is used to provide cold at two levels of temperature: medium and low temperature during a life period of 15 years. The most commonly used architectures of supermarket cold production systems are investigated: centralized direct expansion systems and indirect systems using a secondary loop to transport the cold. The variation of power needed during seasonal changes and during the daily opening/closure periods of the supermarket are considered. R134a as the primary refrigerant fluid and two types of secondary fluids are considered. The composition of each system and the leakage rate of the refrigerant through its life cycle are taken from the literature and industrial data. Twelve scenarios are examined. They are based on the variation of three parameters, 1. location: France (Paris), Spain (Toledo) and Sweden (Stockholm), 2. different sources of electric consumption: photovoltaic panels and low voltage electric network and 3. architecture: direct and indirect refrigeration systems. OpenLCA, SimaPro softwares, and different impact assessment methods were compared; CML method is used to evaluate the midpoint environmental indicators. This study highlights the significant contribution of electric consumption in environmental damages compared to the impacts of refrigerant leakage. The secondary loop allows lowering the refrigerant amount in the primary loop which results in a decrease in the climate change indicators compared to the centralized direct systems. However, an exhaustive cost evaluation (CAPEX and OPEX) of both systems shows more important costs related to the indirect systems. A significant difference between the countries has been noticed, mostly due to the difference in electric production. In Spain, using photovoltaic panels helps to reduce efficiently the environmental impacts and the related costs. This scenario is the best alternative compared to the other scenarios. Sweden is a country with less environmental impacts. For both France and Sweden, the use of photovoltaic panels does not bring a significant difference, due to a less sunlight exposition than in Spain. Alternative solutions exist to reduce the impact of refrigerating systems, and a brief introduction is presented.

Keywords: eco-design, industrial engineering, LCA, refrigeration system

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3 Energy Efficiency of Secondary Refrigeration with Phase Change Materials and Impact on Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Authors: Michel Pons, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison


Secondary refrigeration consists of splitting large-size direct-cooling units into volume-limited primary cooling units complemented by secondary loops for transporting and distributing cold. Such a design reduces the refrigerant leaks, which represents a source of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. However, inserting the secondary circuit between the primary unit and the ‘users’ heat exchangers (UHX) increases the energy consumption of the whole process, which induces an indirect emission of greenhouse gases. It is thus important to check whether that efficiency loss is sufficiently limited for the change to be globally beneficial to the environment. Among the likely secondary fluids, phase change slurries offer several advantages: they transport latent heat, they stabilize the heat exchange temperature, and the formerly evaporators still can be used as UHX. The temperature level can also be adapted to the desired cooling application. Herein, the slurry {ice in mono-propylene-glycol solution} (melting temperature Tₘ of 6°C) is considered for food preservation, and the slurry {mixed hydrate of CO₂ + tetra-n-butyl-phosphonium-bromide in aqueous solution of this salt + CO₂} (melting temperature Tₘ of 13°C) is considered for air conditioning. For the sake of thermodynamic consistency, the analysis encompasses the whole process, primary cooling unit plus secondary slurry loop, and the various properties of the slurries, including their non-Newtonian viscosity. The design of the whole process is optimized according to the properties of the chosen slurry and under explicit constraints. As a first constraint, all the units must deliver the same cooling power to the user. The other constraints concern the heat exchanges areas, which are prescribed, and the flow conditions, which prevent deposition of the solid particles transported in the slurry, and their agglomeration. Minimization of the total energy consumption leads to the optimal design. In addition, the results are analyzed in terms of exergy losses, which allows highlighting the couplings between the primary unit and the secondary loop. One important difference between the ice-slurry and the mixed-hydrate one is the presence of gaseous carbon dioxide in the latter case. When the mixed-hydrate crystals melt in the UHX, CO₂ vapor is generated at a rate that depends on the phase change kinetics. The flow in the UHX, and its heat and mass transfer properties are significantly modified. This effect has never been investigated before. Lastly, inserting the secondary loop between the primary unit and the users increases the temperature difference between the refrigerated space and the evaporator. This results in a loss of global energy efficiency, and therefore in an increased energy consumption. The analysis shows that this loss of efficiency is not critical in the first case (Tₘ = 6°C), while the second case leads to more ambiguous results, partially because of the higher melting temperature.The consequences in terms of greenhouse gases emissions are also analyzed.

Keywords: exergy, hydrates, optimization, phase change material, thermodynamics

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2 Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Radiosensitization of Breast- and Lung Cancer Cells by Agents Targeting Microtubule Dynamics

Authors: Elsie M. Nolte, Annie M. Joubert, Roy Lakier, Maryke Etsebeth, Jolene M. Helena, Marcel Verwey, Laurence Lafanechere, Anne E. Theron


Treatment regimens for breast- and lung cancers may include both radiation- and chemotherapy. Ideally, a pharmaceutical agent which selectively sensitizes cancer cells to gamma (γ)-radiation would allow administration of lower doses of each modality, yielding synergistic anti-cancer benefits and lower metastasis occurrence, in addition to decreasing the side-effect profiles. A range of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) analogues, namely 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5 (10) 15-tetraene-3-ol-17one (ESE-15-one), 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol) and 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) were in silico-designed by our laboratory, with the aim of improving the parent compound’s bioavailability in vivo. The main effect of these compounds is the disruption of microtubule dynamics with a resultant mitotic accumulation and induction of programmed cell death in various cancer cell lines. This in vitro study aimed to determine the cellular responses involved in the radiation sensitization effects of these analogues at low doses in breast- and lung cancer cell lines. The oestrogen receptor positive MCF-7-, oestrogen receptor negative MDA-MB-231- and triple negative BT-20 breast cancer cell lines as well as the A549 lung cancer cell line were used. The minimal compound- and radiation doses able to induce apoptosis were determined using annexin-V and cell cycle progression markers. These doses (cell line dependent) were used to pre-sensitize the cancer cells 24 hours prior to 6 gray (Gy) radiation. Experiments were conducted on samples exposed to the individual- as well as the combination treatment conditions in order to determine whether the combination treatment yielded an additive cell death response. Morphological studies included light-, fluorescence- and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis induction was determined by flow cytometry employing annexin V, cell cycle analysis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) signalling, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Clonogenic studies were performed by allowing colony formation for 10 days post radiation. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage was quantified via γ-H2AX foci and micronuclei quantification. Amplification of the p53 signalling pathway was determined by western blot. Results indicated that exposing breast- and lung cancer cells to nanomolar concentrations of these analogues 24 hours prior to γ-radiation induced more cell death than the compound- and radiation treatments alone. Hypercondensed chromatin, decreased cell density, a damaged cytoskeleton and an increase in apoptotic body formation were observed in cells exposed to the combination treatment condition. An increased number of cells present in the sub-G1 phase as well as increased annexin-V staining, elevation of ROS formation and decreased Bcl-2 signalling confirmed the additive effect of the combination treatment. In addition, colony formation decreased significantly. p53 signalling pathways were significantly amplified in cells exposed to the analogues 24 hours prior to radiation, as was the amount of DNA damage. In conclusion, our results indicated that pre-treatment of breast- and lung cancer cells with low doses of 2-ME analogues sensitized breast- and lung cancer cells to γ-radiation and induced apoptosis more so than the individual treatments alone. Future studies will focus on the effect of the combination treatment on non-malignant cellular counterparts.

Keywords: cancer, microtubule dynamics, radiation therapy, radiosensitization

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1 Modern Cardiac Surgical Outcomes in Nonagenarians: A Multicentre Retrospective Observational Study

Authors: Laurence Weinberg, Dominic Walpole, Dong-Kyu Lee, Michael D’Silva, Jian W. Chan, Lachlan F. Miles, Bradley Carp, Adam Wells, Tuck S. Ngun, Siven Seevanayagam, George Matalanis, Ziauddin Ansari, Rinaldo Bellomo, Michael Yii


Background: There have been multiple recent advancements in the selection, optimization and management of cardiac surgical patients. However, there is limited data regarding the outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, despite this vulnerable cohort increasingly receiving these interventions. This study describes the patient characteristics, management and outcomes of a group of nonagenarians undergoing cardiac surgery in the context of contemporary peri-operative care. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted of patients 90 to 99 years of age (i.e., nonagenarians) who had undergone cardiac surgery requiring a classic median sternotomy (i.e., open-heart surgery). All operative indications were included. Patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery, transcatheter aortic valve implantation and thoracic aorta surgery were excluded. Data were collected from four hospitals in Victoria, Australia, over an 8-year period (January 2012 – December 2019). The primary objective was to assess six-month mortality in nonagenarians undergoing open-heart surgery and to evaluate the incidence and severity of postoperative complications using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. The secondary objective was to provide a detailed description of the characteristics and peri-operative management of this group. Results: A total of 12,358 adult patients underwent cardiac surgery at the study centers during the observation period, of whom 18 nonagenarians (0.15%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The median (IQR) [min-max] age was 91 years (90.0:91.8) [90-94] and 14 patients (78%) were men. Cardiovascular comorbidities, polypharmacy and frailty, were common. The median (IQR) predicted in-hospital mortality by EuroSCORE II was 6.1% (4.1-14.5). All patients were optimized preoperatively by a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, cardiologists, geriatricians and anesthetists. All index surgeries were performed on cardiopulmonary bypass. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and CABG with aortic valve replacement were the most common surgeries being performed in four and five patients, respectively. Half the study group underwent surgery involving two or more major procedures (e.g. CABG and valve replacement). Surgery was undertaken emergently in 44% of patients. All patients except one experienced at least one postoperative complication. The most common complications were acute kidney injury (72%), new atrial fibrillation (44%) and delirium (39%). The highest Clavien-Dindo complication grade was IIIb occurring once each in three patients. Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa complications occurred in only one patient. The median (IQR) postoperative length of stay was 11.6 days (9.8:17.6). One patient was discharged home and all others to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Three patients had an unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge. All patients had follow-up to at least six months after surgery and mortality over this period was zero. The median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 11.3 months (6.0:26.4) and there were no cases of mortality observed within the available follow-up records. Conclusion: In this group of nonagenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, postoperative six-month mortality was zero. Complications were common but generally of low severity. These findings support carefully selected nonagenarian patients being offered cardiac surgery in the context of contemporary, multidisciplinary perioperative care. Further, studies are needed to assess longer-term mortality and functional and quality of life outcomes in this vulnerable surgical cohort.

Keywords: cardiac surgery, mortality, nonagenarians, postoperative complications

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