Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 230

Search results for: dimethyl ether

230 Synthesis of Nanoparticle Mordenite Zeolite for Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation

Authors: Zhang Haitao


The different size of nanoparticle mordenite zeolites were prepared by adding different soft template during hydrothermal process for carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) to methyl acetate (MA). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption-desorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, NH3-temperature programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Thermogravimetric. The characterization results confirmed that mordenite zeolites with small nanoparticle showed more strong acid sites which was the active site for carbonylation thus promoting conversion of DME and MA selectivity. Furthermore, the nanoparticle mordenite had increased the mass transfer efficiency which could suppress the formation of coke.

Keywords: nanoparticle mordenite, carbonylation, dimethyl ether, methyl acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
229 Thermodynamic Attainable Region for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Synthesis Gas

Authors: Thulane Paepae, Tumisang Seodigeng


This paper demonstrates the use of a method of synthesizing process flowsheets using a graphical tool called the GH-plot and in particular, to look at how it can be used to compare the reactions of a combined simultaneous process with regard to their thermodynamics. The technique uses fundamental thermodynamic principles to allow the mass, energy and work balances locate the attainable region for chemical processes in a reactor. This provides guidance on what design decisions would be best suited to developing new processes that are more effective and make lower demands on raw material and energy usage.

Keywords: attainable regions, dimethyl ether, optimal reaction network, GH Space

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
228 Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Polyethers: DISQUAC Calculations Compared with Dortmund UNIFAC Results

Authors: F. Amireche, I. Mokbel, J. Jose, B. F. Belaribi


The experimental vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) at isothermal conditions and excess molar Gibbs energies GE are carried out for the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, + diethylene glycol dimethyl ether or + diethylene glycol diethyl ether, at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. A good static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P, the excess molar Gibbs energies GE and the excess molar enthalpies HE.

Keywords: Disquac model, Dortmund UNIFAC model, 1, 2- dichloroethane, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, polyethers, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
227 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu


Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. Investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
226 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak


The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
225 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Petya Petrova, Tatyana Tabakova


This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Cr oxide catalysts, volatile organic compounds, deep oxidation, dimethyl ether (DME)

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
224 Exergy Analysis of a Green Dimethyl Ether Production Plant

Authors: Marcello De Falco, Gianluca Natrella, Mauro Capocelli


CO₂ capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce GHG(greenhouse gas) emissions. Many technologies in this field are recently attracting attention. However, since CO₂ is a very stable compound, its utilization as a reagent is energetic intensive. As a consequence, it is unclear whether CCU processes allow for a net reduction of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective and whether these solutions are sustainable. Among the tools to apply for the quantification of the real environmental benefits of CCU technologies, exergy analysis is the most rigorous from a scientific point of view. The exergy of a system is the maximum obtainable work during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with its reference environment through a series of reversible processes in which the system can only interact with such an environment. In other words, exergy is an “opportunity for doing work” and, in real processes, it is destroyed by entropy generation. The exergy-based analysis is useful to evaluate the thermodynamic inefficiencies of processes, to understand and locate the main consumption of fuels or primary energy, to provide an instrument for comparison among different process configurations and to detect solutions to reduce the energy penalties of a process. In this work, the exergy analysis of a process for the production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) from green hydrogen generated through an electrolysis unit and pure CO₂ captured from flue gas is performed. The model simulates the behavior of all units composing the plant (electrolyzer, carbon capture section, DME synthesis reactor, purification step), with the scope to quantify the performance indices based on the II Law of Thermodynamics and to identify the entropy generation points. Then, a plant optimization strategy is proposed to maximize the exergy efficiency.

Keywords: green DME production, exergy analysis, energy penalties, exergy efficiency

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223 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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222 Synthesis of Bisphenols Containing Pendant Furyl Group Based on Chemicals Derived from Lignocellulose and Their Utilization for Preparation of Clickable Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s

Authors: Samadhan S. Nagane, Sachin S. Kuhire, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar


Lignocellulose-derived chemicals such as furfural, furandicarboxylic acid, syringol, guaiacol, etc are highly attractive as sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals for the synthesis of monomers and polymers. We wish to report herein the facile synthesis of fully bio-based bisphenols containing pendant furyl group by base-catalyzed condensation of furfural with guaiacol. Bisphenols possessing pendant furyl group represent valuable monomers for the synthesis of a range of polymers which include epoxy resins, polyesters, polycarbonates, poly(aryl ether)s, etc. Several new homo/co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4(-fluorodiphenyl sulfone (FDS) with 4,4'-(furan-2-ylmethylene)bis(2-methoxyphenol) (BPF) and 4,4(-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) using different molar ratios of bisphenols. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed inherent viscosities in the range 0.92-1.47 dLg-1 and number average molecular weights (Mn), obtained from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were in the range 91,300 – 1,31,000. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s could be cast into tough, transparent and flexible films from chloroform solutions. X-Ray diffraction studies indicated amorphous nature of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed Tg values in the range 179-191 oC. Additionally, the pendant furyl groups in poly(arylene ether sulfone)s provide reactive sites for chemical modifications and cross-linking via Diels-Alder reaction with maleimides and bismaleimides, respectively.

Keywords: bio-based, bisphenols, Diels-Alder reaction, poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

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221 Effect of N2-cold Plasma Treatment of Carbon Supports on the Activity of Pt3Pd3Sn2/C Towards the Dimethyl Ether Oxidation

Authors: Medhanie Gebremedhin Gebru, Alex Schechter


Dimethyl ether (DME) possesses several advantages over other small organic molecules such as methanol, ethanol, and ammonia in terms of providing higher energy density, being less toxic, and having lower Nafion membrane crossover. However, the absence of an active and stable catalyst has been the bottleneck that hindered the commercialization of direct DME fuel cells. A Vulcan XC72 carbon-supported ternary metal catalyst, Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/C is reported to have yielded the highest specific power density (90 mW mg-¹PGM) as compared to other catalysts tested fordirect DME fuel cell (DDMEFC). However, the micropores and sulfur groups present in Vulcan XC72 hinder the fuel utilization by causing Pt agglomeration and sulfur poisoning. Vulcan XC72 having a high carbon sp³ hybridization content, is also prone to corrosion. Therefore, carbon supports such as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), black pearl 2000 (BP2000), and their cold N2 plasma-treated counterpartswere tested to further enhance the activity of the catalyst, and the outputs with these carbons were compared with the originally used support. Detailed characterization of the pristine and carbon supports was conducted. Electrochemical measurements in three-electrode cells and laboratory prototype fuel cells were conducted.Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/BP2000 exhibited excellent performance in terms of electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), peak current density (jp), and DME oxidation charge (Qoxi). The effect of the plasma activation on the activity improvement was observed only in the case of MWCNT while having little or no effect on the other carbons. A Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂ supported on the optimized mixture of carbons containing 75% plasma-activated MWCNT and 25% BP2000 (Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/75M25B) provided the highest reported power density of 117 mW mg-1PGM using an anode loading of1.55 mgPGMcm⁻².

Keywords: DME, DDMEFC, ternary metal catalyst, carbon support, plasma activation

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220 Physicochemical Characterization of Low Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone/ Layered Double Hydroxide/Sepiolite Hybrid to Improve the Performance of Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Zakaria Ahmed, Khaled Charradi, Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Radhouane Chtourou


Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) with a low sulfonation degree was blended using nanofiller Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH, Mg2AlCl) /sepiolite nanostructured material as additive to use as an electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application. Characterization assessments, i.e., mechanical stability, thermal gravimetric analysis, ion exchange capability, swelling properties, water uptake capacities, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the composite membranes were conducted. The presence of LDH/sepiolite nanoarchitecture material within SPEEK was found to have the highest water retention and proton conductivity value at high temperature rather than LDH/SPEEK and pristine SPEEK membranes.

Keywords: SPEEK, sepiolite clay, LDH clay, proton exchange membrane

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219 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar


An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: diesel engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions, coating

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218 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena


Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
217 Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2/PVA/ SPEEK Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Yusuf Ansari, Asad Abbas


Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a very efficient and promising energy conversion device. Although Nafion® is considered as benchmark materials for membrane used in PEM fuel cell, it has limitations that restrict its uses. Alternative materials for the membrane is always a challenging field for researchers. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is one of the promising material for membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability and lower cost. In this work, SPEEK is synthesized, and property booster such as silica nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are also added to analyse changes in properties such as water uptake, IEC, and conductivity. It has been found that adding PVA support high water uptake and proton conductivity but at large amount of PVA reduces the proton conductivity due to very high water uptake. Adding silica enhances water uptake and proton conductivity.

Keywords: PEM Membrane, sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), silica fumes (SiO2), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
216 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri


Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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215 Enhancement of Lignin Bio-Degradation through Homogenization with Dimethyl Sulfoxide

Authors: Ivana Brzonova, Asina Fnu, Alena Kubatova, Evguenii Kozliak, Yun Ji


Bio-decomposition of lignin by Basidiomycetes in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated. The addition of 3-5 vol% DMSO to lignin aqueous media significantly increased the lignin solubility based on UV absorbance. After being dissolved in DMSO, the thermal evolution profile also changed significantly, yielding more high-MW organic carbon at the expense of recalcitrant elemental carbon. Medical fungi C. versicolor, G. lucidum and P. pulmonarius, were observed to grow on the lignin in media containing up to 15 vol. % DMSO. Further detailed product characterization by chromatographic methods corroborated these observations, as more low-MW phenolic products were observed with DMSO as a co-solvent. These results may be explained by the high solubility of lignin in DMSO; thus, the addition of DMSO to the medium increases the lignin availability for microorganisms. Some of these low-MW phenolic products host a big potential to be used in medicine. No significant inhibition of enzymatic activity (laccase, MnP, LiP) was observed by the addition of up to 3 vol% DMSO.

Keywords: basidiomycetes, bio-degradation, dimethyl sulfoxide, lignin

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214 The Effect of Interfacial Chemistry on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Grafted Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Prajakta Katti, Suryasarathi Bose, S. Kumar


In this work, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (a-MWNTs) covalently grafted with hydroxylated functionalized poly (ether ether ketone), HPEEK, which is miscible with the pre-polymer (epoxy) through the esterification reaction. The functionalized MWNTs were systematically characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The epoxy composites containing a-MWNTs and HPEEK grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes (HPEEK-g-MWNTs) were formulated using mechanical stirring coupled with a bath sonicator to improve the dispersion property of the nanoparticles and were subsequently cured at 80 ̊C and post cured at 180 ̊C. With the addition of 0.5 wt% of HPEEK-g-MWNTs, an impressive 44% enhancement in the storage modulus, 22% increase in tensile strength and 38% increase in fracture toughness was observed with respect to neat epoxy. In addition to these mechanical properties, the epoxy composites displayed significant enhancement in the hardness without reducing thermal stability. These improved properties were attributed to the tailored interface between HPEEK-MWNTs and epoxy matrix.

Keywords: epoxy, MWNTs, HPEEK-g-MWNTs, tensile properties, nanoindentation, fracture toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
213 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Petroleum Ether Extract of Pleiogynium timorense Bark

Authors: Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Ataa A. Said, Khaled Y. Mohamed, Hala M. Mohammed


Pleiogynium timorense(DC.) Leenh is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The bark of Pleiogynium timorense needs further studies to investigate its phytochemical and biological activities. This work was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as well as to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The results showed that twenty one compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction were identified representing 92.54 % of the total beak area, the major compounds were 1-Heptene (35.32%), Butylated hydroxy toluene (19.42%) and phytol (12.53%), whereas fifteen compounds were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters fraction representing 94.15% of the total identified peak area. The major compounds were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (35.34%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (29.32%). Moreover, petroleum ether extract showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in a dose dependent manner. This study aims to be the first step toward the use of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, bark, petroleum ether extract, Pleiogynium timorense

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212 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-on in Toxic Liver Damage Test

Authors: Vladimir Zobov, Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Reznik


The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective properties of the Xymedon derivative L-ascorbate 1- (2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one (XD), which exhibits high efficiency as actoprotector. The study was carried out on 68 male albino rats weighing 250-400 g using preventive exposure to the test preparation. Effectiveness of XD win comparison with effectiveness of Xymedon (original substance) after administration of the compounds in identical doses. Maximum dose was 20 mg/kg. The animals orally received Xymedon or its derivative in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg over 4 days. In 1-1.5 h after drug administration, CCl4 in vegetable oil (1:1) in a dose of 2 ml/kg. Controls received CCl4 but without hepatoprotectors. Intact control group consisted of rats, not receiving CCl4 or other compounds. The next day after the last administration of CCl4 and compounds under study animals were dehematized under ether anesthesia, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical and histological analysis. Xymedon and XD administered according to the preventice scheme, exerted hepatoprotective effects: Xymedon — in the dose of 20 mg/kg, XD — in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg. The drugs under study had different effects on liver condition, affected by induction with CCl4. Xymedon had a more pronounced effect both on the ALT level, which can be elevated not only due to destructive changes in hepatocytes, but also as a cholestasis manifestation, and on the serum total protein level, which reflects protein synthesis in liver. XD had a more pronounced effect on AST level, which is one of the markers of hepatocyte damage. Lower effective dose of XD — 10 mg/kg, compared to Xymedon effective according to, and its pronounced effect on AST, the hepatocyte cytolysis marker, is indicative of its higher preventive effectiveness, compared to Xymedon. This work was performed with the financial support of Russian Science Foundation (grant No: 14-50-00014).

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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211 Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Binary 2,2-Dimethyl-1-Propanol+ CO₂ Gas Hydrates

Authors: Seokyoon Moon, Yun-Ho Ahn, Heejoong Kim, Sujin Hong, Yunseok Lee, Youngjune Park


Gas hydrate is a non-stoichiometric crystalline compound consisting of host water-framework and low molecular weight guest molecules. Small gaseous molecules such as CH₄, CO₂, and N₂ can be captured in the host water framework lattices of the gas hydrate with specific temperature and pressure conditions. The three well-known crystal structures of structure I (sI), structure II (sII), and structure H (sH) are determined by the size and shape of guest molecules. In this study, we measured the phase equilibria of binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂, CH₄, N₂) hydrates to explore their fundamental thermodynamic characteristics. We identified the structure of the binary gas hydrate by employing synchrotron high-resolution powder diffraction (HRPD), and the guest distributions in the lattice of gas hydrate were investigated via dispersive Raman and ¹³C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The end-to-end distance of 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol was calculated to be 7.76 Å, which seems difficult to be enclathrated in large cages of sI or sII. However, due to the flexibility of the host water framework, binary hydrates of sI or sII types can be formed with the help of small gas molecule. Also, the synchrotron HRPD patterns revealed that the binary hydrate structure highly depends on the type of help gases; a cubic Fd3m sII hydrate was formed with CH₄ or N₂, and a cubic Pm3n sI hydrate was formed with CO₂. Interestingly, dispersive Raman and ¹³C NMR spectra showed that the unique tuning phenomenon occurred in binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂) hydrate. By optimizing the composition of NPA, we can achieve both thermodynamic stability and high CO₂ storage capacity for the practical application to CO₂ capture.

Keywords: clathrate, gas hydrate, neopentyl alcohol, CO₂, tuning phenomenon

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210 Development of Alternative Fuels Technologies for Transportation

Authors: Szymon Kuczynski, Krystian Liszka, Mariusz Laciak, Andrii Oliinyk, Adam Szurlej


Currently, in automotive transport to power vehicles, almost exclusively hydrocarbon based fuels are used. Due to increase of hydrocarbon fuels consumption, quality parameters are tightend for clean environment. At the same time efforts are undertaken for development of alternative fuels. The reasons why looking for alternative fuels for petroleum and diesel are: to increase vehicle efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact, reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and savings in consumption of limited oil resources. Significant progress was performed on development of alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas (CNG / LNG), LPG, dimethyl ether (DME) and biodiesel. In addition, biggest vehicle manufacturers work on fuel cell vehicles and its introduction to the market. Alcohols such as methanol and ethanol create the perfect fuel for spark-ignition engines. Their advantages are high-value antiknock which determines their application as additive (10%) to unleaded petrol and relative purity of produced exhaust gasses. Ethanol is produced in distillation process of plant products, which value as a food can be irrational. Ethanol production can be costly also for the entire economy of the country, because it requires a large complex distillation plants, large amounts of biomass and finally a significant amount of fuel to sustain the process. At the same time, the fermentation process of plants releases into the atmosphere large quantities of carbon dioxide. Natural gas cannot be directly converted into liquid fuels, although such arrangements have been proposed in the literature. Going through stage of intermediates is inevitable yet. Most popular one is conversion to methanol, which can be processed further to dimethyl ether (DME) or olefin (ethylene and propylene) for the petrochemical sector. Methanol uses natural gas as a raw material, however, requires expensive and advanced production processes. In relation to pollution emissions, the optimal vehicle fuel is LPG which is used in many countries as an engine fuel. Production of LPG is inextricably linked with production and processing of oil and gas, and which represents a small percentage. Its potential as an alternative for traditional fuels is therefore proportionately reduced. Excellent engine fuel may be biogas, however, follows to the same limitations as ethanol - the same production process is used and raw materials. Most essential fuel in the campaign of environment protection against pollution is natural gas. Natural gas as fuel may be either compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG). Natural gas can also be used for hydrogen production in steam reforming. Hydrogen can be used as a basic starting material for the chemical industry, an important raw material in the refinery processes, as well as a fuel vehicle transportation. Natural gas can be used as CNG which represents an excellent compromise between the availability of the technology that is proven and relatively cheap to use in many areas of the automotive industry. Natural gas can also be seen as an important bridge to other alternative sources of energy derived from fuel and harmless to the environment. For these reasons CNG as a fuel stimulates considerable interest in the worldwide.

Keywords: alternative fuels, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), NGVs (Natural Gas Vehicles)

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209 Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian Thompson


The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.

Keywords: bio-fuel, nano composite catalyst, DME, Cu-Al2O3

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208 Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes

Authors: Tanapoom Phuncharoen, Tawiwat Sriwongsa, Kanita Boonruang, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul


The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.

Keywords: dimethyl acetal, pyridine, wine, aspen plus, isovaleradehyde, polymeric precursors

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207 Effect of the Nature of the Precursor on the Performance of Cu-Mn Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Krasimir Ivanov


The catalytic oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde is an important industrial process in which the waste gas in addition to CO contains methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). Evaluation of the possibility of removing the harmful components from the exhaust gasses needs a more complex investigation. Our previous work indicates that supported Cu-Mn oxide catalysts are promising for effective deep oxidation of these compounds. This work relates to the catalyst, comprising copper-manganese spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al₂O₃. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. Different organometallic compounds on the base of four natural amino acids (Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine) as precursors were used for the preparation of catalysts with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5. X-Ray and TEM analysis were performed on the catalyst’s bulk, and surface composition and the specific surface area was determined by BET method. The results obtained show that the activity of the catalysts increase up to 40% although there are some specific features, depending on the nature of the amino acid and the oxidized compound.

Keywords: Cu-Mn/γ-Al₂O₃, CO and VOCs oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, amino acids

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206 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque


The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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205 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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204 Simultaneous Determination of Some Phenolic Pesticides in Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors: Yasmeen F. Pervez, Etesh K. Janghel, Santosh Kumar Sar


Simple and sensitive analytical thermal gradient-thin layer chromatography technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic pesticides like carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran. It is based on the differential migration of colored derivatives formed by the reaction of hydrolysed phenolic compound with diazotized 3, 4 dimethyl aniline on a silica gel plate. Quantitative evaluation of hydrolyzed phenolic compound is made by visual comparison of intensities of color by spectrophotometry. The color system obeys Beer’s law in the following working range in ppm : carbaryl, 0.5-6.6; propoxur, 0.8-7.2; and carbofuran, 0.2-3.3 respectively. The Molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, Correlation coefficient have been determined. The effects of analytical parameters on migration and analysis have been evaluated. The methods are highly reproducible and have been successfully applied to determination of phenolic pesticides in environmental and biological samples.

Keywords: phenolic pesticides (carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran), 3.4 dimethyl aniline, environmental, biological samples

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203 Designing Dibenzosilole and Methyl Carbazole Based Donor Materials with Favourable Photovoltaic Parameters for Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: J. Iqbal, Z. Zara


Five new Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor (A-D-A) type small donor molecules (M1-M5) namely; dimethyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMCAO3TBS) (M1), dimelononitrile terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMCNTBS) (M2), dimethyl rhodanine terthiophene di(methylthiophene) dibenzosilole (DMRTBS) (M3), dimelanonitrile terthiophene di(methylthiophene) methyl fluorene (DMCNTF) (M4) and dimethyl rhodanine terthiophene di(methylthiophene) methyl fluorine (DMRTF) (M5) were designed and theoretically explored their electronic, photophysical and geometrical properties via DFT best functional MPW1PW91/6-311G (d,p) level of theory with respect to reference molecules dioctyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(octylthiophene) dioctylfluorene (DCAO3TF) (Ra) and dioctyl cyanoacetate terthiophene di(octylthiophene) octylcarbazole (DCAO3TCz) (Rb). Among the designed donor molecules (M1-M5), M2 and M4 represented lowest band gap value (2.480 eV and 2.47 eV) with distinctive broad absorption peak at 598 and 601 nm in chloroform due to the presence of stronger electron withdrawing acceptor molecule which pulls the λmax value towards red shift. Theoretically estimated reorganization energies of these molecules recommended excellent property of charge mobility. The designed donor molecules M1-M5, demonstrated lower λe value with reference to their λh, showing that these molecules could be ideal candidates for the transfer of electron with and M2, M4 are best among these as champion molecules with having lowest λe (0.006 D and 0.005 D respectively). Additionally, the Voc of M2 and M4 are 2.01 eV and 1.85 eV respectively with reference respect to PCBM. Thus, our present investigation suggested that our designed donor molecules (M1-M5) are suitable candidates for the solar cell and proposed for high and better performance for the small molecule based solar cell devices.

Keywords: dibenzisilol, donor materials, hole mobility, organic solar cells

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202 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Diana D. Nihtianova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Tatyana T. Tabakova


Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-La oxide catalysts, carbon oxide, VOCs, deep oxidation

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201 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-On Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride

Authors: Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Zobov, Vladimir Reznik


Among hepatic pyrimidine used as a means of stimulating protein synthesis and recovery of liver cells in her damaged toxic and infectious etiology. When an experimental toxic hepatitis hepatoprotective activity detected some pyrimidine derivatives. There are literature data on oksimetiluratcila hepatoprotective effect. For analogs of pyrimidine nucleobases - drugs Methyluracilum pentoxy and hepatoprotective effect of weakly expressed. According to the American scientists broad spectrum of biological activity, including hepatoprotective properties, have a 2,4-dioxo-5-arilidenimino uracils. Influenced Xymedon medicinal preparation (1- (beta-hydroxyethyl) -4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oksopirimidin) developed as a means of stimulating the regeneration of tissue revealed increased activity of microsomal oxidases human liver. In studies on the model of toxic liver damage in rats have shown hepatoprotective effect xymedon and stimulating its impact on the recovery of the liver tissue. Hepatoprotective properties of the new compound in the series of pyrimidine derivatives L-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropirimidine-2-one synthesized on the basis Xymedon preparation were firstly investigated on rats under the carbon tetrachloride action. It was shown the differences of biochemical parameters from the reference value and severity of structural-morphological liver violations decreased in comparison with control group under the influence of the compound injected before exposure carbon tetrachloride. Hepatoprotective properties of the investigated compound were more pronounced in comparison with Xymedon.

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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