Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe

7 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena


Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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6 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu


If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, postcolonial literature, twenty first century African literature

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5 Contact-Impact Analysis of Continuum Compliant Athletic Systems

Authors: Theddeus Tochukwu Akano, Omotayo Abayomi Fakinlede


Proper understanding of the behavior of compliant mechanisms use by athletes is important in order to avoid catastrophic failure. Such compliant mechanisms like the flex-run require the knowledge of their dynamic response and deformation behavior under quickly varying loads. The modeling of finite deformations of the compliant athletic system is described by Neo-Hookean model under contact-impact conditions. The dynamic impact-contact governing equations for both the target and impactor are derived based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A method where contactor and target are considered as a united body is applied in the formulation of the principle of virtual work for the bodies. In this paper, methods of continuum mechanics and nonlinear finite element method were deployed to develop a model that could capture the behavior of the compliant athletic system under quickly varying loads. A hybrid system of symbolic algebra (AceGEN) and a compiled back end (AceFEM) were employed, leveraging both ease of use and computational efficiency. The simulated results reveal the effect of the various contact-impact conditions on the deformation behavior of the impacting compliant mechanism.

Keywords: eigenvalue problems, finite element method, robin boundary condition, sturm-liouville problem

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4 Investigating the Determinants and Growth of Financial Technology Depth of Penetration among the Heterogeneous Africa Economies

Authors: Tochukwu Timothy Okoli, Devi Datt Tewari


The high rate of Fintech adoption has not transmitted to greater financial inclusion and development in Africa. This problem is attributed to poor Fintech diversification and usefulness in the continent. This concept is referred to as the Fintech depth of penetration in this study. The study, therefore, assessed its determinants and growth process in a panel of three emergings, twenty-four frontiers and five fragile African economies disaggregated with dummies over the period 2004-2018 to allow for heterogeneity between groups. The System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique reveals that the average depth of Mobile banking and automated teller machine (ATM) is a dynamic heterogeneity process. Moreover, users' previous experiences/compatibility, trial-ability/income, and financial development were the major factors that raise its usefulness, whereas perceived risk, financial openness, and inflation rate significantly limit its usefulness. The growth rate of Mobile banking, ATM, and Internet banking in 2018 is, on average 41.82, 0.4, and 20.8 per cent respectively greater than its average rates in 2004. These greater averages after the 2009 financial crisis suggest that countries resort to Fintech as a risk-mitigating tool. This study, therefore, recommends greater Fintech diversification through improved literacy, institutional development, financial liberalization, and continuous innovation.

Keywords: depth of fintech, emerging Africa, financial technology, internet banking, mobile banking

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3 Reconnaissance Investigation of Thermal Springs in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria by Remote Sensing

Authors: N. Tochukwu, M. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mohamed


It is no new that Nigeria faces a continual power shortage problem due to its vast population power demand and heavy reliance on nonrenewable forms of energy such as thermal power or fossil fuel. Many researchers have recommended using geothermal energy as an alternative; however, Past studies focus on the geophysical & geochemical investigation of this energy in the sedimentary and basement complex; only a few studies incorporated the remote sensing methods. Therefore, in this study, the preliminary examination of geothermal resources in the Middle Benue was carried out using satellite imagery in ArcMap. Landsat 8 scene (TIR, NIR, Red spectral bands) was used to estimate the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique was used to classify sites with very low, low, moderate, and high LST. The intermediate and high classification happens to be possible geothermal zones, and they occupy 49% of the study area (38077km2). Riverline were superimposed on the LST layer, and the identification tool was used to locate high temperate sites. Streams that overlap on the selected sites were regarded as geothermal springs as. Surprisingly, the LST results show lower temperatures (<36°C) at the famous thermal springs (Awe & Wukari) than some unknown rivers/streams found in Kwande (38°C), Ussa, (38°C), Gwer East (37°C), Yola Cross & Ogoja (36°C). Studies have revealed that temperature increases with depth. However, this result shows excellent geothermal resources potential as it is expected to exceed the minimum geothermal gradient of 25.47 with an increase in depth. Therefore, further investigation is required to estimate the depth of the causative body, geothermal gradients, and the sustainability of the reservoirs by geophysical and field exploration. This method has proven to be cost-effective in locating geothermal resources in the study area. Consequently, the same procedure is recommended to be applied in other regions of the Precambrian basement complex and the sedimentary basins in Nigeria to save a preliminary field survey cost.

Keywords: ArcMap, geothermal resources, Landsat 8, LST, thermal springs, MLC

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2 Alternation of Executive Power and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Independent National Electoral Commission, 1999-2014

Authors: J. Tochukwu Omenma


Buzzword in Nigeria is that democracy has “come to stay”. Politicians in their usual euphoria consider democracy as already consolidated in the country. Politicians linked this assumption to three fundamental indicators – (a) multiparty system; (b) regular elections and (c) absence of military coup after 15 years of democracy in Nigeria. Beyond this assumption, we intend to empirically verify these claims and assumptions, by relying on Huntington’s conceptualization of democratic consolidation. Though, Huntington asserts that multipartism, regular elections and absence of any major obstacle leading to reversal of democracy are significant indicators of democratic consolidation, but the presence of those indicators must result to alternation of executive power for democratic consolidation to occur. In other words, regular conduct of election and existence of multiple political parties are not enough for democratic consolidation, rather free and fair elections. Past elections were characterized of massive fraud and irregularities casting doubts on integrity of electoral management body (EMB) to conduct free and fair elections in Nigeria. There are three existing perspectives that have offered responses to the emasculation of independence of EMB. One is a more popular position indicating that the incumbent party, more than the opposition party, influence the EMB activities with the aim of rigging elections; the other is a more radical perspective that suggests that weakening of EMB power is more associated with the weakest party than with the incumbent; and the last, is that godfather(s) are in direct control of EMB members thereby controlling the process of electoral process to the advantage of the godfather(s). With empirical evidence sourced from the reports of independent election monitors, (European Union, Election Observation Mission in Nigeria) this paper shows at different electoral periods that, in terms of influencing election outcomes, the incumbent and godfather have been more associated with influencing election results than the opposition. The existing nature of executive power in Nigeria provides a plausible explanation for the incumbent’s overbearing influence thereby limiting opportunity for free and fair elections and by extension undermining the process of democratic consolidation in Nigeria.

Keywords: political party, democracy, democratic consolidation, election, godfatherism

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1 Effect of Tissue Preservation Chemicals on Decomposition in Different Soil Types

Authors: Onyekachi Ogbonnaya Iroanya, Taiye Abdullahi Gegele, Frank Tochukwu Egwuatu


Introduction: Forensic taphonomy is a multifaceted area that incorporates decomposition, chemical and biological cadaver exposure in post-mortem event chronology and reconstruction to predict the Post Mortem Interval (PMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of DNA extracted from the remains of embalmed decomposed Sus domesticus tissues buried in different soil types. Method: A total of 12 limbs of Sus domesticus weighing between 0.7-1.4 kg were used. Each of the samples across the groups was treated with 10% formaldehyde, absolute methanol and 50% Pine oil for 24 hours before burial except the control samples, which were buried immediately. All samples were buried in shallow simulated Clay, Sandy and Loamy soil graves for 12 months. The DNA for each sample was extracted and quantified with Nanodrop Spectrophotometer (6305 JENWAY spectrometers). The rate of decomposition was examined through the modified qualitative decomposition analysis. Extracted DNA was amplified through PCR and bands visualized via gel electrophoresis. A biochemical enzyme assay was done for each burial grave soil. Result: The limbs in all burial groups had lost weight over the burial period. There was a significant increase in the soil urease level in the samples preserved in formaldehyde across the 3 soil type groups (p≤0.01). Also, the control grave soils recorded significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase and calcium carbonate values compared to experimental grave soils (p≤0.01). The experimental samples showed a significant decrease in DNA concentration and purity when compared to the control groups (p≤0.01). Obtained findings of the soil biochemical analysis showed the embalming treatment altered the relationship between organic matter decomposition and soil biochemical properties as observed in the fluctuations that were recorded in the soil biochemical parameters. The PCR amplified DNA showed no bands on the gel electrophoresis plates. Conclusion: In criminal investigations, factors such as burial grave soil, grave soil biochemical properties, antemortem exposure to embalming chemicals should be considered in post-mortem interval (PMI) determination.

Keywords: forensic taphonomy, post-mortem interval (PMI), embalmment, decomposition, grave soil

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