Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1640

Search results for: differential filters

1640 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama

Abstract:

We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion

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1639 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: pulse-shaping filters, FIR filters, jittering, QAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1638 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs

Abstract:

In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1637 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral

Abstract:

In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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1636 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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1635 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

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1634 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, lattice structure, quincunx QMF bank, symmetric half-plane digital filter

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1633 A Framework for Early Differential Diagnosis of Tropical Confusable Diseases Using the Fuzzy Cognitive Map Engine

Authors: Faith-Michael E. Uzoka, Boluwaji A. Akinnuwesi, Taiwo Amoo, Flora Aladi, Stephen Fashoto, Moses Olaniyan, Joseph Osuji

Abstract:

The overarching aim of this study is to develop a soft-computing system for the differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. These conditions are of concern to health bodies, physicians, and the community at large because of their mortality rates, and difficulties in early diagnosis due to the fact that they present with symptoms that overlap, and thus become ‘confusable’. We report on the first phase of our study, which focuses on the development of a fuzzy cognitive map model for early differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. We used malaria as a case disease to show the effectiveness of the FCM technology as an aid to the medical practitioner in the diagnosis of tropical diseases. Our model takes cognizance of manifested symptoms and other non-clinical factors that could contribute to symptoms manifestations. Our model showed 85% accuracy in diagnosis, as against the physicians’ initial hypothesis, which stood at 55% accuracy. It is expected that the next stage of our study will provide a multi-disease, multi-symptom model that also improves efficiency by utilizing a decision support filter that works on an algorithm, which mimics the physician’s diagnosis process.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, tropical diseases, fuzzy cognitive map, decision support filters, malaria differential diagnosis

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1632 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

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1631 Experimental Investigation of Powder Holding Capacities of H13 and H14 Class Activated Carbon Filters Based on En 779 Standard

Authors: Abdullah Işıktaş, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

The use of HEPA filters for air conditioning systems in clean rooms tends to increase progressively in pharmaceutical, food stuff industries and in hospitals. There are two standards widely used for HEPA filters; the EN 1822 standards published by the European Union, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and the US based IEST standard (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. Both standards exhibit some differences in the definitions of efficiency and its measurement methods. While IEST standard defines efficiency at the grit diameter of 0.3 µm, the EN 1822 standard takes MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) as the basis of its definition. That is, the most difficult grit size to catch up. On the other hand, while IEST suggests that photometer and grit counters be used for filter testing, in EN 1822 standard, only the grit (grain) counters are recommended for that purpose. In this study, powder holding capacities of H13 and H14 grade materials under the EN 779 standard are investigated experimentally by using activated carbon. Measurements were taken on an experimental set up based on the TS 932 standard. Filter efficiency was measured by injecting test powder at amounts predetermined in the standards into the filters at certain intervals. The data obtained showed that the powder holding capacities of the activated carbon filter are high enough to yield efficiency of around 90% and that the H13 and H14 filters exhibit high efficiency suitable for the standard used.

Keywords: activated carbon filters, HEPA filters, powder holding capacities, air conditioning systems

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1630 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar

Abstract:

The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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1629 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan

Abstract:

This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

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1628 Reduced Differential Transform Methods for Solving the Fractional Diffusion Equations

Authors: Yildiray Keskin, Omer Acan, Murat Akkus

Abstract:

In this paper, the solution of fractional diffusion equations is presented by means of the reduced differential transform method. Fractional partial differential equations have special importance in engineering and sciences. Application of reduced differential transform method to this problem shows the rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solution. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to fractional diffusion equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many fractional partial differential equations.

Keywords: fractional diffusion equations, Caputo fractional derivative, reduced differential transform method, partial

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1627 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder

Abstract:

The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

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1626 Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through Geogebra Program

Authors: F. Maass, P. Martin, J. Olivares

Abstract:

The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.

Keywords: education, geogebra, ordinary differential equations, resonance

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1625 Automation of Process Waste-Free Air Filtration in Production of Concrete, Reinforced with Basalt Fiber

Authors: Stanislav Perepechko

Abstract:

Industrial companies - one of the major sources of harmful substances to the atmosphere. The main cause of pollution on the concrete plants are cement dust emissions. All the cement silos, pneumatic transport, and ventilation systems equipped with filters, to avoid this. Today, many Russian companies have to decide on replacement morally and physically outdated filters and guided back to the electrostatic filters as usual equipment. The offered way of a cleaning of waste-free filtering of air differs in the fact that a filtering medium of the filter is used in concrete manufacture. Basalt is widespread and pollution-free material. In the course of cleaning, one part of basalt fiber and cement immediately goes to the mixer through flow-control units of initial basalt fiber and cement. Another part of basalt fiber goes to filters for purification of the air used in systems of an air lift, and ventilating emissions passes through them, and with trapped particles also goes to the mixer through flow-control units of the basalt fiber fulfilled in filters. At the same time, regulators are adjusted in such a way that total supply of basalt fiber and cement into the mixer remains invariable and corresponds to a given technological mode.

Keywords: waste-free air filtration, concrete, basalt fiber, building automation

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1624 Weak Solutions Of Stochastic Fractional Differential Equations

Authors: Lev Idels, Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

Stochastic fractional differential equations have recently attracted considerable attention, as they have been used to model real-world processes, which are subject to natural memory effects and measurement uncertainties. Compared to conventional hereditary differential equations, one of the advantages of fractional differential equations is related to more realistic geometric properties of their trajectories that do not intersect in the phase space. In this report, a Peano-like existence theorem for nonlinear stochastic fractional differential equations is proven under very general hypotheses. Several specific classes of equations are checked to satisfy these hypotheses, including delay equations driven by the fractional Brownian motion, stochastic fractional neutral equations and many others.

Keywords: delay equations, operator methods, stochastic noise, weak solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1623 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed

Abstract:

An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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1622 An Equivalence between a Harmonic Form and a Closed Co-Closed Differential Form in L^Q and Non-L^Q Spaces

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li

Abstract:

An equivalent relation between a harmonic form and a closed co-closed form is established on a complete non-compact manifold. This equivalence has been generalized for a differential k-form ω from Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces when q=2 in the context of p-balanced growth where p=2. Especially for a simple differential k-form on a complete non-compact manifold, the equivalent relation has been verified with the extended scope of q for from finite q-energy in Lq spaces to infinite q-energy in non-Lq spaces when with 2-balanced growth. Generalized Hadamard Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, and Calculus skills including Integration by Parts as well as Convergent Series have been applied as estimation techniques to evaluate growth rates for a differential form. In particular, energy growth rates as indicated by an appropriate power range in a selected test function lead to a balance between a harmonic differential form and a closed co-closed differential form. Research ideas and computational methods in this paper could provide an innovative way in the study of broadening Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces with a wide variety of infinite energy growth for a differential form.

Keywords: closed forms, co-closed forms, harmonic forms, L^q spaces, p-balanced growth, simple differential k-forms

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1621 Recursive Doubly Complementary Filter Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of DC digital filters using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the phase response errors of the designed DAFs. To deal with the stability of the recursive DC filters during the design process, we can either impose some necessary constraints on the phases of the recursive DAFs. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a population based stochastic optimization approach. The resulting DC digital filters can possess satisfactory frequency response. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: doubly complementary, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

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1620 On Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations with Non Trivial Solutions

Authors: Fakhreddin Abedi, Wah June Leong

Abstract:

Exponential stability of stochastic differential equations with non-trivial solutions is provided in terms of Lyapunov functions. The main result of this paper establishes that, under certain hypotheses for the dynamics f (.) and g(.), practical exponential stability in probability at the small neighborhood of the origin is equivalent to the existence of an appropriate Lyapunov function. Indeed, we establish exponential stability of stochastic differential equations when almost all the state trajectories are bounded and approach a sufficiently small neighborhood of the origin. We derive sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of stochastic differential equations. Finally, we give a numerical example illustrating our results.

Keywords: exponential stability in probability, stochastic differential equations, Lyapunov technique, Ito’s formula

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1619 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations by Lyapunov Functions

Authors: Mustafa Bayram Gücen, Coşkun Yakar

Abstract:

In this study, we have investigated the strict stability of fuzzy differential systems and we compare the classical notion of strict stability criteria of ordinary differential equations and the notion of strict stability of fuzzy differential systems. In addition that, we present definitions of stability and strict stability of fuzzy differential equations and also we have some theorems and comparison results. Strict Stability is a different stability definition and this stability type can give us an information about the rate of decay of the solutions. Lyapunov’s second method is a standard technique used in the study of the qualitative behavior of fuzzy differential systems along with a comparison result that allows the prediction of behavior of a fuzzy differential system when the behavior of the null solution of a fuzzy comparison system is known. This method is a usefull for investigating strict stability of fuzzy systems. First of all, we present definitions and necessary background material. Secondly, we discuss and compare the differences between the classical notion of stability and the recent notion of strict stability. And then, we have a comparison result in which the stability properties of the null solution of the comparison system imply the corresponding stability properties of the fuzzy differential system. Consequently, we give the strict stability results and a comparison theorem. We have used Lyapunov second method and we have proved a comparison result with scalar differential equations.

Keywords: fuzzy systems, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy stability, strict stability

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1618 Step Method for Solving Nonlinear Two Delays Differential Equation in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: H. N. Agiza, M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder with common age of onset, symptoms, and progression levels. In this paper we will solve analytically the PD model as a non-linear delay differential equation using the steps method. The step method transforms a system of delay differential equations (DDEs) into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). On some numerical examples, the analytical solution will be difficult. So we will approximate the analytical solution using Picard method and Taylor method to ODEs.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, step method, delay differential equation, two delays

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1617 Existence of positive periodic solutions for certain delay differential equations

Authors: Farid Nouioua, Abdelouaheb Ardjouni

Abstract:

In this article, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of certain delay differential equations. In the process we convert the differential equation into an equivalent integral equation after which appropriate mappings are constructed. We then employ Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem to obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of a positive periodic solution of the differential equation. The obtained results improve and extend the results in the literature. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.

Keywords: delay differential equations, positive periodic solutions, integral equations, Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem

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1616 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

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1615 Periodicity of Solutions of a Nonlinear Impulsive Differential Equation with Piecewise Constant Arguments

Authors: Mehtap Lafcı

Abstract:

In recent years, oscillation, periodicity and convergence of solutions of linear differential equations with piecewise constant arguments have been significantly considered but there are only a few papers for impulsive differential equations with piecewise constant arguments. In this paper, a first order nonlinear impulsive differential equation with piecewise constant arguments is studied and the existence of solutions and periodic solutions of this equation are investigated by using Carvalho’s method. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

Keywords: Carvalho's method, impulsive differential equation, periodic solution, piecewise constant arguments

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1614 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

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1613 Phylogenetic Differential Separation of Environmental Samples

Authors: Amber C. W. Vandepoele, Michael A. Marciano

Abstract:

Biological analyses frequently focus on single organisms, however many times, the biological sample consists of more than the target organism; for example, human microbiome research targets bacterial DNA, yet most samples consist largely of human DNA. Therefore, there would be an advantage to removing these contaminating organisms. Conversely, some analyses focus on a single organism but would greatly benefit from the additional information regarding the other organismal components of the sample. Forensic analysis is one such example, wherein most forensic casework, human DNA is targeted; however, it typically exists in complex non-pristine sample substrates such as soil or unclean surfaces. These complex samples are commonly comprised of not just human tissue but also microbial and plant life, where these organisms may help gain more forensically relevant information about a specific location or interaction. This project aims to optimize a ‘phylogenetic’ differential extraction method that will separate mammalian, bacterial and plant cells in a mixed sample. This is accomplished through the use of size exclusion separation, whereby the different cell types are separated through multiple filtrations using 5 μm filters. The components are then lysed via differential enzymatic sensitivities among the cells and extracted with minimal contribution from the preceding component. This extraction method will then allow complex DNA samples to be more easily interpreted through non-targeting sequencing since the data will not be skewed toward the smaller and usually more numerous bacterial DNAs. This research project has demonstrated that this ‘phylogenetic’ differential extraction method successfully separated the epithelial and bacterial cells from each other with minimal cell loss. We will take this one step further, showing that when adding the plant cells into the mixture, they will be separated and extracted from the sample. Research is ongoing, and results are pending.

Keywords: DNA isolation, geolocation, non-human, phylogenetic separation

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1612 Series Solutions to Boundary Value Differential Equations

Authors: Armin Ardekani, Mohammad Akbari

Abstract:

We present a method of generating series solutions to large classes of nonlinear differential equations. The method is well suited to be adapted in mathematical software and unlike the available commercial solvers, we are capable of generating solutions to boundary value ODEs and PDEs. Many of the generated solutions converge to closed form solutions. Our method can also be applied to systems of ODEs or PDEs, providing all the solutions efficiently. As examples, we present results to many difficult differential equations in engineering fields.

Keywords: computational mathematics, differential equations, engineering, series

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1611 11-Round Impossible Differential Attack on Midori64

Authors: Zhan Chen, Wenquan Bi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on examining the strength of Midori against impossible differential attack. The Midori family of light weight block cipher orienting to energy-efficiency is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. Using a 6-round property, the authors implement an 11-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 by extending two rounds on the top and three rounds on the bottom. There is enough key space to consider pre-whitening keys in this attack. An impossible differential path that minimises the key bits involved is used to reduce computational complexity. Several additional observations such as partial abort technique are used to further reduce data and time complexities. This attack has data complexity of 2 ⁶⁹·² chosen plaintexts, requires 2 ¹⁴·⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2 ⁹⁴·⁷ 11- round Midori64 encryptions.

Keywords: cryptanalysis, impossible differential, light weight block cipher, Midori

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