Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1417

Search results for: interface bonding

1417 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen


Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

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1416 About the Interface Bonding Safety of Adhesively Bonded Concrete Joints Under Cracking: A Fracture Energetic Approach

Authors: Brandtner-Hafner Martin


Adhesives are increasingly being used in the construction sector. On the one hand, this concerns dowel reinforcements using chemical anchors. On the other hand, the sealing and repair of cracks in structural concrete components are still on the rise. In the field of bonding, the interface between the joined materials is the most critical area. Therefore, it is of immense importance to characterize and investigate this section sufficiently by fracture analysis. Since standardized mechanical test methods are not sufficiently capable of doing this, recourse is made to an innovative concept based on fracture energy. Therefore, a series of experimental tests were performed using the so-called GF-principle to study the interface bonding safety of adhesively bonded concrete joints. Several different structural adhesive systems based on epoxy, CA/A hybrid, PUR, MS polymer, dispersion, and acrylate were selected for bonding concrete substrates. The results show that stable crack propagation and prevention of uncontrolled failure in bonded concrete joints depend very much on the adhesive system used, and only fracture analytical evaluation methods can provide empirical information on this.

Keywords: interface bonding safety, adhesively bonded concrete joints, GF-principle, fracture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1415 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo


This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

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1414 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Wood-Adhesive Interfaces: A Fracture Energetic Approach

Authors: M. H. Brandtner-Hafner


Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the wood industry. The strengths of adhesive bonding lie in the realization of lightweight designs, the avoidance of material weakening, and the joining of different types of materials. There is now a number of ways to positively influence the properties of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion, structural integrity, and fracture toughness. In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding wooden joints is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF-principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the wood-adhesive interface. Two different construction adhesives based on epoxy and PUR were modified with different fiber materials and applied to bond wooden joints. The results show that bonding efficiency by adding fibrous materials to the bonding matrix leads to significant improvements in structural material properties.

Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, wood-adhesive interfaces, fracture analysis

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1413 Electro-Mechanical Response and Engineering Properties of Piezocomposite with Imperfect Interface

Authors: Rattanan Tippayaphalapholgul, Yasothorn Sapsathiarn


Composites of piezoelectric materials are widely use in practical applications such as nondestructive testing devices, smart adaptive structures and medical devices. A thorough understanding of coupled electro-elastic response and properties of piezocomposite are crucial for the development and design of piezoelectric composite materials used in advanced applications. The micromechanics analysis is employed in this paper to determine the response and engineering properties of the piezocomposite. A mechanical imperfect interface bonding between piezoelectric inclusion and polymer matrix is taken into consideration in the analysis. The micromechanics analysis is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) together with the periodic micro-field micromechanics theory. A selected set of numerical results is presented to investigate the influence of volume ratio and interface bonding condition on effective piezocomposite material coefficients and portray basic features of coupled electroelastic response within the domain of piezocomposite unit cell.

Keywords: effective engineering properties, electroelastic response, imperfect interface, piezocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1412 Use of FWD in Determination of Bonding Condition of Semi-Rigid Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Nonde Lushinga, Jiang Xin, Danstan Chiponde, Lawrence P. Mutale


In this paper, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to determine the bonding condition of a newly constructed semi-rigid base pavement. Using Evercal back-calculation computer programme, it was possible to quickly and accurately determine the structural condition of the pavement system of FWD test data. The bonding condition of the pavement layers was determined from calculated shear stresses and strains (relative horizontal displacements) on the interface of pavement layers from BISAR 3.0 pavement computer programmes. Thus, by using non-linear layered elastic theory, a pavement structure is analysed in the same way as other civil engineering structures. From non-destructive FWD testing, the required bonding condition of pavement layers was quantified from soundly based principles of Goodman’s constitutive models shown in equation 2, thereby producing the shear reaction modulus (Ks) which gives an indication of bonding state of pavement layers. Furthermore, a Tack coat failure Ratio (TFR) which has long being used in the USA in pavement evaluation was also used in the study in order to give validity to the study. According to research [39], the interface between two asphalt layers is determined by use of Tack Coat failure Ratio (TFR) which is the ratio of the stiffness of top layer asphalt layers over the stiffness of the second asphalt layer (E1/E2) in a slipped pavement. TFR gives an indication of the strength of the tack coat which is the main determinants of interlayer slipping. The criteria is that if the interface was in the state full bond, TFR would be greater or equals to 1 and that if the TFR was 0, meant full slip. Results of the calculations showed that TFR value was 1.81 which re-affirmed the position that the pavement under study was in the state of full bond because the value was greater than 1. It was concluded that FWD can be used to determine bonding condition of existing and newly constructed pavements.

Keywords: falling weight deflectometer (FWD), backcaluclation, semi-rigid base pavement, shear reaction modulus

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1411 Experimental Studies of Spiral-Confined HSCFST Columns under Uni-Axial Compression

Authors: Mianheng Lai, Johnny Ching Ming Ho, Hoat Joen Pam


Concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns are becoming increasingly popular owing to the superior behavior contributed by the composite action. However, this composite action cannot be fully developed because of different dilation properties between steel tube and concrete. During initial compression, there will be de-bonding between the constitutive materials. As a result, the strength, initial stiffness and ductility of CFST columns reduce significantly. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of spirals is proposed to improve the interface bonding. In this paper, a total of 14CFST columns with high-strength as well as ultra-high-strength concrete in-filled were fabricated and tested under uni-axial compression. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed spirals can improve the strength, initial stiffness, ductility and the interface bonding condition of CFST columns by restraining the lateral expansion of steel tube and core concrete. Moreover, the failure modes of confined core concrete change due to the strong confinement provided by spirals.

Keywords: concrete-filled-steel-tube, confinement, failure mode, high-strength concrete, spirals

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1410 Micromechanics of Stress Transfer across the Interface Fiber-Matrix Bonding

Authors: Fatiha Teklal, Bachir Kacimi, Arezki Djebbar


The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. Even more important, the ideas linking the properties of composites to the interface structure are still emerging. In our study, we need a direct characterization of the interface; the micromechanical tests we are addressing seem to meet this objective and we chose to use two complementary tests simultaneously. The microindentation test that can be applied to real composites and the drop test, preferred to the pull-out because of the theoretical possibility of studying systems with high adhesion (which is a priori the case with our systems). These two tests are complementary because of the principle of the model specimen used for both the first "compression indentation" and the second whose fiber is subjected to tensile stress called the drop test. Comparing the results obtained by the two methods can therefore be rewarding.

Keywords: Fiber, Interface, Matrix, Micromechanics, Pull-out

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1409 A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis

Authors: M. T. Ahn, J. H. Park, S. H. Park, S. H. Ha


Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: diffusion bonding, temperature, pressure, drawing speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1408 High-Frequency Acoustic Microscopy Imaging of Pellet/Cladding Interface in Nuclear Fuel Rods

Authors: H. Saikouk, D. Laux, Emmanuel Le Clézio, B. Lacroix, K. Audic, R. Largenton, E. Federici, G. Despaux


Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel rods are made of ceramic pellets (e.g. UO2 or (U,Pu) O2) assembled in a zirconium cladding tube. By design, an initial gap exists between these two elements. During irradiation, they both undergo transformations leading progressively to the closure of this gap. A local and non destructive examination of the pellet/cladding interface could constitute a useful help to identify the zones where the two materials are in contact, particularly at high burnups when a strong chemical bonding occurs under nominal operating conditions in PWR fuel rods. The evolution of the pellet/cladding bonding during irradiation is also an area of interest. In this context, the Institute of Electronic and Systems (IES- UMR CNRS 5214), in collaboration with the Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), is developing a high frequency acoustic microscope adapted to the control and imaging of the pellet/cladding interface with high resolution. Because the geometrical, chemical and mechanical nature of the contact interface is neither axially nor radially homogeneous, 2D images of this interface need to be acquired via this ultrasonic system with a highly performing processing signal and by means of controlled displacement of the sample rod along both its axis and its circumference. Modeling the multi-layer system (water, cladding, fuel etc.) is necessary in this present study and aims to take into account all the parameters that have an influence on the resolution of the acquired images. The first prototype of this microscope and the first results of the visualization of the inner face of the cladding will be presented in a poster in order to highlight the potentials of the system, whose final objective is to be introduced in the existing bench MEGAFOX dedicated to the non-destructive examination of irradiated fuel rods at LECA-STAR facility in CEA-Cadarache.

Keywords: high-frequency acoustic microscopy, multi-layer model, non-destructive testing, nuclear fuel rod, pellet/cladding interface, signal processing

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1407 Influence of Vacuum Pressure on the Thermal Bonding Energy of Water in Wood

Authors: Aleksandar Dedic, Dusko Salemovic, Milorad Danilovic, Radomir Kuzmanovic


This paper takes into consideration the influence of bonding energy of water on energy demand of vacuum wood drying using the specific method of obtaining sorption isotherms. The experiment was carried out on oak wood at vacuum pressures of: 0.7 bar, 0.5bar and 0.3bar. The experimental work was done to determine a mathematical equation between the moisture content and energy of water-bonding. This equation helps in finding the average amount of energy of water-bonding necessary in calculation of energy consumption by use of the equation of heat balance in real drying chambers. It is concluded that the energy of water-bonding is large enough to be included into consideration. This energy increases at lower values of moisture content, when drying process approaches to the end, and its average values are lower on lower pressure.

Keywords: bonding energy, drying, isosters, oak, vacuum

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1406 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker


The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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1405 A Study on the Relationship between Shear Strength and Surface Roughness of Lined Pipes by Cold Drawing

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Joon-Hong Park, Yeon-Jong Jeong


Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in heat drawing even if the reduction in section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: drawing speed, FEM (Finite Element Method), diffusion bonding, temperature, heat drawing, lined pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1404 Comparison of Microleakage of Composite Restorations Using Fifth and Seventh Generation of Bonding Agents

Authors: Karina Nabilla, Dedi Sumantri, Nurul T. Rizal, Siti H. Yavitha


Background: Composite resin is the most frequently used material for restoring teeth, but still failure cases are seen which leading to microleakage. Microleakage might be attributed to various factors, one of them is bonding agent. Various generations of bonding agents have been introduced to overcome the microleakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations using the fifth and seventh bonding agent. Methods: Class I cavities (3X2X2 mm) were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of 32 human upper premolars. Teeth were classified into two groups according to the type of bonding agent used (n =16). Group I: Fifth Generation of Bonding Agent-Adper Single Bond2. Group II: Seventh Generation of Bonding Agent-Single Bond Universal. All cavities were restored with Filtek Z250 XT composite resin, stored in sterile aquades water at 370C for 24 h. The root apices were sealed with sticky wax, and all the surfaces, except for 2 mm from the margins, were coated with nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in a 1% methylene blue dye solution for 24 h, and then rinsed in running water, blot-dried and sectioned longitudinally through the center of restorations from the buccal to palatal surface. The sections were blindly assessed for microleakage of dye penetration by using a stereomicroscope. Dye penetration along margin was measured in µm then calculated into the percentage and classified into scoring system 1 to 3. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Result: There was no significant difference (p > 0,05) between two groups. Conclusion: Fifth generation of bonding agent revealed less leakage compared to the seventh generation even statistically there was no significant difference.

Keywords: composite restoration, fifth generation of bonding agent, microleakage, seventh generation of bonding agent

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1403 Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface

Authors: P. Abachi, T. W. Coyle, P. S. Musavi Gharavi


By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Keywords: bonding strength, four-point bend test, interfacial fracture toughness, modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen, plasma sprayed coating, tensile adhesion test

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1402 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Structural Adhesives: A Fracture Analytical Evaluation

Authors: Brandtner-Hafner Martin


Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the industry. Their strengths lie in joining different materials, avoiding structural weakening as in welding or screwing, and enabling lightweight construction methods. Now there are a variety of ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion and cohesion (structural integrity). In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding different construction materials is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the joint. Three different structural adhesive systems based on epoxy, CA/A hybrid, and PUR were modified with different fiber materials on different substrates. The results show that significant performance improvements can be achieved and that bonding reliability can be sustainably increased.

Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, GF-principle, fracture analysis

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1401 Association between Maternal Personality and Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Bonding

Authors: Tessa Sellis, Marike A. Wierda, Elke Tichelman, Mirjam T. Van Lohuizen, Marjolein Berger, François Schellevis, Claudi Bockting, Lilian Peters, Huib Burger


Introduction: Most women develop a healthy bond with their children, however, adequate mother-to-infant bonding cannot be taken for granted. Mother-to-infant bonding refers to the feelings and emotions experienced by the mother towards her child. It is an ongoing process that starts during pregnancy and develops during the first year postpartum and likely throughout early childhood. The prevalence of inadequate bonding ranges from 7 to 11% in the first weeks postpartum. An impaired mother-to-infant bond can cause long-term complications for both mother and child. Very little research has been conducted on the direct relationship between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. This study explores the associations between maternal personality and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding. Methods: Data for this study were used from the Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression Study (2010-2014), which examined symptoms of and risk factors for anxiety or depression during pregnancy and the first year postpartum of 6220 pregnant women who received primary, secondary or tertiary care in the Netherlands. The study was expanded in 2015 to investigate postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. For the current research 3836 participants were included. During the first trimester of gestation, baseline characteristics, as well as personality, were measured through online questionnaires. Personality was measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which covers the big five of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, altruism and conscientiousness). Mother-to-infant bonding was measured postpartum by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations. Results: 5% of the PBQ-respondents reported impaired bonding. A statistically significant association was found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding (p < .001): mothers scoring higher on neuroticism, reported a lower score on mother-to-infant bonding. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the personality traits extraversion (b: -.081), openness (b: -.014), altruism (b: -.067), conscientiousness (b: -.060) and mother-to-infant bonding. Discussion: This study is one of the first to demonstrate a direct association between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. A statistically significant relationship has been found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding, however, the percentage of variance predictable by a personality dimension is very small. This study has examined one part of the multi-factorial topic of mother-to-infant bonding and offers more insight into the rarely investigated and complex matter of mother-to-infant bonding. For midwives, it is important recognize the risks for impaired bonding and subsequently improve policy for women at risk.

Keywords: mother-to-infant bonding, personality, postpartum, pregnancy

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1400 Interactive Multiple Functions User Interface

Authors: Manjit Singh Sidhu, Waleed Maqableh, Jee Geak Ying


Tangible user interfaces (TUI) that employ markers in the augmented reality (AR) environment has hampered the interactivity between the user and the software application. This is because the user lacks focus on visualizing the contents due to the interaction mechanisms whereby multiple markers may need to be used to perform a particular function. In this research, we have designed a novel TUI user interface where multiple functions could be triggered similar to a natural keyboard thus allowing user to focus more on its digital contents such as 2D/3D, text input, animation and sound. Test results of the user interface with potential users and HCI experts revealed that the multiple functions user interface was new, preferred and appreciated more as opposed to marker based user interface.

Keywords: multimedia, augmented reality, engineering, user interface, visualization

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1399 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty


The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

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1398 Evaluation of the Matching Optimization of Human-Machine Interface Matching in the Cab

Authors: Yanhua Ma, Lu Zhai, Xinchen Wang, Hongyu Liang


In this paper, by understanding the development status of the human-machine interface in today's automobile cab, a subjective and objective evaluation system for evaluating the optimization of human-machine interface matching in automobile cab was established. The man-machine interface of the car cab was divided into a software interface and a hard interface. Objective evaluation method of software human factor analysis is used to evaluate the hard interface matching; The analytic hierarchy process is used to establish the evaluation index system for the software interface matching optimization, and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate hard interface machine. This article takes Dongfeng Sokon (DFSK) C37 model automobile as an example. The evaluation method given in the paper is used to carry out relevant analysis and evaluation, and corresponding optimization suggestions are given, which have certain reference value for designers.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, human-machine interface, matching optimization, software human factor analysis

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1397 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty


Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

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1396 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee


Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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1395 Effect of Loose Bonding and Corrugated Boundary Surface on Propagation of Rayleigh-Type Wave

Authors: Kshitish Ch. Mistri, Abhishek Kumar Singh


The effect of undulatory boundary surface of a medium as well as the degree of bonding between two consecutive mediums, on the propagation of surface waves is an unavoidable matter of fact. Therefore, this paper investigates the propagation of Rayleigh-type wave in a corrugated fibre-reinforced layer overlying an initially stressed orthotropic half-space under gravity. Also, the two mediums are assumed to be loosely (or imperfectly) bonded. Numerical computation of the obtained frequency equation has been carried out which aids to analyze the influence of corrugation, loose bonding, initial stress and gravity on the phase velocity of Rayleigh-type wave. Moreover, the presence and absence of corrugation, loose bonding and initial stress are also discussed in a comparative manner.

Keywords: corrugated boundary surface, fibre-reinforced layer, initial stress, loose bonding, orthotropic half-space, Rayleigh-type wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1394 Investigation on Pull-Out-Behavior and Interface Critical Parameters of Polymeric Fibers Embedded in Concrete and Their Correlation with Particular Fiber Characteristics

Authors: Michael Sigruener, Dirk Muscat, Nicole Struebbe


Fiber reinforcement is a state of the art to enhance mechanical properties in plastics. For concrete and civil engineering, steel reinforcements are commonly used. Steel reinforcements show disadvantages in their chemical resistance and weight, whereas polymer fibers' major problems are in fiber-matrix adhesion and mechanical properties. In spite of these facts, longevity and easy handling, as well as chemical resistance motivate researches to develop a polymeric material for fiber reinforced concrete. Adhesion and interfacial mechanism in fiber-polymer-composites are already studied thoroughly. For polymer fibers used as concrete reinforcement, the bonding behavior still requires a deeper investigation. Therefore, several differing polymers (e.g., polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK)) were spun into fibers via single screw extrusion and monoaxial stretching. Fibers then were embedded in a concrete matrix, and Single-Fiber-Pull-Out-Tests (SFPT) were conducted to investigate bonding characteristics and microstructural interface of the composite. Differences in maximum pull-out-force, displacement and slope of the linear part of force vs displacement-function, which depicts the adhesion strength and the ductility of the interfacial bond were studied. In SFPT fiber, debonding is an inhomogeneous process, where the combination of interfacial bonding and friction mechanisms add up to a resulting value. Therefore, correlations between polymeric properties and pull-out-mechanisms have to be emphasized. To investigate these correlations, all fibers were introduced to a series of analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle measurement, surface roughness and hardness analysis, tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Of each polymer, smooth and abraded fibers were tested, first to simulate the abrasion and damage caused by a concrete mixing process and secondly to estimate the influence of mechanical anchoring of rough surfaces. In general, abraded fibers showed a significant increase in maximum pull-out-force due to better mechanical anchoring. Friction processes therefore play a major role to increase the maximum pull-out-force. The polymer hardness affects the tribological behavior and polymers with high hardness lead to lower surface roughness verified by SEM and surface roughness measurements. This concludes into a decreased maximum pull-out-force for hard polymers. High surface energy polymers show better interfacial bonding strength in general, which coincides with the conducted SFPT investigation. Polymers such as PEEK or PA6 show higher bonding strength in smooth and roughened fibers, revealed through high pull-out-force and concrete particles bonded on the fiber surface pictured via SEM analysis. The surface energy divides into dispersive and polar part, at which the slope is correlating with the polar part. Only polar polymers increase their SFPT-function slope due to better wetting abilities when showing a higher bonding area through rough surfaces. Hence, the maximum force and the bonding strength of an embedded fiber is a function of polarity, hardness, and consequently surface roughness. Other properties such as crystallinity or tensile strength do not affect bonding behavior. Through the conducted analysis, it is now feasible to understand and resolve different effects in pull-out-behavior step-by-step based on the polymer properties itself. This investigation developed a roadmap on how to engineer high adhering polymeric materials for fiber reinforcement of concrete.

Keywords: fiber-matrix interface, polymeric fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, single fiber pull-out test

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1393 Silicon-To-Silicon Anodic Bonding via Intermediate Borosilicate Layer for Passive Flow Control Valves

Authors: Luc Conti, Dimitry Dumont-Fillon, Harald van Lintel, Eric Chappel


Flow control valves comprise a silicon flexible membrane that deflects against a substrate, usually made of glass, containing pillars, an outlet hole, and anti-stiction features. However, there is a strong interest in using silicon instead of glass as substrate material, as it would simplify the process flow by allowing the use of well controlled anisotropic etching. Moreover, specific devices demanding a bending of the substrate would also benefit from the inherent outstanding mechanical strength of monocrystalline silicon. Unfortunately, direct Si-Si bonding is not easily achieved with highly structured wafers since residual stress may prevent the good adhesion between wafers. Using a thermoplastic polymer, such as parylene, as intermediate layer is not well adapted to this design as the wafer-to-wafer alignment is critical. An alternative anodic bonding method using an intermediate borosilicate layer has been successfully tested. This layer has been deposited onto the silicon substrate. The bonding recipe has been adapted to account for the presence of the SOI buried oxide and intermediate glass layer in order not to exceed the breakdown voltage. Flow control valves dedicated to infusion of viscous fluids at very high pressure have been made and characterized. The results are compared to previous data obtained using the standard anodic bonding method.

Keywords: anodic bonding, evaporated glass, flow control valve, drug delivery

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1392 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel


Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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1391 Tribological Study of TiC Powder Cladding on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Sin-Yu Chen, Pei-Yu Wu


This study reports the improvement in the wear performance of A6061 aluminum alloy clad with mixed powders of titanium carbide (TiC), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The wear performance of the A6061 clad layers was evaluated by performing pin-on-disc mode wear test. Experimental results clearly indicate an enhancement in the hardness of the clad layer by about two times that of the A6061 substrate without cladding. Wear test demonstrated a significant improvement in the wear performance of the clad layer when compared with the A6061 substrate without cladding. Moreover, the interface between the clad layer and the A6061 substrate exhibited superior metallurgical bonding. Due to this bonding, the clad layer did not spall during the wear test; as such, massive wear loss was prevented. Additionally, massive oxidized particulate debris was generated on the worn surface during the wear test; this resulted in three-body abrasive wear and reduced the wear behavior of the clad surface.

Keywords: GTAW、A6061 aluminum alloy, 、surface modification, tribological study, TiC powder cladding

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1390 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor


Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: culture, social media, user interface design, Facebook, Saudi Arabia

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1389 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park


Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: element-independent formulation, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers, non-matching interface

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1388 The Effect of Size, Thickness, and Type of the Bonding Interlayer on Bullet Proof Glass as per EN 1063

Authors: Rabinder Singh Bharj, Sandeep Kumar


This investigation presents preparation of sample and analysis of results of ballistic impact test as per EN 1063 on the size, thickness, number, position, and type of the bonding interlayer Polyvinyl Butyral, Poly Carbonate and Poly Urethane on bullet proof glass. It was observed that impact energy absorbed by bullet proof glass increases with the increase of the total thickness from 33mm to 42mm to 51mm for all the three samples respectively. Absorption impact energy is greater for samples with more number of bonding interlayers than with the number of glass layers for uniform increase in total sample thickness. There is no effect on the absorption impact energy with the change in position of the bonding interlayer.

Keywords: absorbed energy, bullet proof glass, laminated glass, safety glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 301