Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8205

Search results for: shear test keyword

8205 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
8204 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang


The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, structural-sized test, shear modulus of Glulam beam, photogrammetry approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
8203 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen


Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

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8202 Correlation between the Undrained Shear Strength of Clay of the Champlain Sea as Determined by the Vane Test and the Swedish Cone

Authors: Tahar Ayadat


The undrained shear strength is an essential parameter for determining the consistency and the ultimate bearing capacity of a clay layer. The undrained shear strength can be determined by field tests such as the in situ vane test or in laboratory, including hand vane test, triaxial, simple compression test, and the consistency penetrometer (i.e. Swedish cone). However, the field vane test and the Swedish cone are the most commonly used tests by geotechnical experts. In this technical note, a comparison between the shear strength results obtained by the in situ vane test and the cone penetration test (Swedish cone) was conducted. A correlation between the results of these two tests, concerning the undrained shear strength of the Champlain sea clay, has been developed. Moreover, some applications of the proposed correlation on some geotechnical problems have been included, such as the determination of the consistency and the bearing capacity of a clay layer.

Keywords: correlation, shear strength, clay, vane test, Swedish cone

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8201 The Impact of Keyword and Full Video Captioning on Listening Comprehension

Authors: Elias Bensalem


This study investigates the effect of two types of captioning (full and keyword captioning) on listening comprehension. Thirty-six university-level EFL students participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to watch three video clips under three conditions. The first group watched the video clips with full captions. The second group watched the same video clips with keyword captions. The control group watched the video clips without captions. After watching each clip, participants took a listening comprehension test. At the end of the experiment, participants completed a questionnaire to measure their perceptions about the use of captions and the video clips they watched. Results indicated that the full captioning group significantly outperformed both the keyword captioning and the no captioning group on the listening comprehension tests. However, this study did not find any significant difference between the keyword captioning group and the no captioning group. Results of the survey suggest that keyword captioning were a source of distraction for participants.

Keywords: captions, EFL, listening comprehension, video

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
8200 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni


The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
8199 Effect of the Keyword Strategy on Lexical Semantic Acquisition: Recognition, Retention and Comprehension in an English as Second Language Context

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Shitu


This study seeks to investigate the effect of the keyword strategy on lexico–semantic acquisition, recognition, retention and comprehension in an ESL context. The aim of the study is to determine whether the keyword strategy can be used to enhance acquisition. As a quasi- experimental research, the objectives of the study include: To determine the extent to which the scores obtained by the subjects, who were trained on the use of the keyword strategy for acquisition, differ at the pre-tests and the post–tests and also to find out the relationship in the scores obtained at these tests levels. The sample for the study consists of 300 hundred undergraduate ESL Students in the Federal College of Education, Kano. The seventy-five lexical items for acquisition belong to the lexical field category known as register, and they include Medical, Agriculture and Photography registers (MAP). These were divided in the ratio twenty-five (25) lexical items in each lexical field. The testing technique was used to collect the data while the descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. For the purpose of testing, the two kinds of tests administered at each test level include the WARRT (Word Acquisition, Recognition, and Retention Test) and the CCPT (Cloze Comprehension Passage Test). The results of the study revealed that there are significant differences in the scores obtained between the pre-tests, and the post–tests and there are no correlations in the scores obtained as well. This implies that the keyword strategy has effectively enhanced the acquisition of the lexical items studied.

Keywords: keyword, lexical, semantics, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
8198 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee


Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
8197 Calculating Shear Strength Parameter from Simple Shear Apparatus

Authors: G. Nitesh


The shear strength of soils is a crucial parameter instability analysis. Therefore, it is important to determine reliable values for the accuracy of stability analysis. Direct shear tests are mostly performed to determine the shear strength of cohesionless soils. The major limitation of the direct shear test is that the failure takes place through the pre-defined failure plane but the failure is not along pre-defined plane and is along the weakest plane in actual shearing mechanism that goes on in the field. This leads to overestimating the strength parameter; hence, a new apparatus called simple shear is developed and used in this study to determine the shear strength parameter that simulates the field conditions.

Keywords: direct shear, simple shear, angle of shear resistance, cohesionless soils

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8196 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Ruzek


Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: T-joint, shear, composite, mechanical testing, finite element analysis, methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
8195 Punching Shear Behavior of RC Column Footing on Stabilized Ground

Authors: Sukanta K. Shill, Md. M. Hoque, Md. Shaifullah


An experiment on the punching of RC column footing, comparison of test result to established different codes for punching shear calculation of column footings is presented in the paper. The principal aim of this study is to investigate the punching shear behavior of an isolated column footing using brick aggregate as coarse aggregate. Consequence, a RC model footing was constructed on a stabilized soil and tested the footing under field condition. The test result yields that the experimental punching shear capacity is greater than all the theoretical punching shear capacities obtained by using different codes of practices. It can be stated that BNBC 1993, as well as ACI 318, 2002 code formulae are very conservative in predicting the punching shear resistance of RC footing, whereas the CEB-FIP MC, 1990 formula and Eurocode2 formula are less conservative in predicting the punching shear resistance of footing.

Keywords: footing, punching shear, field condition, stabilized soil, brick aggregate

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8194 A Study on Shear Field Test Method in Timber Shear Modulus Determination Using Stereo Vision System

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang


In the structural timber design, the shear modulus of the timber beam is an important factor that needs to be determined accurately. According to BS EN 408, shear modulus can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. Although torsion test creates pure shear status in the beam, it does not represent the real-life situation when the beam is in the service. On the other hand, shear field test method creates similar loading situation as in reality. The latter method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test as indicated in BS EN 408. Current testing practice code advised using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. Timber is not a homogenous material, but a heterogeneous and this characteristic makes timber to undergo a non-uniform deformation. Therefore, the dimensions and the location of the constructing square in the area with the constant transverse force might alter the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the shape, size, and location of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system was developed to capture the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. This approach is an accurate and non-contact method to extract the 3D coordination of targeted object using two cameras. Two group of three glue laminated beams were produced and tested by the mean of four-point bending test according to BS EN 408. Group one constructed using two materials, laminated bamboo lumber and structurally graded C24 timber and group two consisted only structurally graded C24 timber. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of size and location of the square in the determination of shear modulus of the beam. The results have shown that the size of the square is an affecting factor in shear modulus determination. However, the location of the square in the area with the constant shear force does not affect the shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, BS EN 408, timber shear modulus, photogrammetry approach

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8193 Assessment of the Interface Strength between High-Density Polyethylene Geomembrane and Expanded Polystyrene by the Direct Shear Test

Authors: Sergio Luiz da Costa Junior, Carolina Fofonka Palomino, Paulo Cesar Lodi


The use of light landfills is an effective solution for road works in soft ground sites, such as Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Santos (SP) - the Southeastern Brazilian coast. The technique consists in replacing the topsoil by expandable polystyrene (EPS) geofoam, lined with geomembrane to prevent the attack of chemical products.Thus, knowing the interface shear strength of those materials is important in projects to avoid rupturing the system. The purpose of this paper is to compare the shear strength in the geomembrane-EPS interfaces by the direct shear test. The tests were performed under the dry and saturated condition, and four kind of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 2,00mm geomembranes were used, smooth and texturized - manufactured in the flat die and blown film process. It was found that the shear strength is directly influenced by the roughness of the geomembrane, showed higher friction angle in the textured geomembrane. The direct shear test, in the saturated condition, also showed smaller friction angle than the now-wetted test.

Keywords: geofoam, geomembrane, soft ground, strength shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
8192 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii


In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
8191 Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading

Authors: Jin Y. Park, Jeong Wan Lee


An experimental and analytical research on shear buckling of a comparably large polymer composite I-section is presented. It is known that shear buckling load of a large span composite beam is difficult to determine experimentally. In order to sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on the web and flange surfaces. The tested specimen was a pultruded composite beam made of vinylester resin, E-glass, carbon fibers and micro-fillers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the I-section. An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was utilized for the shear test. The loading scheme resulted a high shear and almost zeros moment condition at the center of the web panel. The shear buckling load was successfully determined after analyzing the obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. An analytical approach was also performed to verify the experimental results and to support the discussed experimental program.

Keywords: strain sensor, displacement sensor, shear buckling, polymer composite I-section, asymmetric loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
8190 Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area

Authors: Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, Ramdane Bahar, Mohammed Amin Benbouras


Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.

Keywords: empirical models, RMSE, shear wave velocity, standard penetration test

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8189 Evaluation for Punching Shear Strength of Slab-Column Connections with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Overlay

Authors: H. S. Youm, S. G. Hong


This paper presents the test results on 5 slab-column connection specimens with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) overlay including 1 control specimen to investigate retrofitting effect of UHPFRC overlay on the punching shear capacity. The test parameters were the thickness of the UHPFRC overlay and the amount of steel re-bars in it. All specimens failed in punching shear mode with abrupt failure aspect. The test results showed that by adding a thin layer of UHPFRC over the Reinforced Concrete (RC) substrates, considerable increases in global punching shear resistance up to 82% and structural rigidity were achieved. Furthermore, based on the cracking patterns the composite systems appeared to be governed by two failure modes: 1) diagonal shear failure in RC section and 2) debonding failure at the interface.

Keywords: punching shear strength, retrofit, slab-column connection, UHPFRC, UHPFRC overlay

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8188 Bending and Shear Characteristics of Hollowcore Slab with Polystyrene Forms

Authors: Kang Kun Lee


New I-slab system with polystyrene forms and precast concrete deck is proposed to reduce the construction period and the self-weight of the slab. This paper presents experimental works on the bending and shear of the I-slabs. Five specimens were tested. The main parameters of experiments are diameters of the holes made by polystyrene form and the thickness of slab. Structural performance of I-slab is evaluated on the basis of failure mode, load-displacement curve, and ultimate strengths. Based on the test results, it is found that the critical punching shear sections are changed as the test variables are different, hence resulting in the varied punching shear strengths. Test results indicate that the developed I-slab is very effective to increase the strength due to self-weight reduction.

Keywords: hollowcore slab, section force-deformation response, precast concrete deck

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8187 The Mechanical Behavior of a Chemically Stabilized Soil

Authors: I Lamri, L Arabet, M. Hidjeb


The direct shear test was used to determine the shear strength parameters C and Ø of a series of samples with different cement content. Samples stabilized with a certain percentage of cement showed a substantial gain in compressive strength and a significant increase in shear strength parameters. C and Ø. The laboratory equipment used in UCS tests consisted of a conventional 102mm diameter sample triaxial loading machine. Beyond 4% cement content a very important increase in shear strength was observed. It can be deduced from a comparative study of shear strength of soil samples with 4%, 7%, and 10% cement with sample containing 2 %, that the sample with a 4% cement content showed 90% increase in shear strength while those with 7% and 10% showed an increase of around 13 and 21 fold.

Keywords: cement, compression strength, shear stress, cohesion, angle of internal friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
8186 Experimental Research on Ductility of Regional Confined Concrete Beam

Authors: Qinggui Wu, Xinming Cao, Guyue Guo, Jiajun Ding


In efforts to study the shear ductility of regional confined concrete beam, 5 reinforced concrete beams were tested to examine its shear performance. These beams has the same shear span ratio, concrete strength, different ratios of tension reinforcement and shapes of stirrup. The purpose of the test is studying the effects of stirrup shape and tension reinforcement ratio on failure mode and shear ductility. The test shows that the regional confined part can be used as an independent part and the rest of the beam is good to work together so that the ductility of the beam is more one time higher than that of the normal confined concrete beam. The related laws of the effect of tension reinforcement ratio and stirrup shapes on beam’s shear ductility are founded.

Keywords: ratio of tension reinforcement, stirrup shapes, shear ductility, failure mode

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8185 Experimental Verification of Different Types of Shear Connectors on Composite Slab

Authors: A. Siva, R. Senthil, R. Banupriya, R. Saravanakumar


Cold-formed steel sheets are widely used as primary tension reinforcement in composite slabs. It also performs as formwork for concreting and better ceiling surface. The major type of failure occurring in composite slab is shear failure. When the composite slab is flexurally loaded, the longitudinal shear is generated and transferred to the steel sheet concrete interface. When the load increases, the interface slip occurs. The slip failure can be resisted by mechanical interface interlock by shear studs. In this paper, the slip failure has been resisted by shear connectors and geometry of the steel sheet alone. The geometry of the sheet is kept constant for all the specimens and the type of shear connectors has been varied. Totally, three types of shear connectors (viz., straight headed, U and J) are bolted to the trapezoidal profile sheet and the concrete is casted over it. After curing, the composite slab is subjected to flexure load and the test results are compared with the numerical results analysed by ABAQUS software. The test result shows that the U-shaped bolted stud has higher flexure strength than the other two types of shear connectors.

Keywords: cold formed steel sheet, headed studs, mechanical interlock, shear connectors, shear failure, slip failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
8184 Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio

Authors: Wael M Albadri, Hassnen M Jafer, Ehab H Sfoog


Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.

Keywords: shear strength, over-consolidation ratio, vane shear test, clayey soil

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8183 Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang, Yanjun Xie


The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect; whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent rather than thickness-dependant.

Keywords: end clamp effect, full-size timber test, shear properties, torsion test, wood engineering

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8182 Soil Reinforcement by Fibers Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Negadi Kheira, Arab Ahmed, Kamal Elbokl Mohamed, Setti Fatima


In order to evaluate influences of roots on soil shear strength, monotonic drained and undrained triaxial laboratory tests were carried out on reconstituted specimens at various confining pressure (σc’=50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kPa) and a constant relative density (Dr = 50%). Reinforcement of soil by fibrous roots is crucial for preventing soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, we investigated soil reinforcement by roots of acacia planted in the area of Chlef where shallow landslides and slope instability are frequent. These roots were distributed in soil in two forms: vertically and horizontally. The monotonic test results showed that roots have more impacts on the soil shear strength than the friction angle, and the presence of roots in soil substantially increased the soil shear strength. Also, the results showed that the contribution of roots on the shear strength mobilized increases with increase in the confining pressure.

Keywords: soil, monotonic, triaxial test, root fiber, undrained

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8181 Image Processing on Geosynthetic Reinforced Layers to Evaluate Shear Strength and Variations of the Strain Profiles

Authors: S. K. Khosrowshahi, E. Güler


This study investigates the reinforcement function of geosynthetics on the shear strength and strain profile of sand. Conducting a series of simple shear tests, the shearing behavior of the samples under static and cyclic loads was evaluated. Three different types of geosynthetics including geotextile and geonets were used as the reinforcement materials. An image processing analysis based on the optical flow method was performed to measure the lateral displacements and estimate the shear strains. It is shown that besides improving the shear strength, the geosynthetic reinforcement leads a remarkable reduction on the shear strains. The improved layer reduces the required thickness of the soil layer to resist against shear stresses. Consequently, the geosynthetic reinforcement can be considered as a proper approach for the sustainable designs, especially in the projects with huge amount of geotechnical applications like subgrade of the pavements, roadways, and railways.

Keywords: image processing, soil reinforcement, geosynthetics, simple shear test, shear strain profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
8180 Empirical Study on Factors Influencing SEO

Authors: Pakinee Aimmanee, Phoom Chokratsamesiri


Search engine has become an essential tool nowadays for people to search for their needed information on the internet. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the search engine from three factors: the keyword frequency, the number of inbound links, and the difficulty of the keyword. The evaluations are based on the ranking position and the number of days that Google has seen or detect the webpage. We find that the keyword frequency and the difficulty of the keyword do not affect the Google ranking where the number of inbound links gives remarkable improvement of the ranking position. The optimal number of inbound links found in the experiment is 10.

Keywords: SEO, information retrieval, web search, knowledge technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
8179 Shear Strength and Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil with Vertical and Radial Drainage

Authors: R. Pillai Aparna, S. R. Gandhi


Soft clay deposits having low strength and high compressibility are found all over the world. Preloading with vertical drains is a widely used method for improving such type of soils. The coefficient of consolidation, irrespective of the drainage type, plays an important role in the design of vertical drains and it controls accurate prediction of the rate of consolidation of soil. Also, the increase in shear strength of soil with consolidation is another important factor considered in preloading or staged construction. To our best knowledge no clear guidelines are available to estimate the increase in shear strength for a particular degree of consolidation (U) at various stages during the construction. Various methods are available for finding out the consolidation coefficient. This study mainly focuses on the variation of, consolidation coefficient which was found out using different methods and shear strength with pressure intensity. The variation of shear strength with the degree of consolidation was also studied. The consolidation test was done using two types of highly compressible clays with vertical, radial and a few with combined drainage. The test was carried out at different pressures intensities and for each pressure intensity, once the target degree of consolidation is achieved, vane shear test was done at different locations in the sample, in order to determine the shear strength. The shear strength of clayey soils under the application of vertical stress with vertical and radial drainage with target U value of 70% and 90% was studied. It was found that there is not much variation in cv or cr value beyond 80kPa pressure intensity. Correlations were developed between shear strength ratio and consolidation pressure based on laboratory testing under controlled condition. It was observed that the shear strength of sample with target U value of 90% is about 1.4 to 2 times than that of 70% consolidated sample. Settlement analysis was done using Asaoka’s and hyperbolic method. The variation of strength with respect to the depth of sample was also studied, using large-scale consolidation test. It was found, based on the present study that the gain in strength is more on the top half of the clay layer, and also the shear strength of the sample ensuring radial drainage is slightly higher than that of the vertical drainage.

Keywords: consolidation coefficient, degree of consolidation, PVDs, shear strength

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8178 A New Macro Model for Steel-Concrete Shear Walls using CSI PERFORM-3D

Authors: Nakisa Haghi, Siamak Epackachi


Although there exist, several macro models to simulate the global response of steel plate and reinforced concrete shear walls, no robust macro model has been developed yet for the simulation of the cyclic inelastic response of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. Herein, a novel macro model is proposed for steel-concrete shear walls in order to expand the application of such systems to the building industry and infrastructures. The proposed model is implemented in the CSI PERFORM-3D program to simulate the nonlinear seismic response of the SC shear walls. The proposed model is validated using available test data of SC wall specimens consisting of various geometries. This new model is proven to appropriately predict the global response of SC shear walls.

Keywords: composite shear walls, PERFORM-3D, macro model, cyclic response

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8177 Experimental Characterization of the AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Using Hot Shear Tensile Test

Authors: Trunal Bhujangrao, Catherine Froustey, Fernando Veiga, Philippe Darnis, Franck Girot Mata


The understanding of the material behavior under shear loading has great importance for a researcher in manufacturing processes like cutting, machining, milling, turning, friction stir welding, etc. where the material experiences large deformation at high temperature. For such material behavior analysis, hot shear tests provide a useful means to investigate the evolution of the microstructure at a wide range of temperature and to improve the material behavior model. Shear tests can be performed by direct shear loading (e.g. torsion of thin-walled tubular samples), or appropriate specimen design to convert a tensile or compressive load into shear (e.g. simple shear tests). The simple shear tests are straightforward and designed to obtained very large deformation. However, many of these shear tests are concerned only with the elastic response of the material. It is becoming increasingly important to capture a plastic response of the material. Plastic deformation is significantly more complex and is known to depend more heavily on the strain rate, temperature, deformation, etc. Besides, there is not enough work is done on high-temperature shear loading, because of geometrical instability occurred during the plastic deformation. The aim of this study is to design a new shear tensile specimen geometry to convert the tensile load into dominant shear loading under plastic deformation. Design of the specimen geometry is based on FEM. The material used in this paper is AA7075 alloy, tested quasi statically under elevated temperature. Finally, the microstructural changes taking place during

Keywords: AA7075 alloy, dynamic recrystallization, edge effect, large strain, shear tensile test

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8176 Keyword Network Analysis on the Research Trends of Life-Long Education for People with Disabilities in Korea

Authors: Jakyoung Kim, Sungwook Jang


The purpose of this study is to examine the research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities using a keyword network analysis. For this purpose, 151 papers were selected from 594 papers retrieved using keywords such as 'people with disabilities' and 'life-long education' in the Korean Education and Research Information Service. The Keyword network analysis was constructed by extracting and coding the keyword used in the title of the selected papers. The frequency of the extracted keywords, the centrality of degree, and betweenness was analyzed by the keyword network. The results of the keyword network analysis are as follows. First, the main keywords that appeared frequently in the study of life-long education for people with disabilities were 'people with disabilities', 'life-long education', 'developmental disabilities', 'current situations', 'development'. The research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are focused on the current status of the life-long education and the program development. Second, the keyword network analysis and visualization showed that the keywords with high frequency of occurrences also generally have high degree centrality and betweenness centrality. In terms of the keyword network diagram, it was confirmed that research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are centered on six prominent keywords. Based on these results, it was discussed that life-long education for people with disabilities in the future needs to expand the subjects and the supporting areas of the life-long education, and the research needs to be further expanded into more detailed and specific areas. 

Keywords: life-long education, people with disabilities, research trends, keyword network analysis

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