Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 848

Search results for: Entrepreneurial Intention

848 Influence of Entrepreneurial Passion in the Relationship between the Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Moroccan Students

Authors: Soukaina Boutaky, Abdelhak Sahibeddine

Abstract:

A study was carried out among students who have especially a scientific and technical educational background and who had opportunities to benefit from a program entrepreneurship course of 50 hours; at Higher School of Technology Khenifra, Morocco. This article has as a goal to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention. The authors chose Bandura’s theory of social cognition as a theoretical framework. The modeling methods equation is adopted to analyze the hypotheses by SMART PLS for 188 students. The results show a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. They also reveal that entrepreneurship education affects entrepreneurial intention through the effect of entrepreneurial passion, particularly among women than men. In addition, this study contributes in a theoretical way to the level of the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion, and these results provide educators and public decision-makers with advice on the importance of entrepreneurship training based on emotional traits such as passion; which constitutes a key and essential element to encourage young graduates to choose an entrepreneurial career as an alternative option or to develop entrepreneurial passion among the business leaders of tomorrow.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial intention, equation modeling methods

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847 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

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This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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846 Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Entrepreneurial Intention of University Undergraduates in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adedayo Racheal Agbonna

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The rising level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria has brought about the introduction of entrepreneurship education as a career option for self–reliance and self-employment. Sequel to this, it is important to have an understanding of the determining factors of entrepreneurial intention. Therefore this research empirically investigated the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of selected universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study is significant to researchers, university policy makers, and the government. Survey research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 17,659 final year undergraduate students universities in Ogun State. The study adopted stratified and random sampling technique. The table of sample size determination was used to determine the sample size for this study at 95% confidence level and 5% margin error to arrive at a sample size of 1877 respondents. The elements of population were 400 level students of the selected universities. A structured questionnaire titled 'Entrepreneurship Education and students’ Entrepreneurial intention' was administered. The result of the reliability test had the following values 0.716, 0.907 and 0.949 for infrastructure, perceived university support, and entrepreneurial intention respectively. In the same vein, from the construct validity test, the following values were obtained 0.711, 0.663 and 0.759 for infrastructure, perceived university support and entrepreneurial intention respectively. Findings of this study revealed that each of the entrepreneurship education variables significantly affected intention University infrastructure B= -1.200, R²=0.679, F (₁,₁₈₇₅) = 3958.345, P < 0.05) Perceived University Support B= -1.027, R²=0.502, F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 1924.612, P < 0.05). The perception of respondents in public university and private university on entrepreneurship education have a statistically significant difference [F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 134.614, p < 0.05) α F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 363.439]. The study concluded that entrepreneurship education positively influenced entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Also, university infrastructure and perceived university support have negative and significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The study recommended that to promote entrepreneurial intention of university undergraduate students, infrastructures and the university support that can arouse entrepreneurial intention of students should be put in place.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intention, perceived university support, university infrastructure

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845 The Role of Coaching in Fostering Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduate Students in Tunisia

Authors: Abdellatif Amouri, Sami Boudabbous

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The current study provides insights on the importance of entrepreneurial coaching as a source of developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs and a determinant factor of business creation process and growth. Coaching, which implies exchange of adequate information and a mutual understanding between entrepreneurs and their partners, requires a better mutual knowledge of the representations and the perceptions of ideas which are widely present in their dealings and transactions. Therefore, to analyze entrepreneurs’ perceptions of business creation, we addressed a survey questionnaire to a group of Tunisian entrepreneurs and experts in business creation to indicate their level of approval concerning the prominence of coaching. The factor analysis indicates that more than 60% of the respondents believe that each statement reflects an aspect of coaching, with no bias to its position in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the image drawn from our respondents’ perceptions is that an entrepreneur is rather "constructed" and "shaped" by multiple apprenticeships both before and during the entrepreneurial act, through an accompaniment process and within interactions with trainers, consultants or professionals in starting a business. Similarly, the results indicate that the poor support structures and lack of accompaniment procedures stand as an obstacle impeding the development of entrepreneurial intention among business creators.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Entrepreneurial Coaching, Entrepreneurial Intention, Perceptions, Venture Creation

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844 Entrepreneurial Predisposition and Intention of Students from the IFRN – Mossoró, Brazil

Authors: Giovane Gurgel, Cristina S. Rodrigues, Filipa D. Vieira

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IFRN – Mossoró is a Brazilian technical education institute that develops several activities to encourage entrepreneurship, such as a curricular discipline about enterprise management and the existence of a business incubator. Despite efforts, the business incubator does not produce the expected effects. Therefore, what predisposes students to start their own business? If literature review explores determinant factors like the family and personal characteristics, it can be sustained that entrepreneurship skills can be taught since primary level, until university level. This paper presents the results of research project “Empreende IFRN” to understand the entrepreneurial predisposition and intention of the students from technical level courses. Data from 365 students from technical level courses reveal an increased entrepreneurial intention of students during time (from a 2 years period to someday in the future). The entrepreneurial behaviour of parents affects students’ perception about starting their own business. Students also present a cautions behaviour, preferring bank deposit and investment fund instead starting a business.

Keywords: Brazil, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship, secondary technical students

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843 A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory

Authors: Anh T. P. Tran, Harald Von Korflesch

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Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, social cognitive career theory, social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurship

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842 Entrepreneurial Passion: A Literature Review and Framework

Authors: Erica Engel, Andreas Bausch

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The construct of passion, which for decades has spurred people to rise above themselves and achieve top performance, has become an increasingly important realm in entrepreneurial literature. In particular, the development process, which represents a great interplay of personality traits and cognitive processes, and the influence of passion in entrepreneurial processes, is receiving more and more scholarly intention. A wide range of different research foci exploring the creation and influence of passion within entrepreneurial processes has yielded a variety of scientific findings. By providing an integrative framework, this study aims to review the different research results systematically, to contribute not only to the understanding of entrepreneurial passion but also to the theoretical body of knowledge in entrepreneurial research. In addition, the authors identify personal-related and work-related boundary conditions, which influence both the occurrence of entrepreneurial passion and its impact.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial passion, framework of entrepreneurial passion, passion, passion in an entrepreneurial context

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841 Developing Countries and the Entrepreneurial Intention of Postgraduates: A Study of Nigerian Postgraduates in UUM

Authors: Mahmoud Ahmad Mahmoud

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The surge in unemployment among nations and the understanding of the important role played by entrepreneurship in job creation by researchers and policy makers have steered to the postulation that entrepreneurship activities can be spurred through the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Notwithstanding, entrepreneurial intention studies are very scarce in the developing world especially in the African continent. Even among the developed countries, studies of entrepreneurial intention were mostly focused on the undergraduate candidates. This paper therefore, aimed at filling the gap by employing the descriptive quantitative survey method to examine the entrepreneurial intention of 158 Nigerian postgraduate candidates of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), comprising 46 Masters and 112 PhD candidates who are studying in the College of Business (COB), College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) and College of Legal, Government and International Studies (COLGIS), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model was used due its reputable validity, with attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as the independent variables. Preliminary analysis and data screening were conducted which qualifies the data to the multivariate analysis assumptions. The reliability test was performed using the Cronbach Alpha method which shows all variables as reliable with a value of >0.70. However, the data is free from the multicollinearity issue with all factors in the Pearson correlation having <0.9 value and the VIF having <10. Regression analysis has shown the sufficiency and predictive capability of the TPB model to entrepreneurship intention with attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control being positively and significantly related to the entrepreneurial intention of Nigerian postgraduates. Considering the Beta values, perceived behavioural control emerged as the strongest factor that influences the postgraduates entrepreneurial intention. Developing countries are therefore, recommended to make efforts in redesigning their entrepreneurship development policies to fit candidates of the highest level of academia. Further studies should replicate in a larger sample that comprises more than one university and more than one developing country.

Keywords: attitude, entrepreneurial intention, Nigeria, perceived behavioral control, postgraduates, subjective norms

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840 Factors Impacting Entrepreneurial Intention: A Literature Review

Authors: Abir S. AL-Harrasi, Eyad B. AL-Zadjali, Zahran S. AL-Salti

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Entrepreneurship has captured the attention of policy-makers, educators and researchers in the last few decades. It has been regarded as a main driver for economic growth, development and employment generation in many countries worldwide. However, scholars have not agreed on the key factors that impact entrepreneurial intention. This study attempts, through an extensive literature review, to provide a holistic view and a more comprehensive understanding of the key factors that lead university undergraduate students to become entrepreneurs. A systematic literature review is conducted and several scientific articles and reports have been examined. The results of this study indicate that there are four main sets of factors: the personality-traits factors, contextual factors, motivational factors, and personal background factors. This research will serve as a base for future studies and will have valuable implications for policy makers and educators.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, literature review, economic growth

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839 The Comparative Study of Attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Intention between ASEAN and Europe: An Analysis Using GEM Data

Authors: Suchart Tripopsakul

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This paper uses data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) to investigate the difference of attitudes towards entrepreneurial intention (EI). EI is generally assumed to be the single most relevant predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine a range of attitudes effect on individual’s intent to start a new venture. A cross-cultural comparison between Asia and Europe is used to further investigate the possible differences between potential entrepreneurs from these distinct national contexts. The empirical analysis includes a GEM data set of 10 countries (n = 10,306) which was collected in 2013. Logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of individual’s attitudes on EI. Independent variables include individual’s perceived capabilities, the ability to recognize business opportunities, entrepreneurial network, risk perceptions as well as a range of socio-cultural attitudes. Moreover, a cross-cultural comparison of the model is conducted including six ASEAN (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand) and four European nations (Spain, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom). The findings support the relationship between individual’s attitudes and their entrepreneurial intention. Individual’s capability, opportunity recognition, networks and a range of socio-cultural perceptions all influence EI significantly. The impact of media attention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in ASEAN, but not in Europe. On the one hand, Fear of failure was found to influence EI in Europe, but not in ASEAN. The paper develops and empirically tests attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Intention between ASEAN and Europe. Interestingly, fear of failure was found to have no significant effect in ASEAN, and the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in ASEAN. Moreover, the resistance of ASEAN entrepreneurs to the otherwise high rates of fear of failure and high impact of media attention are proposed as independent variables to explain the relatively high rates of entrepreneurial activity in ASEAN as reported by GEM. The paper utilizes a representative sample of 10,306 individuals in 10 countries. A range of attitudes was found to significantly influence entrepreneurial intention. Many of these perceptions, such as the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship can be manipulated by government policy. The paper also suggests strategies by which Asian economy in particular can benefit from their apparent high impact of media attention on entrepreneurship.

Keywords: an entrepreneurial intention, attitude, GEM, ASEAN and Europe

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838 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik

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Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

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837 The Mediating Impact of Entrepreneurial Alertness on Relationship between Entrepreneurial Education and Intentions

Authors: Altaf Hussain, Norashidah Hashim

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An important aspect needed for promoting entrepreneurship is to encourage individuals for becoming entrepreneurs by endowing them with the required skills and knowledge for identifying the opportunities and turning these opportunities into successful ventures. Literature has recognized entrepreneurship education has significant role in motivating individual’s intention to become an entrepreneurs. Developing upon the insights based on dynamic view of human capital theory, this conceptual paper explores the role of entrepreneurial alertness in a linkage between entrepreneurial education and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Prior knowledge which can be acquired through entrepreneurship education and or experience is an antecedent for developing specific human capital of alertness for identifying the opportunities which impact on individual intentions. This suggests cause & effect relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions through entrepreneurial alertness by impacting on the attitude, social norms and perceived behavioral control of an individual which can motivate individual intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Thus, alertness skill acquired through entrepreneurship education for identifying the profitable opportunities mediates the relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, alertness, intentions, human capital

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836 Entrepreneurial Intention and Social Entrepreneurship among Students in Malaysian Higher Education

Authors: Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahman, Norasmah Othman, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie, Hariyaty Ab. Wahid

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The recent instability in economy was found to be influencing the situation in Malaysia whether directly or indirectly. Taking that into consideration, the government needs to find the best approach to balance its citizen’s socio-economic strata level urgently. Through education platform is among the efforts planned and acted upon for the purpose of balancing the effects of the influence, through the exposure of social entrepreneurial activity towards youth especially those in higher institution level. Armed with knowledge and skills that they gained, with the support by entrepreneurial culture and environment while in campus; indirectly, the students will lean more on making social entrepreneurship as a career option when they graduate. Following the issues of marketability and workability of current graduates that are becoming dire, research involving how far the willingness of student to create social innovation that contribute to the society without focusing solely on personal gain is relevant enough to be conducted. With that, this research is conducted with the purpose of identifying the level of entrepreneurial intention and social entrepreneurship among higher institution students in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling involves 355 undergraduate students from five public universities had been made as research respondents and data were collected through surveys. The data was then analyzed descriptively using min score and standard deviation. The study found that the entrepreneurial intention of higher education students are on moderate level, however it is the contrary for social entrepreneurship activities, where it was shown on a high level. This means that while the students only have moderate level of willingness to be a social entrepreneur, they are very committed to created social innovation through the social entrepreneurship activities conducted. The implication from this study can be contributed towards the higher institution authorities in prediction the tendency of student in becoming social entrepreneurs. Thus, the opportunities and facilities for realizing the courses related to social entrepreneurship must be created expansively so that the vision of creating as many social entrepreneurs as possible can be achieved.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, higher education institutions (HEIs), social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurial activity, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
835 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

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The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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834 An Investigation of Entrepreneurial Intentions, Drivers, and Challenges among Final Year Students in Jigawa State Polytechnic, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Umar Usman

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This study investigates the entrepreneurial intentions, drivers and challenges of starting a business among final year students in Jigawa State polytechnic. Nigeria. Final year students of Jigawa State Polytechnic from the department of accounting, business administration and management and public administration were used as a case study. The study became necessary due to the alarming rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. The study adopted a holistic case study approach involving a multiple methods of questionnaires involving (182) Higher National Diploma (HND) and National Diploma (ND) final year students and a telephone interview with two lecturers teaching entrepreneurship in the college. The findings clearly indicate that exposer to entrepreneurship education increases students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The result found that desire for independence, confidence and strong intention are the most important factors that influence students’ entrepreneurial intention. The study identified 3 key drivers of students’ entrepreneurial intentions. These are to earn a living, to seek job security and provision of employment. The result again identified 4 factors namely lack of support, finance, insecurity and erratic power supply as the major challenges in starting a business in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the current entrepreneurship education programme prepares students on how to open up a business not becoming an entrepreneur. The study concluded entrepreneurship helps students toward building and driving their intention to venture into business. However, the challenges of entrepreneurship in Nigeria need to be addressed in order to enable individuals to become an entrepreneur and create employment opportunities that will lead to the development of Nigerian economy. Thus, the government should provide adequate support particularly the issue of infrastructures. The Federal Government of Nigeria in collaboration with the National Board for Technical Education should fashion out the curriculum thereby making it more practically-oriented so that students may become more interested. Polytechnics should develop an internship programme for students to work in firms so as to put theory learnt in the class to practice. Students should try to align the theory learnt in college with the practical application in dynamic economic environment. Hence, this will help in building their capabilities toward entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial drivers, challenges, entrepreneurial education

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833 The Origin and Development of Entrepreneurial Cognition: The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Cognitive Style and Subsequent Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Salma Hussein, Hadia Aziz

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Entrepreneurship plays a significant and imperative role in economic and social growth, and therefore, is stimulated and encouraged by governments and academics as a mean of creating job opportunities, innovation, and wealth. Indicative of its importance, it is essential to identify factors that encourage and promote entrepreneurial behavior. This is particularly true for developing countries where the need for entrepreneurial development is high and the resources are scarce, thus, there is a need to maximize the outcomes of investing in entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurial education has been the center of attention and interest among researchers as it is believed to be one of the most critical factors in promoting entrepreneurship over the long run. Accordingly, the urgency to encourage entrepreneurship education and develop an enterprise culture is now a main concern in Egypt. Researchers have postulated that cognition has the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of entrepreneurship. One such contribution that future studies need to consider in entrepreneurship research is the cognitive processes that occur within the individual such as cognitive style. During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive style among researchers and practitioners specifically in innovation and entrepreneurship field. Limited studies pay attention to study the antecedent dynamics that fuel entrepreneurial cognition to better understand its role in entrepreneurship. Moreover, while many studies were conducted on entrepreneurship education, scholars are still hesitant regarding the teachability of entrepreneurship due to the lack of clear evidence of its impact. Furthermore, the relation between cognitive style and entrepreneurial intentions, has yet to be discovered. Hence, this research aims to test the impact of entrepreneurship education on cognitive style and subsequent intention in order to evaluate whether student’s and potential entrepreneur’s cognitive styles are affected by entrepreneurial education and in turn affect their intentions. Understanding the impact of Entrepreneurship Education on ways of thinking and intention is critical for the development of effective education and training in entrepreneurship field. It is proposed that students who are exposed to entrepreneurship education programs will have a more balanced thinking style compared to those students who are not exposed. Moreover, it is hypothesized that students having a balanced cognitive style will exhibit higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions than students having an intuitive or analytical cognitive style. Finally, it is proposed that non-formal entrepreneurship education will be more positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions than will formal entrepreneurship education. The proposed methodology is a pre and post Experimental Design. The sample will include young adults, their age range from 18 till 35 years old including both students enrolled in formal entrepreneurship education programs in private universities as well as young adults who are willing to participate in a Non-Formal entrepreneurship education programs in Egypt. Attention is now given on how far individuals are analytical or intuitive in their cognitive style, to what extent it is possible to have a balanced thinking style and whether or not this can be aided by training or education. Therefore, there is an urge need for further research on entrepreneurial cognition in educational contexts.

Keywords: cognitive style, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship education, experimental design

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832 The Moderating Role of Perceived University Environment in the Formation of Entrepreneurial Intention among Creative Industries Students

Authors: Patrick Ebong Ebewo

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The trend of high unemployment levels globally is a growing concern, which suggests that university students especially those studying the creative industries are most likely to face unemployment upon completion of their studies. Therefore the effort of university in fostering entrepreneurial knowledge is equally important to the development of student’s soft skill. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance of perceived university environment and perceived educational support that influencing University students’ intention in starting their own business in the future. Thus, attempting to answer the question 'How does perceived university environment affect students’ attitude towards entrepreneurship as a career option, perceived entrepreneurial abilities, subjective norm and entrepreneurial intentions?' The study is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model adapted from previous studies and empirically tested on graduates at the Tshwane University of Technology. A sample of 150 graduates from the Arts and Design graduates took part in the study and data collected were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Our findings seem to suggest the indirect impact of perceived university environment on entrepreneurial intention through perceived environment support and perceived entrepreneurial abilities. Thus, any increase in perceived university environment might influence students to become entrepreneurs. Based on these results, it is recommended that: (a) Tshwane University of Technology and other universities of technology should establish an ‘Entrepreneurship Internship Programme’ as a tool for stimulated work integrated learning. Post-graduation intervention could be implemented by the development of a ‘Graduate Entrepreneurship Program’ which should be embedded in the Bachelor of Technology (B-Tech now Advance Diploma) and Postgraduate courses; (b) Policymakers should consider the development of a coherent national policy framework that addresses entrepreneurship for the Arts/creative industries sector. This would create the enabling environment for the evolution of Higher Education Institutions from merely Teaching, Learning & Research to becoming drivers for creative entrepreneurship.

Keywords: business venture, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intent, university environment

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831 Six Steps of Entrepreneurial Finance and Development, from Idea to Corporation Case of Kuwait

Authors: Andri Ottesen, Sam Toglaw, Mirna Safa

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Entrepreneurial companies on their developing path from an idea to a corporation go through a similar six-step process. Each of these six development steps is supported by a distinctive financing path. This paper explores the Kuwait model for Entrepreneurial Finance and Development through in-depth interviews with ten successful Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. This paper offers insight into the development and financing of entrepreneurial companies in this oil-rich, predominantly Islamic country that are in many ways different from the steps. Western entrepreneurial companies go through. This model could be used to understand the commonalities and the difference between entrepreneurial development and financing and could be used to bridge the gap.

Keywords: entrepreneurial-financing, entrepreneurial-developing, Kuwait, Vancouver school

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830 The Impact of Socio – Cultural Factors on Female Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Algeria

Authors: Nesrine Bouguerra

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Entrepreneurship is seen as a necessary ingredient for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. SMEs account for a wide share of economic activity and development. they are the primary engine of job creation, income growth and poverty reduction. Indeed, government support for entrepreneurship is a strategic option to foster economic growth and females’ input in this regard, is of equal significance not only for employability and productivity but also to narrow the gender gap created by social attitudes and beliefs. This study investigates the impact of socio–cultural factors, among other barriers on female entrepreneurial intention in Algeria. Data will be collected using a mixed method approach (Questionnaires and Interviews) from women intending to become entrepreneurs and those already in the field. This study has conceptual, theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of entrepreneurship which will be unveiled throughout.

Keywords: female entrepreneurship, SMEs, women, socio –cultural values, barriers

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829 Conceptual Model Design for E-Readiness of Entrepreneurial City Case Study: Entrepreneurial Cities in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Yaghmoor, Sima Radmanesh, Ameneh Gholami

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Cities are the principal ground for manifestation of an information society. To create an entrepreneurial city, it is required that just and equal access to opportunities are provided for all segments of the city and technologies are intelligently employed. Furthermore, it is necessary for us to be electronically ready in all political, economic, social, cultural, and technological aspects. Also e-city creates enormous potentials and opportunities for development of the entrepreneurial city. After improvement of e-readiness for establishment of entrepreneurial e-city, potentials, and capitals of the city become productive and more suitable opportunities are offered to citizens, state sectors, and private sectors in order to become entrepreneurs. To create and develop an entrepreneurial city, we need to have readiness to detection and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and finally exploitation of these opportunities which, in turn, lead to use of entrepreneurial events and their quality in the city. In this model, the quality of entrepreneurial events, the productivity of activities, the necessity of reducing the digital gap, positive and active attendance in information society and compatibility and aligning with the global society are emphasized. In an entrepreneurial city, citizens are not help seekers, private sector is not passive, and the government is entrepreneurial.

Keywords: e-city, e-readiness, entrepreneurial city, entrepreneurial events, technological entrepreneurship

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828 Families’ Entrepreneurial Background as a Moderator between Entrepreneurial Intentions and Its Antecedents among Undergraduate Students in Ethiopia

Authors: Messele Kumilachew Aga, Amanpreet Singh

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This study investigates the effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on entrepreneurial intentions and examines the moderating role of families’ entrepreneurial background in this causal relationship. Three hundred thirty-five undergraduate students from four universities in Ethiopia filled and returned a self-administrated questionnaire which was analyzed through independent sample t-test and process macro. The result obtained indicated that there was no mean difference in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents between students who have families with an entrepreneurial background and not. Besides, the study shows that families’ entrepreneurial background has no moderating effect on entrepreneurial intentions due to attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Hence, the study suggests no need of considering families’ entrepreneurial background in nurturing entrepreneurship for undergraduate students in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: attitude toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, families’ entrepreneurial background, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm

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827 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski

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Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, gamification, new venture

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826 Theorizing about the Determinants of Sustainable Entrepreneurship Intention and Behavior

Authors: Mariella Pinna

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Sustainable entrepreneurship is an innovative corporate approach to create value combining economic, social and environmental goals over time. In the last two decades, the interest in sustainable entrepreneurship has flourished thanks to its potential to answer the current challenges of sustainable development. As a result, scholars are increasingly interested in understanding the determinants of the intentions to become a sustainable entrepreneur and consistent behavior. To date, prior studies provided empirical evidence for the influence of attitudes, perceived feasibility and desirability, values, and personality traits on the decision-making process of becoming a sustainable entrepreneur. Conversely, scant effort has been provided to understand which factors inhibit sustainable entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors. Therefore a global understanding of the sustainable entrepreneurship decision-making process is missing. This paper contributes to the debate on sustainable entrepreneurship by proposing a conceptual model that combines the factors which are predicted to facilitate and hinder the proclivity of individuals to become sustainable entrepreneurs. More in particular, the proposed framework theorizes about the role of the characteristics of the prospective sustainable entrepreneur (e.g., socio-demographic, psychological, cultural), the positive antecedents (e.g., attitude, social feasibility and desirability, among others) and the negative precursors (e.g., neutralization) in influencing sustainable entrepreneurship intentions and subsequent behavior. The proposed framework is expected to shed further light on the decision-making process of becoming a sustainable entrepreneur, which in turn, is of practical relevance for public policy institutions and the society as a whole to enhance the favorable conditions to create new sustainable ventures.

Keywords: sustainable entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial decision-making, antecedents of entrepreneurial intention and behavior

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825 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Innovation Systems: An Appraisal of Literature

Authors: Jose Carlos Rodriguez, Mario Gomez

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In the last years, the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has gained popularity. It reveals the importance of a supportive community and adequate economic environment for entrepreneurial activity, and thus the possibility of developing a different perspective on the innovation system. On the other hand, the (regional/technology) innovation system approach lacks in its analyses the presence of an entrepreneur as a key actor that develops innovations. In this regard, this paper examines the foundations of both theoretical approaches (the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the regional/technology systems of innovation) and their contributions to understand entrepreneurial activity at different levels of analyses, namely national, regional or local. The paper makes a literature review on both perspectives of innovation stressing the role played by entrepreneurs in these theoretical approaches. It concludes remarking that the regional/technology innovation systems approach and the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach have established themselves in their own right, but the regional/technology innovation system approach is a predecessor of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach.

Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystems, innovation systems, entrepreneurial activity, comparative analysis

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824 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

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It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

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823 Human Capital, Adversity Quotient and Entrepreneurial Success

Authors: Vichada Chokesikarin

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We propose that the ability to create the business success requires Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Human Capital (HC). The aims of the present study are to investigate adversity quotient, human capital and entrepreneurial success of accommodation entrepreneurs in Pranakorn, Bangkok and to examine the relationship between AQ, HC and Entrepreneurial Success. The participants of this study were 112 entrepreneurs in accommodation business in the Khao San/Grand Palace, the location nearby demonstration area in 2014. Specifically, we focus on higher adversity which provides a measure of one’s perceived capacity to prevail in the face of adversity and the effects of human capital on success. Results indicated that there is significant relationship between human capital and entrepreneurial success, while adversity quotient was found to partially mediate the entrepreneurial success. Moreover, our findings showed that the human capital -experience and skills- are more important than adversity quotient. This suggests that the entrepreneurial success should rely on their skill and experiences.

Keywords: accommodation business, adversity quotient, entrepreneurial success, human capital

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822 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

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Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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821 The Entrepreneurial Journey of Students: An Identity Perspective

Authors: J. Marchand

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While university dropout entrepreneurs are celebrated in the practitioner literature, students’ intentions of becoming entrepreneurs have increasingly been the focus of student entrepreneur studies. However, students who are already running a business have rarely been examined. The experience of these students is a phenomenon that requires further research. Entrepreneurial identity represents a gap in the organisational studies literature. This paper utilises studentpreneurs’ self-narratives of their entrepreneurial journey. More specifically, the aim is to answer the following question: what are the types of identity work that individuals go through to build their entrepreneurial identity during that journey? Through long interviews, this paper studies the lived experience of 14 studentpreneurs who have achieved $54,000 in income and who participated publicly in entrepreneurial competitions. A general inductive analysis is performed on their narrative. With its focus on the journey, this paper makes a contribution to the literature on identity work and the entrepreneurial journey. A key contribution is the study of identity work on the journey to becoming an (established) entrepreneur in contrast to routine identity work.

Keywords: entrepreneurial identity, student entrepreneur, identity work, student entrepreneurship

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820 Entrepreneurship Education Revised: Merging a Theory-Based and Action-Based Framework for Entrepreneurial Narratives' Impact as an Awareness-Raising Teaching Tool

Authors: Katharina Fellnhofer, Kaisu Puumalainen

Abstract:

Despite the current worldwide increasing interest in entrepreneurship education (EE), little attention has been paid to innovative web-based ways such as the narrative approach by telling individual stories of entrepreneurs via multimedia for demonstrating the impact on individuals towards entrepreneurship. In addition, this research discipline is faced with no consensus regarding its effective content of teaching materials and tools. Therefore, a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution is required to aim at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research to serve for future research related to multimedia entrepreneurial narratives. Based on this background, our effort will focus on finding support regarding following introductory statement: Multimedia success and failure stories of real entrepreneurs show potential to change perceptions towards entrepreneurship in a positive way. The proposed qualitative conceptual paper will introduce the underlying background for this research framework. Therefore, as a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution it aims at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research related to entrepreneurial narratives to serve for future research. With the means of the triangulation of multiple theories, we will utilize the foundation for multimedia-based entrepreneurial narratives applying a learning-through-multimedia-real-entrepreneurial-narratives pedagogical tool to facilitate entrepreneurship. Our effort will help to demystify how value-oriented entrepreneurs telling their stories multimedia can simultaneously enhance EE. Therefore, the paper will build new-fangled bridges between well-cited theoretical constructs to build a robust research framework. Overall, the intended contribution seeks to emphasize future research of currently under-researched issues in the EE sphere, which are considered to be essential not only to academia, as well as to business and society having future jobs-providing growth-oriented entrepreneurs in mind. The Authors would like to thank the Austrian Science Fund FWF: [J3740 – G27].

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial narratives

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819 The Regional Center for Business Quality of the University Center of the Valleys: Transiting to an Entrepreneurial University

Authors: Carlos Alberto Santamaria Velasco

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The study object of this chapter analyzes the case of the Centro Regional para la Calidad Empresarial (CreCE) starting from an analysis of the theoretical discussion about the universities as actors of the development and generation of enterprises. As well as the promotion of the entrepreneurial culture that they carry out in their environment of influence as part of the linkage and extension actions that have as one of their substantive functions, in addition to teaching and research. The objective is to know the theoretical discussion and the state of art about the entrepreneurial universities from the institutional theory of Douglas North, carrying out a theoretical analysis of the formal and informal factors from the universities linking the specific case of the CReCE. A literature review was carried out in the main journals in the topic of entrepreneurship, about the factors that influence the creation and development of entrepreneurial universities, complementing research in the study of a particular case, CreCE, and how this affects in the transformation of the CUVALLES(Centro Universitario de los Valles) in its way towards an entrepreneurial university.

Keywords: entrepreneurial university, institutional theory, university, entrepreneurial universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 138