Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5098

Search results for: electron charge density

5098 Theoretical and Experimental Electrostatic Potential around the M-Nitrophenol Compound

Authors: Drissi Mokhtaria, Chouaih Abdelkader, Fodil Hamzaoui


Our work is about a comparison of experimental and theoretical results of the electron charge density distribution and the electrostatic potential around the M-Nitrophenol Molecule (m-NPH) kwon for its interesting physical characteristics. The molecular experimental results have been obtained from a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Theoretical investigations were performed under the Gaussian program using the Density Functional Theory at B3LYP level of theory at 6-31G*. The multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens was used for the experimental electron charge density distribution around the molecule, while we used the DFT methods for the theoretical calculations. The electron charge density obtained in both methods allowed us to find out the different molecular properties such us the electrostatic potential and the dipole moment which were finally subject to a comparison leading to an outcome of a good matching results obtained in both methods.

Keywords: electron charge density, m-nitrophenol, nonlinear optical compound, electrostatic potential, optimized geometric

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5097 X-Ray and DFT Electrostatics Parameters Determination of a Coumarin Derivative Compound C17H13NO3

Authors: Y. Megrous, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui


The crystal structure of 4-Methyl-7-(salicylideneamino)coumarin C17H13NO3has been determined using X-ray diffraction to establish the configuration and stereochemistry of the molecule. This crystal is characterized by its nolinear activity. The molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment in-crystal have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter-and intramolecular charge transfer. The study present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement on F2,this study has also allowed us to determine the electrostatic potential and therefore locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: electron charge density, net atomic charge, molecular dipole moment, X-ray diffraction

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5096 Theoretical and Experimental Electrostatic Parameters Determination of 4-Methyl-N-[(5- Nitrothiophen-2-Ylmethylidene)] Aniline Compound

Authors: N. Boukabcha, Y. Megrouss, N. Benhalima, S. Yahiaoui, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui


We present the electron density analysis of organic compound 4-methyl-N-[(5- nitrothiophen-2-ylmethylidene)] aniline with chemical formula C12H10N2O2S. Indeed, determining the electrostatic properties of nonlinear optical organic compounds requires knowledge of the distribution of the electron density with high precision. On the other hand, a structural analysis is performed. Two methods are used to obtain the structure, X-ray diffraction and theoretical calculation with density functional theory (DFT). The electron density study is performed using the Mopro program1503 based on the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. Electron density analysis allows determination of the value and orientation of the dipole moment. The net atomic charges, electrostatic potential and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. Crystallographic data: monoclinic system - space group P21 / n. Celle parameters: a = 4.7606 (4) Å, b = 22.415 (2) Å, c = 10.7008 (15) Å, β = 92.566 (13) 0, V = 1140.7 (2) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0034 for 2693 observed reflections.

Keywords: electron density, dipole moment, electrostatic potential, DFT, Mopro

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5095 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter


Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

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5094 Electron Density Analysis and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Zwitterionic Compound

Authors: A. Chouaih, N. Benhalima, N. Boukabcha, R. Rahmani, F. Hamzaoui


Zwitterionic compounds have received the interest of chemists and physicists due to their applications as nonlinear optical materials. Recently, zwitterionic compounds exhibiting high nonlinear optical activity have been investigated. In this context, the molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. In this crystal, the molecules form dimers via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The dimers are further linked by C–H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the c crystallographic axis. This study has also allowed us to determine various nonlinear optical properties such as molecular electrostatic potential, polarizability, and hyperpolarizability of the title compound.

Keywords: organic compounds, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, dipole moment

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5093 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub


We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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5092 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi


A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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5091 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere


A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

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5090 Localising Gauss’s Law and the Electric Charge Induction on a Conducting Sphere

Authors: Sirapat Lookrak, Anol Paisal


Space debris has numerous manifestations, including ferro-metalize and non-ferrous. The electric field will induce negative charges to split from positive charges inside the space debris. In this research, we focus only on conducting materials. The assumption is that the electric charge density of a conducting surface is proportional to the electric field on that surface due to Gauss's Law. We are trying to find the induced charge density from an external electric field perpendicular to a conducting spherical surface. An object is a sphere on which the external electric field is not uniform. The electric field is, therefore, considered locally. The localised spherical surface is a tangent plane, so the Gaussian surface is a very small cylinder, and every point on a spherical surface has its own cylinder. The electric field from a circular electrode has been calculated in near-field and far-field approximation and shown Explanation Touchless maneuvering space debris orbit properties. The electric charge density calculation from a near-field and far-field approximation is done.

Keywords: near-field approximation, far-field approximation, localized Gauss’s law, electric charge density

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5089 Ab Initio Calculation of Fundamental Properties of CaxMg1-xA (a = Se and Te) Alloys in the Rock-Salt Structure

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, B. Ghebouli , M. Fatmi, L. Louail


We employed the density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the local density approximation (LDA) and the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA) to study the effect of composition on the structure, stability, energy gaps, electron effective mass, the dynamic effective charge, optical and acoustical phonon frequencies and static and high dielectric constants of the rock-salt CaxMg1-xSe and CaxMg1-xTe alloys. The computed equilibrium lattice constant and bulk modulus show an important deviation from the linear concentration. From the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, CaxMg1-xSe and CaxMg1-xTe present lower stiffness and lateral expansion. For Ca content ranging between 0.25-0.75, the elastic constants, energy gaps, electron effective mass and dynamic effective charge are predictions. The elastic constants and computed phonon dispersion curves indicate that these alloys are mechanically stable.

Keywords: CaxMg1-xSe, CaxMg1-xTe, band structure, phonon

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5088 Prediction of Positive Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Striking Zones for Charged Thundercloud Based on Line Charge Model

Authors: Surajit Das Barman, Rakibuzzaman Shah, Apurv Kumar


Bushfire is known as one of the ascendant factors to create pyrocumulus thundercloud that causes the ignition of new fires by pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) lightning strikes and creates major losses of lives and property worldwide. A conceptual model-based risk planning would be beneficial to predict the lightning striking zones on the surface of the earth underneath the pyroCb thundercloud. PyroCb thundercloud can generate both positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) and negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning in which +CG tends to ignite more bushfires and cause massive damage to nature and infrastructure. In this paper, a simple line charge structured thundercloud model is constructed in 2-D coordinates using the method of image charge to predict the probable +CG lightning striking zones on the earth’s surface for two conceptual thundercloud charge configurations: titled dipole and conventional tripole structure with excessive lower positive charge regions that lead to producing +CG lightning. The electric potential and surface charge density along the earth’s surface for both structures via continuously adjusting the position and the charge density of their charge regions is investigated. Simulation results for tilted dipole structure confirm the down-shear extension of the upper positive charge region in the direction of the cloud’s forward flank by 4 to 8 km, resulting in negative surface density, and would expect +CG lightning to strike within 7.8 km to 20 km around the earth periphery in the direction of the cloud’s forward flank. On the other hand, the conceptual tripole charge structure with enhanced lower positive charge region develops negative surface charge density on the earth’s surface in the range |x| < 6.5 km beneath the thundercloud and highly favors producing +CG lightning strikes.

Keywords: pyrocumulonimbus, cloud-to-ground lightning, charge structure, surface charge density, forward flank

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5087 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu


Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

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5086 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,


In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

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5085 Absorption and Carrier Transport Properties of Doped Hematite

Authors: Adebisi Moruf Ademola


Hematite (Fe2O3),commonly known as ‘rust’ which usually surfaced on metal when exposed to some climatic materials. This emerges as a promising candidate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its favorable physiochemical properties of the narrow band gap (2.1–2.2 eV), chemical stability, nontoxicity, abundance, and low cost. However, inherent limitations such as short hole diffusion length (2–4 nm), high charge recombination rate, and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics inhibit the PEC performances of a-Fe2O3 photoanodes. As such, given the narrow bandgap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for a-Fe2O3 photoanodes and metal ion doping as an effective way to promote charge transfer by increasing donor density and improving the electronic conductivity of a-Fe2O3. Hematite attracts enormous efforts with a number of metal ions (Ti, Zr, Sn, Pt ,etc.) as dopants. A facile deposition-annealing process showed greatly enhanced PEC performance due to the increased donor density and reduced electron-hole recombination at the time scale beyond a few picoseconds. Zr doping was also found to enhance the PEC performance of a-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays by reducing the rate of electron-hole recombination. Slow water oxidation reaction kinetics, another main factor limiting the PEC water splitting efficiency of aFe2O3 as photoanodes, was previously found to be effectively improved by surface treatment.

Keywords: deposition-annealing, hematite, metal ion doping, nanorod

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5084 Behaviour of an RC Circuit near Extreme Point

Authors: Tribhuvan N. Soorya


Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor can be shown as exponential curve. Theoretically, it takes infinite time to fully charge or discharge a capacitor. The flow of charge is due to electrons having finite and fixed value of charge. If we carefully examine the charging and discharging process after several time constants, the points on q vs t graph become discrete and curve become discontinuous. Moreover for all practical purposes capacitor with charge (q0-e) can be taken as fully charged, as it introduces an error less than one part per million. Similar is the case for discharge of a capacitor, where the capacitor with the last electron (charge e) can be taken as fully discharged. With this, we can estimate the finite value of time for fully charging and discharging a capacitor.

Keywords: charging, discharging, RC Circuit, capacitor

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5083 The Effect of Torsional Angle on Reversible Electron Transfer in Donor: Acceptor Frameworks Using Bis(Imino)Pyridines as Proxy

Authors: Ryan Brisbin, Hassan Harb, Justin Debow, Hrant Hratchian, Ryan Baxter


Donor-Acceptor (DA) frameworks are crucial parts of any technology requiring charge transport. This type of behavior is ubiquitous across technologies from semi conductors to solar panels. Currently, most DA systems involve metallic components, but progressive research is being pursued to design fully organic DA systems to be used as both organic semi-conductors and light emitting diodes. These systems are currently comprised of conductive polymers and salts. However, little is known about the effect of various physical aspects (size, torsional angle, electron density) have on the act of reversible charge transfer. Herein, the effect of torsional angle on reductive stability in bis(imino)pyridines is analyzed using a combination of single crystal analysis and electro-chemical peak current ratios from cyclic voltammetry. The computed free energies of reduction and electron attachment points were also investigated through density functional theory and natural ionization orbital theory to gain greater understanding of the global effect torsional angles have on electron transfer in bis(imino)pyridines. Findings indicated that torsional angles are a multi-variable parameter affected by both local steric constraints and resonant electronic contributions. Local steric impacted torsional angles demonstrated a negligible effect on electrochemical reversibility, while resonant affected torsional angles were observed to significantly alter the electrochemical reversibility.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, bis(imino)pyridines, structure-activity relationship, torsional angles

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5082 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh


One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

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5081 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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5080 Charge Carrier Mobility Dependent Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells

Authors: David Ompong, Jai Singh


A better understanding of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) related losses in organic solar cells (OSCs) is desirable in order to assess the photovoltaic performance of these devices. We have derived Voc as a function of charge carrier mobilities (μe and μh) for organic and hybrid solar cells by optimizing the drift-diffusion current density. The optimum Voc thus obtained depends on the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the quasi-Fermi level of holes of the donor material. We have found that the Voc depends on the ratio of the electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobilities and when μh > μe the Voc increases. The most important loss term in the Voc arises from the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials, which will be discussed in detail in this paper.

Keywords: charge carrier mobility, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, quasi-fermi levels

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5079 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel


Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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5078 First Principle Calculations of the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic Perovskite CsSrF3

Authors: Meriem Harmel, Houari Khachai


We have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a compound perovskite CsSrF3 using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for exchange-correlation potential calculation. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and the results are compared whit experimental and theoretical data. Electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structure, density of states and electron charge density, where the fundamental energy gap is direct under ambient conditions. The contribution of the different bands was analyzed from the total and partial density of states curves. The optical properties (namely: the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function ε(ω), the refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω)) were calculated for radiation up to 35.0 eV. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the optical properties for the investigated compound and still awaits experimental confirmations.

Keywords: DFT, fluoroperovskite, electronic structure, optical properties

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5077 3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Sune Darkner, Nicoletta Nava, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Jon Sporring


We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.

Keywords: stress, 3-dimensional synaptic vesicle density, image registration, bioinformatics

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5076 Barrier Lowering in Contacts between Graphene and Semiconductor Materials

Authors: Zhipeng Dong, Jing Guo


Graphene-semiconductor contacts have been extensively studied recently, both as a stand-alone diode device for potential applications in photodetectors and solar cells, and as a building block to vertical transistors. Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, which differs from conventional metal. In this work, image-charge-induced barrier lowering (BL) in graphene-semiconductor contacts is studied and compared to that in metal Schottky contacts. The results show that despite of being a semimetal with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, the image-charge-induced BL is significant. The BL value can be over 50% of that of metal contacts even in an intrinsic graphene contacted to an organic semiconductor, and it increases as the graphene doping increases. The dependences of the BL on the electric field and semiconductor dielectric constant are examined, and an empirical expression for estimating the image-charge-induced BL in graphene-semiconductor contacts is provided.

Keywords: graphene, semiconductor materials, schottky barrier, image charge, contacts

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5075 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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5074 Electronic Structure Calculation of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe Nanostructures Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Ankit Kargeti, Ravikant Shrivastav, Tabish Rasheed


The electronic structure calculation for the nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe quaternary semiconductor alloy belonging to the III-V Group elements was performed. Motivation for this research work was to look for accurate electronic and geometric data of small nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe in the gaseous form. The two clusters, one in the linear form and the other in the bent form, were studied under the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and LANL2DZ basis set with the software packaged Gaussian 16. We have discussed the Optimized Energy, Frontier Orbital Energy Gap in terms of HOMO-LUMO, Dipole Moment, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity, Binding Energy, Embedding Energy, Density of States (DoS) spectrum for both structures. The important findings of the predicted nanostructures are that these structures have wide band gap energy, where linear structure has band gap energy (Eg) value is 2.375 eV and bent structure (Eg) value is 2.778 eV. Therefore, these structures can be utilized as wide band gap semiconductors. These structures have high electron affinity value of 4.259 eV for the linear structure and electron affinity value of 3.387 eV for the bent structure form. It shows that electron acceptor capability is high for both forms. The widely known application of these compounds is in the light emitting diodes due to their wide band gap nature.

Keywords: density functional theory, DFT, density functional theory, nanostructures, HOMO-LUMO, density of states

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5073 Molecular Electrostatic Potential in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N'(2-Ethoxyphenyl) Imino Thiazolidin-4-one Molecule by Ab Initio and DFT Methods

Authors: Manel Boulakoud, Abdelkader Chouaih, Fodil Hamzaoui


In the present work we are interested in the determination of the Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N’(2-Ethoxyphenyl) imino thiazolidin-4-one molecule by ab initio and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the ground state. The MEP is related to the electronic density and is a very useful descriptor in understanding sites for electrophilic attack and nucleophilic reactions as well as hydrogen bonding interactions. First, geometry optimization was carried out using Hartree–Fock (HF) and DFT methods with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In order to get more information on the molecule, its stability has been analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mulliken population analyses have been calculated. Finally, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels have been performed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show also the charge transfer within the molecule. The energy gap obtained is about 4 eV which explain the stability of the studied compound. The obtained molecular electrostatic potential from the two methods confirms the nature of the electron charge transfer at the molecular shell and locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: DFT, ab initio, HOMO-LUMO, organic compounds

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5072 Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Salik


In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In)-Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (InI) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.

Keywords: indium-tin plasma, laser ablation, optical emission spectroscopy, electron temperature, electron number density

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5071 Nonequilibrium Effects in Photoinduced Ultrafast Charge Transfer Reactions

Authors: Valentina A. Mikhailova, Serguei V. Feskov, Anatoly I. Ivanov


In the last decade the nonequilibrium charge transfer have attracted considerable interest from the scientific community. Examples of such processes are the charge recombination in excited donor-acceptor complexes and the intramolecular electron transfer from the second excited electronic state. In these reactions the charge transfer proceeds predominantly in the nonequilibrium mode. In the excited donor-acceptor complexes the nuclear nonequilibrium is created by the pump pulse. The intramolecular electron transfer from the second excited electronic state is an example where the nuclear nonequilibrium is created by the forward electron transfer. The kinetics of these nonequilibrium reactions demonstrate a number of peculiar properties. Most important from them are: (i) the absence of the Marcus normal region in the free energy gap law for the charge recombination in excited donor-acceptor complexes, (ii) extremely low quantum yield of thermalized charge separated state in the ultrafast charge transfer from the second excited state, (iii) the nonexponential charge recombination dynamics in excited donor-acceptor complexes, (iv) the dependence of the charge transfer rate constant on the excitation pulse frequency. This report shows that most of these kinetic features can be well reproduced in the framework of stochastic point-transition multichannel model. The model involves an explicit description of the nonequilibrium excited state formation by the pump pulse and accounts for the reorganization of intramolecular high-frequency vibrational modes, for their relaxation as well as for the solvent relaxation. The model is able to quantitatively reproduce complex nonequilibrium charge transfer kinetics observed in modern experiments. The interpretation of the nonequilibrium effects from a unified point of view in the terms of the multichannel point transition stochastic model allows to see similarities and differences of electron transfer mechanism in various molecular donor-acceptor systems and formulates general regularities inherent in these phenomena. The nonequilibrium effects in photoinduced ultrafast charge transfer which have been studied for the last 10 years are analyzed. The methods of suppression of the ultrafast charge recombination, similarities and dissimilarities of electron transfer mechanism in different molecular donor-acceptor systems are discussed. The extremely low quantum yield of the thermalized charge separated state observed in the ultrafast charge transfer from the second excited state in the complex consisting of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene and tetracyanoethylene in acetonitrile solution directly demonstrates that its effectiveness can be close to unity. This experimental finding supports the idea that the nonequilibrium charge recombination in the excited donor-acceptor complexes can be also very effective so that the part of thermalized complexes is negligible. It is discussed the regularities inherent to the equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions. Their fundamental differences are analyzed. Namely the opposite dependencies of the charge transfer rates on the dynamical properties of the solvent. The increase of the solvent viscosity results in decreasing the thermal rate and vice versa increasing the nonequilibrium rate. The dependencies of the rates on the solvent reorganization energy and the free energy gap also can considerably differ. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 16-13-10122).

Keywords: Charge recombination, higher excited states, free energy gap law, nonequilibrium

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5070 Electrohydrodynamic Study of Microwave Plasma PECVD Reactor

Authors: Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy


The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.

Keywords: electron density, electric field, microwave plasma reactor, gas velocity, non-equilibrium plasma

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5069 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra


The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

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