Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2418

Search results for: feeling/emotion of consumer feedback

2418 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue


Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

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2417 Internet Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Yi-Jing Tsai


As the advance of e-commerce technologies, the consumers buying behavior have changed. The focus on consumer buying behavior has already shifted from physical space to the cyberspace, which impulse buying is a major issue of concern. This study examines the stimulus effect of web environment on the consumer's emotional states, and in turn, affecting the urge of impulse buying based on a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theory. Website ambiance and website service quality are the two stimulus variables. The study also explores the effects and the moderator effects of contextual variables and individual characteristic variables on the web environment, the emotional states and the urge of impulse buying. A total of 328 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that both website ambiance and website service quality have a positive effect on consumer emotion, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s trait of impulse buying has a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s hedonic motivation has a positive effect on both emotion state and the urge of impulse buying. On the other hand, the study found that money available for the consumer would positively affect consumer's emotion state and time available for the consumer would negatively affect the relationship between website service quality and consumer emotion. The result of this study validates Internet impulse buying behavior based on the S-O-R theory. This study also suggests that having a good website atmosphere and service quality is important to influencing consumers’ emotion and increasing the likelihood of consumer purchasing. The study could serve as a basis for the future research regarding online consumer behavior.

Keywords: emotion state, impulse buying, stimulus-organism-response, the urge of impulse buying

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2416 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López


The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: emotion, consumer behaviour, feelings, decision making

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2415 Inducing Flow Experience in Mobile Learning: An Experiment Using a Spanish Learning Mobile Application

Authors: S. Jonsson, D. Millard, C. Bokhove


Smartphones are ubiquitous and frequently used as learning tools, which makes the design of educational apps an important area of research. A key issue is designing apps to encourage engagement while maintaining a focus on the educational aspects of the app. Flow experience is a promising method for addressing this issue, which refers to a mental state of cognitive absorption and positive emotion. Flow experience has been shown to be associated with positive emotion and increased learning performance. Studies have shown that immediate feedback is an antecedent to Flow. This experiment investigates the effect of immediate feedback on Flow experience. An app teaching Spanish phrases was developed, and 30 participants completed both a 10min session with immediate feedback and a 10min session with delayed feedback. The app contained a task where the user assembles Spanish phrases by pressing bricks with Spanish words. Immediate feedback was implemented by incorrect bricks recoiling, while correct brick moved to form part of the finished phrase. In the delayed feedback condition, the user did not know if the bricks they pressed were correct until the phrase was complete. The level of Flow experienced by the participants was measured after each session using the Flow Short Scale. The results showed that higher levels of Flow were experienced in the immediate feedback session. It was also found that 14 of the participants indicated that the demands of the task were ‘just right’ in the immediate feedback session, while only one did in the delayed feedback session. These results have implications for how to design educational technology and opens up questions for how Flow experience can be used to increase performance and engagement.

Keywords: feedback timing, flow experience, L2 language learning, mobile learning

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2414 Emotion Oriented Students' Opinioned Topic Detection for Course Reviews in Massive Open Online Course

Authors: Zhi Liu, Xian Peng, Monika Domanska, Lingyun Kang, Sannyuya Liu


Massive Open education has become increasingly popular among worldwide learners. An increasing number of course reviews are being generated in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platform, which offers an interactive feedback channel for learners to express opinions and feelings in learning. These reviews typically contain subjective emotion and topic information towards the courses. However, it is time-consuming to artificially detect these opinions. In this paper, we propose an emotion-oriented topic detection model to automatically detect the students’ opinioned aspects in course reviews. The known overall emotion orientation and emotional words in each review are used to guide the joint probabilistic modeling of emotion and aspects in reviews. Through the experiment on real-life review data, it is verified that the distribution of course-emotion-aspect can be calculated to capture the most significant opinioned topics in each course unit. This proposed technique helps in conducting intelligent learning analytics for teachers to improve pedagogies and for developers to promote user experiences.

Keywords: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), course reviews, topic model, emotion recognition, topical aspects

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2413 Emotion Mining and Attribute Selection for Actionable Recommendations to Improve Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Jaishree Ranganathan, Poonam Rajurkar, Angelina A. Tzacheva, Zbigniew W. Ras


In today’s world, business often depends on the customer feedback and reviews. Sentiment analysis helps identify and extract information about the sentiment or emotion of the of the topic or document. Attribute selection is a challenging problem, especially with large datasets in actionable pattern mining algorithms. Action Rule Mining is one of the methods to discover actionable patterns from data. Action Rules are rules that help describe specific actions to be made in the form of conditions that help achieve the desired outcome. The rules help to change from any undesirable or negative state to a more desirable or positive state. In this paper, we present a Lexicon based weighted scheme approach to identify emotions from customer feedback data in the area of manufacturing business. Also, we use Rough sets and explore the attribute selection method for large scale datasets. Then we apply Actionable pattern mining to extract possible emotion change recommendations. This kind of recommendations help business analyst to improve their customer service which leads to customer satisfaction and increase sales revenue.

Keywords: actionable pattern discovery, attribute selection, business data, data mining, emotion

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2412 Emotion Expression of the Leader and Collective Efficacy: Pride and Guilt

Authors: Hsiu-Tsu Cho


Collective efficacy refers to a group’s sense of its capacity to complete a task successfully or to reach objectives. Little effort has been expended on investigating the relationship between the emotion expression of a leader and collective efficacy. In this study, we examined the impact of the different emotions and emotion expression of a group leader on collective efficacy and explored whether the emotion–expressive effects differed under conditions of negative and positive emotions. A total of 240 undergraduate and graduate students recruited using Facebook and posters at a university participated in this research. The participants were separated randomly into 80 groups of four persons consisting of three participants and a confederate. They were randomly assigned to one of five conditions in a 2 (pride vs. guilt) × 2 (emotion expression of group leader vs. no emotion expression of group leader) factorial design and a control condition. Each four-person group was instructed to get the reward in a group competition of solving the five-disk Tower of Hanoi puzzle and making decisions on an investment case. We surveyed the participants by employing the emotional measure revised from previous researchers and collective efficacy questionnaire on a 5-point scale. To induce an emotion of pride (or guilt), the experimenter announced whether the group performance was good enough to have a chance of getting the reward (ranking the top or bottom 20% among all groups) after group task. The leader (confederate) could either express or not express a feeling of pride (or guilt) following the instruction according to the assigned condition. To check manipulation of emotion, we added a control condition under which the experimenter revealed no results regarding group performance in maintaining a neutral emotion. One-way ANOVAs and post hoc pairwise comparisons among the three emotion conditions (pride, guilt, and control condition) involved assigning pride and guilt scores (pride: F(1,75) = 32.41, p < .001; guilt: F(1,75) = 6.75, p < .05). The results indicated that manipulations of emotion were successful. A two-way between-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine the predictions of the main effects of emotion types and emotion expression as well as the interaction effect of these two variables on collective efficacy. The experimental findings suggest that pride did not affect collective efficacy (F(1,60) = 1.90, ns.) more than guilt did and that the group leader did not motivate collective efficacy regardless of whether he or she expressed emotion (F(1,60) = .89, ns.). However, the interaction effect of emotion types and emotion expression was statistically significant (F(1,60) = 4.27, p < .05, ω2 = .066); the effects accounted for 6.6% of the variance. Additional results revealed that, under the pride condition, the leader enhanced group efficacy when expressing emotion, whereas, under the guilt condition, an expression of emotion could reduce collective efficacy. Overall, these findings challenge the assumption that the effect of expression emotion are the same on all emotions and suggest that a leader should be cautious when expressing negative emotions toward a group to avoid reducing group effectiveness.

Keywords: collective efficacy, group leader, emotion expression, pride, guilty

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2411 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor


Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2410 The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance

Authors: Chyi Jaw


Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: cognitive rigidity, consumer emotions, new technology acceptance, routine seeking, technology complexity

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2409 An Investigation the Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training on the Reduction of Cognitive-Emotion Regulation Problem in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Mahboobeh Sadeghi, Zahra Izadi Khah, Mansour Hakim Javadi, Masoud Gholamali Lavasani


Background: Since there is a relation between psychological and physiological factors, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of Emotion Regulation training on cognitive emotion regulation problem in patients with Multiple Sclerosis(MS) Method: In a randomized clinical trial thirty patients diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis referred to state welfare organization were selected. The sample group was randomized into either an experimental group or a nonintervention control group. The subjects participated in 75-minute treatment sessions held three times a week for 4weeks (12 sessions). All 30 individuals were administered with Cognitive Emotion Regulation questionnaire (CERQ). Participants completed the questionnaire in pretest and post-test. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed using Mancova. Results: Emotion Regulation significantly decreased the Cognitive Emotion Regulation problems patients with Multiple sclerosis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Emotion Regulation can be used for the treatment of cognitive-emotion regulation problem in Multiple sclerosis.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, cognitive-emotion regulation, emotion regulation, MS

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2408 An Empirical Investigation of Relationships between Consumer Involvement and Advertisement Effectiveness

Authors: Nasim Karami Mal Amiri, Farhad Razm Azma


Parts of consumer involvement in regards to one product are related to advertisement strategies. Different consumer involvement has different answers to the effectiveness of advertisement. This study has divided the market considering the characteristics and relationship between consumer involvement and the effectiveness of advertisement. The results of this study show consumer involvement which does affect parts of marketing. A positive and direct relationship among consumer involvement and the eventual effectiveness of advertisement has been shown. A great amount of consumer involvement is directly related to advertisement effectiveness. Therefore, consumer involvement is a critical factor in advertisement strategies.

Keywords: consumer involvement, advertisement effectiveness, strategy, effective marketing

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2407 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker


The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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2406 Sequential and Simultaneous Mixed Emotion Experiences for Self or Another Person in Adolescence

Authors: Burkitt E., Watling D., Cocks F.


There is growing evidence to suggest that young children and adults experience opposite valence mixed emotions in various simultaneous ways which vary in intensity for two emotions over an experience. Models of mixed emotion do not specify types of simultaneous experiences across adolescent populations. This study examined types of simultaneous mixed emotion experiences for the first time in adolescence. It also examined the impacts of high and low-intensity emotion pairs on types of mixed emotion experiences using an Analogue Emotion Scale (AES) which permits the graphical mapping of opposite valence emotions across an event duration. 163 participants were randomly allocated to two age groups (12 years, 5 months-16 years, 9 months vs. 16 years, 10 months-18 years, 8 months) across two conditions considering their own (n=83) or another adolescent’s (n= 80) experience divided equally for high (n=80) or low (n= 83) intensity mixed emotion experiences. Findings showed that children experienced mixed emotions both sequentially and simultaneously. In particular older adolescents recorded that others experience emotions in a more sequential manner, while they themselves would experience emotions in a highly simultaneous way. Emotion experience was different depending on the intensity of the emotion pair and age group. Findings are discussed in relation to an evaluative space model of mixed emotion and extended developmental models of emotion processing. Applications of the AES with adolescent populations are considered.

Keywords: adolescence, mixed emotions, graphing, AES

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2405 Pattern Discovery from Student Feedback: Identifying Factors to Improve Student Emotions in Learning

Authors: Angelina A. Tzacheva, Jaishree Ranganathan


Interest in (STEM) Science Technology Engineering Mathematics education especially Computer Science education has seen a drastic increase across the country. This fuels effort towards recruiting and admitting a diverse population of students. Thus the changing conditions in terms of the student population, diversity and the expected teaching and learning outcomes give the platform for use of Innovative Teaching models and technologies. It is necessary that these methods adapted should also concentrate on raising quality of such innovations and have positive impact on student learning. Light-Weight Team is an Active Learning Pedagogy, which is considered to be low-stake activity and has very little or no direct impact on student grades. Emotion plays a major role in student’s motivation to learning. In this work we use the student feedback data with emotion classification using surveys at a public research institution in the United States. We use Actionable Pattern Discovery method for this purpose. Actionable patterns are patterns that provide suggestions in the form of rules to help the user achieve better outcomes. The proposed method provides meaningful insight in terms of changes that can be incorporated in the Light-Weight team activities, resources utilized in the course. The results suggest how to enhance student emotions to a more positive state, in particular focuses on the emotions ‘Trust’ and ‘Joy’.

Keywords: actionable pattern discovery, education, emotion, data mining

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2404 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López


In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2403 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie


This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

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2402 Performance Analysis of Domotics System as Real-Time Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

Authors: Dauda A. Oladosu, Kamorudeen A Olaiya, Abdurahman Bello


The deployment of smart meters by utility providers to gather fine grained spatiotemporal consumption data has grossly influenced the consumers’ emotion and behavior towards energy utilization. The quest for reduction in power consumption is now a subject of concern and one the methods adopted by the consumers to achieve this is Non-intrusive Load (appliance) Monitoring. Hence, this work presents performance Analysis of Domotics System as a tool for load monitoring when integrated with Consumer Control Unit of residential building. The system was developed with basic elements which enhance remote sensing, DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-frequency) recognition and cryptic messaging when specific task was performed. To demonstrate its applicability and suitability, this prototype was used consistently for six months at different load demands and the utilities consumed were documented. The results obtained shows good response when phone dialed, and the packet delivery of feedback SMS was quite satisfactory, making the implemented system to be of good quality with affordable cost and performs the desired functions. Besides, comparative analysis showed notable reduction in energy consumption and invariably lessened electrical bill of the consumer.

Keywords: automation, domotics, energy, load, remote, schedule

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2401 Raising Linguistic Awareness through Metalinguistic Written Corrective Feedback

Authors: Orit Zeevy-Solovey


Grammar has traditionally been taught for its own sake, emphasizing rules and drills. However, in recent years, more emphasis is given to communicative competence. Current research suggests that form-focused instruction is notably efficient when incorporated in a meaningful communicative context. It is maintained that writing tasks related to the students’ academic fields will encourage them to express themselves openly in topics that are close to their hearts, without feeling too uneasy about grammatical forms. The teacher can further reduce students’ apprehension of grammar by announcing that credit will be given for merely doing the task and that grammar mistakes will not affect the grade. Students’ linguistic errors can then be corrected by giving metalinguistic feedback which involves providing learners with some kind of explicit remark about the nature of the errors they have made. Research has also shown that learners’ developmental readiness is an important factor influencing the effectiveness of written corrective feedback. Larger effect sizes appear as the proficiency level is higher. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate how grammar can be taught indirectly through writing tasks, and more specifically, how the use of metalinguistic written corrective feedback given to advanced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students can raise their linguistic awareness. Since errors are not directly corrected, the students have to work out the corrections needed through exploring grammar books and websites. Longitudinal studies of metalinguistic written corrective feedback comparing the number of errors in students’ first and fourth compositions have shown a decrease in errors.

Keywords: EFL, linguistic awareness, metalinguistic corrective feedback, teaching grammar through writing

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2400 Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features

Authors: Vesna Kirandziska, Nevena Ackovska, Ana Madevska Bogdanova


The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.

Keywords: emotion recognition, facial recognition, signal processing, machine learning

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2399 Disentangling Audio Content and Emotion with Adaptive Instance Normalization for Expressive Facial Animation Synthesis

Authors: Che-Jui Chang, Long Zhao, Mubbasir Kapadia


3D facial animation synthesis from audio has been a focus in recent years. However, most existing works in the literature are designed for the mapping between audio and visual content, providing limited knowledge regarding the relationship between emotion in audio and expressive facial animation. In this paper, we aim to generate audio-matching facial animations with the specified emotion label. In such a task, we argue that separating the content from audio is indispensable -the proposed model must learn to generate facial contents from audio contents while expressions from the specified emotion. We achieve it by an adaptive instance normalization (AdaIN) module that isolates the content in the audio and combines the emotion embedding from the specified label. The joint content-emotion embedding is then used to generate 3D facial vertices and texture maps. We compare our method with state-of-the-art baselines, including the facial segmentation-based and voice conversion-based disentanglement approaches. We also conducted a user study to evaluate the performance of emotion conditioning, and the results indicate our proposed method outperforms the baselines in both the animation quality and accuracy of expression categorization.

Keywords: adaptive instance normalization, audio-driven animation, content-emotion disentanglement, emotion-conditioning, expressive facial animation synthesis

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2398 Stuck Down in the Mess of Aisles: Need of a Practical Consumer Welfare Policy Framework in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Japan

Authors: E. N. R. de Silva


The main purpose of this research is to set a policy framework for establishing a legal, institutional and social infrastructure that enhances the welfare, health, safety and economic interest of the consumers in Sri Lanka. It will help to develop an approach to continuously and successfully advocate for a consumer protection legal reform agenda and also it is significant as it gives directions to create national consumer protection associations in Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for this research is purely a qualitative approach and it is generally and specifically categorized. Generally, part of this research looked at the existing laws, regulations and how effective they are in order to protect consumers. It will analyze the consumer protection framework and specially, consumer protection enhanced by the public organizations in Japan. This research offers a model with methods and legal instruments to enforce advocacy group to enhance consumer welfare, also brings out reforms to be made in the national legal framework on consumer welfare.

Keywords: consumer protection association, consumer protection law, consumer welfare, legal framework

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2397 Intrinsic Motivational Factor of Students in Learning Mathematics and Science Based on Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Norzaliza Md. Nor, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Mahyar Hamedi, Hadrina Hussain, Wahab Abdul Rahman


Motivational factor is mainly the students’ desire to involve in learning process. However, it also depends on the goal towards their involvement or non-involvement in academic activity. Even though, the students’ motivation might be in the same level, but the basis of their motivation may differ. In this study, it focuses on the intrinsic motivational factor which student enjoy learning or feeling of accomplishment the activity or study for its own sake. The intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science has found as difficult to be achieved because it depends on students’ interest. In the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for mathematics and science, Malaysia is ranked as third lowest. The main problem in Malaysian educational system, students tend to have extrinsic motivation which they have to score in exam in order to achieve a good result and enrolled as university students. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has found to be scarce especially to identify the students’ intrinsic motivational factor in learning science and mathematics. In this research study, we are identifying the correlation between precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion to verify the intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science. The 2-D Affective Space Model (ASM) was used in this research in order to identify the relationship of precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion based on the four basic emotions, happy, calm, fear and sad. These four basic emotions are required to be used as reference stimuli. Then, in order to capture the brain waves, EEG device was used, while Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) was adopted to be used for extracting the features before it will be feed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to classify the valence and arousal axes for the ASM. The results show that the precursor emotion had an influence the dynamic emotions and it identifies that most students have no interest in mathematics and science according to the negative emotion (sad and fear) appear in the EEG signals. We hope that these results can help us further relate the behavior and intrinsic motivational factor of students towards learning of mathematics and science.

Keywords: EEG, MLP, MFCC, intrinsic motivational factor

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2396 Audience Members' Perspective-Taking Predicts Accurate Identification of Musically Expressed Emotion in a Live Improvised Jazz Performance

Authors: Omer Leshem, Michael F. Schober


This paper introduces a new method for assessing how audience members and performers feel and think during live concerts, and how audience members' recognized and felt emotions are related. Two hypotheses were tested in a live concert setting: (1) that audience members’ cognitive perspective taking ability predicts their accuracy in identifying an emotion that a jazz improviser intended to express during a performance, and (2) that audience members' affective empathy predicts their likelihood of feeling the same emotions as the performer. The aim was to stage a concert with audience members who regularly attend live jazz performances, and to measure their cognitive and affective reactions during the performance as non-intrusively as possible. Pianist and Grammy nominee Andy Milne agreed, without knowing details of the method or hypotheses, to perform a full-length solo improvised concert that would include an ‘unusual’ piece. Jazz fans were recruited through typical advertising for New York City jazz performances. The event was held at the New School’s Glass Box Theater, the home of leading NYC jazz venue ‘The Stone.’ Audience members were charged typical NYC jazz club admission prices; advertisements informed them that anyone who chose to participate in the study would be reimbursed their ticket price after the concert. The concert, held in April 2018, had 30 attendees, 23 of whom participated in the study. Twenty-two minutes into the concert, the performer was handed a paper note with the instruction: ‘Perform a 3-5-minute improvised piece with the intention of conveying sadness.’ (Sadness was chosen based on previous music cognition lab studies, where solo listeners were less likely to select sadness as the musically-expressed emotion accurately from a list of basic emotions, and more likely to misinterpret sadness as tenderness). Then, audience members and the performer were invited to respond to a questionnaire from a first envelope under their seat. Participants used their own words to describe the emotion the performer had intended to express, and then to select the intended emotion from a list. They also reported the emotions they had felt while listening using Izard’s differential emotions scale. The concert then continued as usual. At the end, participants answered demographic questions and Davis’ interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a 28-item scale designed to assess both cognitive and affective empathy. Hypothesis 1 was supported: audience members with greater cognitive empathy were more likely to accurately identify sadness as the expressed emotion. Moreover, audience members who accurately selected ‘sadness’ reported feeling marginally sadder than people who did not select sadness. Hypotheses 2 was not supported; audience members with greater affective empathy were not more likely to feel the same emotions as the performer. If anything, members with lower cognitive perspective-taking ability had marginally greater emotional overlap with the performer, which makes sense given that these participants were less likely to identify the music as sad, which corresponded with the performer’s actual feelings. Results replicate findings from solo lab studies in a concert setting and demonstrate the viability of exploring empathy and collective cognition in improvised live performance.

Keywords: audience, cognition, collective cognition, emotion, empathy, expressed emotion, felt emotion, improvisation, live performance, recognized emotion

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2395 Exploring Fear in Moral Life: Implications for Education

Authors: Liz Jackson


Fear is usually considered as a basic emotion. In society, it is normally cast as undesirable, but also as partly unavoidable. Fear can be said to underlie courage or be required for courage, or it can be understood as its foil. Fear is not normally promoted (intentionally) in education, or treated as something that should be cultivated in schools or in society. However, fear is a basic, to some extent unavoidable emotion, related to truly fearsome things in the world. Fear is also understood to underlie anxiety. Fear is seen as basically disruptive to education, while from a psychological view it is an ordinary state. that cannot be avoided altogether. Despite calls to diminish this negative and mixed feeling in education and society, it can be regarded as socially and personally valuable, and psychologically functional in some situations. One should not take for granted the goodness of fear. However, it can be productive to explore its moral worth, and uses and abuses. Such uncomfortable feelings and experiences can be cultivated and explored via educational and other societal influences, in ways that can benefit a person and their relations with others in the world, while they can also be detrimental.

Keywords: virtue ethics, philosophy of education, moral philosophy, fear

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2394 Job Characteristics, Emotion Regulation and University Teachers' Well-Being: A Job Demands-Resources Analysis

Authors: Jiying Han


Teaching is widely known to be an emotional endeavor, and teachers’ ability to regulate their emotions is important for their well-being and the effectiveness of their classroom management. Considering that teachers’ emotion regulation is an underexplored issue in the field of educational research, some studies have attempted to explore the role of emotion regulation in teachers’ work and to explore the links between teachers’ emotion regulation, job characteristics, and well-being, based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. However, those studies targeted primary or secondary teachers. So far, very little is known about the relationships between university teachers’ emotion regulation and its antecedents and effects on teacher well-being. Based on the job demands-resources model and emotion regulation theory, this study examined the relationships between job characteristics of university teaching (i.e., emotional job demands and teaching support), emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression), and university teachers’ well-being. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 643 university teachers in China were analysed. The results indicated that (1) both emotional job demands and teaching support had desirable effects on university teachers’ well-being; (2) both emotional job demands and teaching support facilitated university teachers’ use of reappraisal strategies; and (3) reappraisal was beneficial to university teachers’ well-being, whereas suppression was harmful. These findings support the applicability of the job demands-resources model to the contexts of higher education and highlight the mediating role of emotion regulation.

Keywords: emotional job demands, teaching support, emotion regulation strategies, the job demands-resources model

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2393 Discussing Concept Gratitude of Muslim Consumers Based on Islamic Law: A Confirmation on the Theory of Consumer Satisfaction through Imam Al-Ghazali's Thought

Authors: Suprihatin Soewarto


The background of writing this paper is to assess the truth of rejection of some Muslim scholars who develop Islamic economics on the concept of consumer satisfaction and replace it with the concept of maslahah. In the perspective of Islamic law, this rejection attitude needs to be verified in order to know the accuracy of the replacement of this concept of satisfaction with maslahah as part of consumer behavior. This is done so that replacement of rejection of the term satisfaction with maslahah is objective. This objective replacement of the term will surely be more enlightening and more just than the subjective substitution. Therefore the writing of this paper aims to get an answer whether the concept of satisfaction needs to be replaced? is it possible for Islamic law to confirm the theory of consumer satisfaction? The method of writing this paper using the method of literature with a critical analysis approach. The results of this study is an explanation of the similarities and differences of consumer satisfaction theory and consumer theory maslahah according to Islamic law. disclosure of the concept of consumer gratitude according to Islamic law and its implementation in Muslim consumer demand theory.

Keywords: consumer's gratitude, islamic law, confirmation, satisfaction consumer's

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2392 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan


Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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2391 The Relationships among Learning Emotion, Major Satisfaction, Learning Flow, and Academic Achievement in Medical School Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek


This study explored whether academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow are associated with academic achievement in medical school. We know that emotion and affective factors are important factors in students' learning and performance. Emotion has taken the stage in much of contemporary educational psychology literature, no longer relegated to secondary status behind traditionally studied cognitive constructs. Medical school students (n=164) completed academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow online survey. Academic performance was operationalized as students' average grade on two semester exams. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and ANOVA were conducted. The results largely confirmed the hypothesized relations among academic emotion, major satisfaction, learning flow and academic achievement. Positive academic emotion had a correlation with academic achievement (β=.191). Positive emotion had 8.5% explanatory power for academic achievement. Especially, sense of accomplishment had a significant impact on learning performance (β=.265). On the other hand, negative emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow did not affect academic performance. Also, there were differences in sense of great (F=5.446, p=.001) and interest (F=2.78, p=.043) among positive emotion, boredom (F=3.55, p=.016), anger (F=4.346, p=.006), and petulance (F=3.779, p=.012) among negative emotion by grade. This study suggested that medical students' positive emotion was an important contributor to their academic achievement. At the same time, it is important to consider that some negative emotions can act to increase one’s motivation. Of particular importance is the notion that instructors can and should create learning environment that foster positive emotion for students. In doing so, instructors improve their chances of positively impacting students’ achievement emotions, as well as their subsequent motivation, learning, and performance. This result had an implication for medical educators striving to understand the personal emotional factors that influence learning and performance in medical training.

Keywords: academic achievement, learning emotion, learning flow, major satisfaction

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2390 A Systematic Review Emotion Regulation through Music in Children, Adults, and Elderly

Authors: Fabiana Ribeiro, Ana Moreno, Antonio Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva


Music is present in our daily lives, and to our knowledge music is often used to change the emotions in the listeners. For this reason, the objective of this study was to explore and synthesize results examining the use and effects of music on emotion regulation in children, adults, and elderly, and clarify if the music is effective across ages to promote emotion regulation. A literature search was conducted using ISI Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scopus, inclusion criteria comprised children, adolescents, young, and old adults, including health population. Articles applying musical intervention, specifically musical listening, and assessing the emotion regulation directly through reports or neurophysiological measures were included in this review. Results showed age differences in the function of musical listening; initially, adolescents revealed age increments in emotional listening compared to children, and young adults in comparison to older adults, in which the first use music aiming to emotion regulation and social connection, while older adults also utilize music as emotion regulation searching for personal growth. Moreover, some of the studies showed that personal characteristics also would determine the efficiency of the emotion regulation strategy. In conclusion, it was observed that music could beneficiate all ages investigated, however, this review detected a necessity to develop adequate paradigms to explore the use of music for emotion regulation.

Keywords: music, emotion, regulation, musical listening

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2389 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau


Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

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