Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2025

Search results for: horizontal direction

2025 Analytical and Numerical Study of Formation of Sporadic E Layer with Taking into Account Horizontal and Vertical In-Homogeneity of the Horizontal Wind

Authors: Giorgi Dalakishvili, Goderdzi G. Didebulidze, Maya Todua


The possibility of sporadic E (Es) layer formation in the mid-latitude nighttime lower thermosphere by horizontal homogeneous and inhomogeneous (vertically and horizontally changing) winds is investigated in 3D by analytical and numerical solutions of continuity equation for dominant heavy metallic ions Fe+. The theory of influence of wind velocity direction, value, and its shear on formation of sporadic E is developed in case of presence the effect of horizontally changing wind (the effect of horizontal convergence). In this case, the horizontal wind with horizontal shear, characterized by compressibility and/or vortices, can provide an additional influence on heavy metallic ions Fe+ horizontal convergence and Es layers density, which can be formed by their vertical convergence caused as by wind direction and values and by its horizontal shear as well. The horizontal wind value and direction have significant influence on ion vertical drift velocity and its minimal negative values of divergence necessary for development of ion vertical convergence into sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear, in addition to its vertical shear, also influences the ion drift velocity value and its vertical changes and correspondingly on formation of sporadic E layer and its density. The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), with relatively smaller horizontal wave length than planetary waves and tidal motion, can significantly influence location of ion vertical drift velocity nodes (where Es layers formation expectable) and its vertical and horizontal shear providing ion vertical convergence into thin layer. Horizontal shear can cause additional influence in the Es layers density than in the case of only wind value and vertical shear only. In this case, depending on wind direction and value in the height region of the lower thermosphere about 90-150 km occurs heavy metallic ions (Fe+) vertical convergence into thin sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear also can influence on ions horizontal convergence and density and location Es layers. The AGWs modulate the horizontal wind direction and values and causes ion additional horizontal convergence, while the vertical changes (shear) causes additional vertical convergence than in the case without vertical shear. Influence of horizontal shear on sporadic E density and the importance of vertical compressibility of the lower thermosphere, which also can be influenced by AGWs, is demonstrated numerically. For the given wavelength and background wind, the predictability of formation Es layers and its possible location regions are shown. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant no. FR17-357.

Keywords: in-homogeneous, sporadic E, thermosphere, wind

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2024 Experimental Investigation of Cup Anemometer under Static and Dynamic Wind Direction Changes: Evaluation of Directional Sensitivity

Authors: Vaibhav Rana, Nicholas Balaresque


The 3-cup anemometer is the most commonly used instrument for wind speed measurement and, consequently, for the wind resource assessment. Though the cup anemometer shows accurate measurement under quasi-static conditions, there is uncertainty in the measurement when subjected to field measurement. Sensitivity to the angle of attacks with respect to horizontal plane, dynamic response, and non-linear behavior in calibration due to friction. The presented work aimed to identify the sensitivity of anemometer to non-horizontal flow. The cup anemometer was investigated under low wind speed wind tunnel, first under the static flow direction changes and second under the dynamic direction changes, at a different angle of attacks, under the similar conditions of reference wind tunnel speeds. The cup anemometer response under both conditions was evaluated and compared. The results showed the anemometer under dynamic wind direction changes is highly sensitive compared to static conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, cup anemometer, directional sensitivity, dynamic behavior, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2023 Seismic Directionality Effects on In-Structure Response Spectra in Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Authors: Sittipong Jarernprasert, Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Paul C. Rizzo


Currently, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) for nuclear facilities use In-Structure Response Spectra (ISRS) in the calculation of fragilities for systems and components. ISRS are calculated via dynamic analyses of the host building subjected to two orthogonal components of horizontal ground motion. Each component is defined as the median motion in any horizontal direction. Structural engineers applied the components along selected X and Y Cartesian axes. The ISRS at different locations in the building are also calculated in the X and Y directions. The choice of the directions of X and Y are not specified by the ground motion model with respect to geographic coordinates, and are rather arbitrarily selected by the structural engineer. Normally, X and Y coincide with the “principal” axes of the building, in the understanding that this practice is generally conservative. For SPRA purposes, however, it is desirable to remove any conservatism in the estimates of median ISRS. This paper examines the effects of the direction of horizontal seismic motion on the ISRS on typical nuclear structure. We also evaluate the variability of ISRS calculated along different horizontal directions. Our results indicate that some central measures of the ISRS provide robust estimates that are practically independent of the selection of the directions of the horizontal Cartesian axes.

Keywords: seismic, directionality, in-structure response spectra, probabilistic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2022 Natural Frequency Analysis of Small-Scale Arch Structure by Shaking Table Test

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Joo-Won Kang


Structural characteristics of spatial structure are different from that of rahmen structures and it has many factors that are unpredictable experientially. Both horizontal and vertical earthquake should be considered because of seismic behaviour characteristics of spatial structures. This experimental study is conducted about seismic response characteristics of roof structure according to the effect of columns or walls, through scale model of arch structure that has the basic dynamic characteristics of spatial structure. Though remarkable response is not occurred for horizontal direction in the region of higher frequency than the region of frequency that seismic energy is concentrated, relatively large response is occurred in vertical direction. It is proved that seismic response of arch structure with column is varied according to property of column.

Keywords: arch structure, seismic response, shaking table, spatial structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2021 Deformation and Crystallization in a 7075-T651 Friction Stir Weld

Authors: C. S. Paglia


The deformation and the crystallization in a 7075-T651 friction stir weld, in particular for regions directly in contact with the mechanical action of the rotating probe, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy. The investigation enabled to identify regions of the weld differently affected by the deformation caused by the welding process. The highly deformed grains in the horizontal direction close to the plate margin were indicative of shear movements along the horizontal plane, while highly deformed grains along the plate margin in the vertical direction were indicative of vertical shear movements of opposite directions, which superimposed the shear movement along the horizontal plane. The vertical shear movements were not homogeneous through the plate thickness. The microstructure indicated that after the probe passes, the grain growth may take place under static conditions. The small grains microstructure of the nugget region, formed after the main dynamic recrystallization process, develops to an equiaxed microstructure. A material transport influenced by the rotating shoulder was also observed from the trailing to the advancing side of the weld.

Keywords: AA7075-T651, friction stir welding, deformation, crystallization

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2020 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao


Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
2019 The Impact of Ultrasonicator on the Vertical and Horizontal Mixing Profile of Petrol-Bioethanol

Authors: D. Nkazi, S. E. Iyuke, J. Mulopo


Increasing global energy demand as well as air quality concerns have in recent years led to the search for alternative clean fuels to replace fossil fuels. One such alternative is the blending of petrol with ethanol, which has numerous advantages such ethanol’s ability to act as oxygenate thus reducing the carbon monoxide emissions from the exhaust of internal combustion engines of vehicles. However, the hygroscopic nature of ethanol is a major concern in obtaining a perfectly homogenized petrol-ethanol fuel. This problem has led to the study of ways of homogenizing the petrol-ethanol mixtures. During the blending process, volumes fraction of ethanol and petrol were studied with respect to the depth within the storage container to confirm homogenization of the blend and time of storage. The results reveal that the density of the mixture was constant. The binodal curve of the ternary diagram shows an increase of homogeneous region, indicating an improved of interaction between water and petrol. The concentration distribution in the reactor showed proof of cavitation formation since in both directions, the variation of concentration with both time and distance was found to be oscillatory. On comparing the profiles in both directions, the concentration gradient, diffusion flux, and energy and diffusion rates were found to be higher in the vertical direction compared to the horizontal direction. It was therefore concluded that ultrasonication creates cavitation in the mixture which enhances mass transfer and mixing of ethanol and petrol. The horizontal direction was found to be the diffusion rate limiting step which proposed that the blender should have a larger height to diameter ratio. It is, however, recommended that further studies be done on the rate-limiting step so as to have actual dimensions of the reactor.

Keywords: ultrasonication, petrol, ethanol, concentration

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2018 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma


We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.

Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterflooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2017 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez


This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2016 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang


Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2015 3D Geomechanical Model the Best Solution of the 21st Century for Perforation's Problems

Authors: Luis Guiliana, Andrea Osorio


The lack of comprehension of the reservoir geomechanics conditions may cause operational problems that cost to the industry billions of dollars per year. The drilling operations at the Ceuta Field, Area 2 South, Maracaibo Lake, have been very expensive due to problems associated with drilling. The principal objective of this investigation is to develop a 3D geomechanical model in this area, in order to optimize the future drillings in the field. For this purpose, a 1D geomechanical model was built at first instance, following the workflow of the MEM (Mechanical Earth Model), this consists of the following steps: 1) Data auditing, 2) Analysis of drilling events and structural model, 3) Mechanical stratigraphy, 4) Overburden stress, 5) Pore pressure, 6) Rock mechanical properties, 7) Horizontal stresses, 8) Direction of the horizontal stresses, 9) Wellbore stability. The 3D MEM was developed through the geostatistic model of the Eocene C-SUP VLG-3676 reservoir and the 1D MEM. With this data the geomechanical grid was embedded. The analysis of the results threw, that the problems occurred in the wells that were examined were mainly due to wellbore stability issues. It was determined that the stress field change as the stratigraphic column deepens, it is normal to strike-slip at the Middle Miocene and Lower Miocene, and strike-slipe to reverse at the Eocene. In agreement to this, at the level of the Eocene, the most advantageous direction to drill is parallel to the maximum horizontal stress (157º). The 3D MEM allowed having a tridimensional visualization of the rock mechanical properties, stresses and operational windows (mud weight and pressures) variations. This will facilitate the optimization of the future drillings in the area, including those zones without any geomechanics information.

Keywords: geomechanics, MEM, drilling, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2014 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George


It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2013 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo


In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

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2012 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine


This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, drag, lift, turbulence model, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
2011 Horizontal Circular Curve Computations Using a Developed Calculator

Authors: Adil Hassabo


In this paper, a horizontal circular curve computations calculator is developed in Microsoft Windows. The developed calculator can be used for determining the necessary information required for setting out horizontal curves. Three methods are applied in the developed program namely: incremental chord method, total chord method, and the coordinates method. Computations of horizontal curves by the developed calculator is faster, easier, accurate, and less subject to errors comparable to the traditional method of calculations. Finally, the results obtained by the traditional method and by the developed calculator are presented for checking the behavior of the developed calculator.

Keywords: calculator, circular, computations, curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2010 The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame

Authors: Mahdi Shokrollahi


Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.

Keywords: vertical earthquake acceleration, near-fault area, steel frame, horizontal and vertical component of earthquake, buckling-restrained brace

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2009 Partner Selection for Horizontal Logistic Cooperation

Authors: Mario Winkelhaus, Franz Vallée


Many companies see horizontal cooperation as a promising possibility to increase their efficiency in outbound logistics. The selection of suitable partners has particular importance in the formation of horizontal cooperation. Up until now, literature mainly focused on general applicable methods for the identification of cooperation partners without a closer examination of the specific area where the cooperation takes place. Thus, specific criteria as a basis for the partner selection in the field of logistics cooperation are missing. To close this scientific gap, an explorative research approach is used to answer the open question of the article. To collect the needed criteria, a qualitative experiment with 20 participants from 16 companies was done. Within this workshop, general criteria, as well as sector-specific requirements, have been identified which were integrated in a partner selection model.

Keywords: horizontal cooperation, logistics cooperation partnering criteria, partner selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2008 Displacement Solution for a Static Vertical Rigid Movement of an Interior Circular Disc in a Transversely Isotropic Tri-Material Full-Space

Authors: D. Mehdizadeh, M. Rahimian, M. Eskandari-Ghadi


This article is concerned with the determination of the static interaction of a vertically loaded rigid circular disc embedded at the interface of a horizontal layer sandwiched in between two different transversely isotropic half-spaces called as tri-material full-space. The axes of symmetry of different regions are assumed to be normal to the horizontal interfaces and parallel to the movement direction. With the use of a potential function method, and by implementing Hankel integral transforms in the radial direction, the government partial differential equation for the solely scalar potential function is transformed to an ordinary 4th order differential equation, and the mixed boundary conditions are transformed into a pair of integral equations called dual integral equations, which can be reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which is solved analytically. Then, the displacements and stresses are given in the form of improper line integrals, which is due to inverse Hankel integral transforms. It is shown that the present solutions are in exact agreement with the existing solutions for a homogeneous full-space with transversely isotropic material. To confirm the accuracy of the numerical evaluation of the integrals involved, the numerical results are compared with the solutions exists for the homogeneous full-space. Then, some different cases with different degrees of material anisotropy are compared to portray the effect of degree of anisotropy.

Keywords: transversely isotropic, rigid disc, elasticity, dual integral equations, tri-material full-space

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2007 Vehicle Maneuverability on Horizontal Curves on Hilly Terrain: A Study on Shillong Highway

Authors: Surendra Choudhary, Sapan Tiwari


The driver has two fundamental duties i) controlling the position of the vehicle along the longitudinal and lateral direction of movement ii) roadway width. Both of these duties are interdependent and are concurrently referred to as two-dimensional driver behavior. One of the main problems facing driver behavior modeling is to identify the parameters for describing the exemplary driving conduct and car maneuver under distinct traffic circumstances. Still, to date, there is no well-accepted theory that can comprehensively model the 2-D driver conduct (longitudinal and lateral). The primary objective of this research is to explore the vehicle's lateral longitudinal behavior in the heterogeneous condition of traffic on horizontal curves as well as the effect of road geometry on dynamic traffic parameters, i.e., car velocity and lateral placement. In this research, with their interrelationship, a thorough assessment of dynamic car parameters, i.e., speed, lateral acceleration, and turn radius. Also, horizontal curve road parameters, i.e., curvature radius, pavement friction, are performed. The dynamic parameters of the various types of car drivers are gathered using a VBOX GPS-based tool with high precision. The connection between dynamic car parameters and curve geometry is created after the removal of noise from the GPS trajectories. The major findings of the research are that car maneuvers with higher than the design limits of speed, acceleration, and lateral deviation on the studied curves of the highway. It can become lethal if the weather changes from dry to wet.

Keywords: geometry, maneuverability, terrain, trajectory, VBOX

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2006 Horizontal and Vertical Illuminance Correlations in a Case Study for Shaded South Facing Surfaces

Authors: S. Matour, M. Mahdavinejad, R. Fayaz


Daylight utilization is a key factor in achieving visual and thermal comfort, and energy savings in integrated building design. However, lack of measured data related to this topic has become a major challenge with the increasing need for integrating lighting concepts and simulations in the early stages of design procedures. The current paper deals with the values of daylight illuminance on horizontal and south facing vertical surfaces; the data are estimated using IESNA model and measured values of the horizontal and vertical illuminance, and a regression model with an acceptable linear correlation is obtained. The resultant illuminance frequency curves are useful for estimating daylight availability on south facing surfaces in Tehran. In addition, the relationship between indirect vertical illuminance and the corresponding global horizontal illuminance is analyzed. A simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination on a shaded south facing surface. The equation correlates the ratio between the vertical and horizontal illuminance to the solar altitude and is used with another relationship for prediction of the vertical illuminance. Both equations show good agreement, which allows for calculation of indirect vertical illuminance on a south facing surface at any time throughout the year.

Keywords: Tehran daylight availability, horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance, diffuse illuminance

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2005 Pressure Gradient Prediction of Oil-Water Two Phase Flow through Horizontal Pipe

Authors: Ahmed I. Raheem


In this thesis, stratified and stratified wavy flow regimes have been investigated numerically for the oil (1.57 mPa s viscosity and 780 kg/m3 density) and water twophase flow in small and large horizontal steel pipes with a diameter between 0.0254 to 0.508 m by ANSYS Fluent software. Volume of fluid (VOF) with two phases flows using two equations family models (Realizable k-

Keywords: CFD, two-phase flow, pressure gradient, volume of fluid, large diameter, horizontal pipe, oil-water stratified and stratified wavy flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2004 Permissible Horizontal Displacements during the Construction of Vertical Shafts in Soft Soils at the Valley of Mexico: Case History

Authors: Joel M. De La Rosa R.


In this paper, the results obtained when monitoring the horizontal deformations of the soil mass are detailed, during each of the construction stages of several vertical shafts located in the soft soils of the Valley of Mexico, by means of the flotation method. From the analysis of these results, the magnitude and percentage relationship with respect to the diameter and depth of excavation of the horizontal deformations that occurred during the monitoring period is established. Based on the horizontal deformation monitoring system and the information provided by the supervisor's site log, the construction stages that have the greatest impact on deformations are established. Additionally, an analysis of the deformations is carried out, which takes into account the resistance and deformability characteristics of the excavated soils, as well as the prevailing hydraulic conditions. This work will allow construction engineers and institutions in charge of infrastructure works in the Valley of Mexico to establish permissible ranges for horizontal deformations that can occur in very soft and saturated soils, during the different construction stages; improving response protocols to potentially dangerous behaviors.

Keywords: vertical shaft, flotation method, very soft clays, construction supervision

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
2003 Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS

Authors: Anjana R. Menon, Anjana Bhasi


This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, consolidation, plane strain, prefabricated horizontal drain

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2002 IT Systems of the US Federal Courts, Justice, and Governance

Authors: Joseph Zernik


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: e-justice, federal courts, human rights, banking regulation, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2001 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2000 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu


Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1999 Effect of Adding Horizontal Steel Bracing System to Ordinary Moment Steel Frames Subjected to Wind Load

Authors: Yousef Al-Qaryouti, Besan Alagawani


The main concern of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding horizontal steel bracing system to ordinary moment resisting steel frames subjected to wind load. Similar frames without bracing systems are also to be compared. A general analytical study was carried out to obtain the influence of such system in resisting wind load. Linear static analysis has been carried out using ETABS software by applying fixed wind load defined according to ASCE7-10 for three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-story ordinary moment steel frame buildings including and not including horizontal steel bracing system. The results showed that the lateral drift due to wind load decreased by adding horizontal bracing system. Also, the results show that effect of such system is more efficient to low-rise buildings.

Keywords: horizontal bracing system, steel moment frames, wind load resisting system, linear static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1998 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal


A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

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1997 Experimental Investigation of Flow Structure around a Rectangular Cylinder in Different Configurations

Authors: Cemre Polat, Dogan B. Saydam, Mustafa Soyler, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, the flow structure was investigated by particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method at Re = 26000 for two different rectangular cylinders placed perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. After obtaining streamwise and spanwise velocity data, average vorticity, streamlines, velocity magnitude, turbulence kinetic energy, root mean square of streamwise and spanwise velocity fluctuations are calculated, and critical points of flow structure are explained. As a result of the study, it was seen that the vertical configuration has less effect on the flow structure in the back region of the body compared to the horizontal configuration. When the streamwise velocity component is examined in both configurations, it is seen that the negative velocity component is stronger on the long sides compared to the short sides. It has been observed that the vertically positioned cylinder expands the flow separation point compared to the horizontally positioned cylinder; also the vertical cylinder creates an increase in turbulence kinetic energy compared to the horizontal cylinder.

Keywords: bluff body, flow characteristics, PIV, rectangular cylinder

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1996 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe


In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation dosimeter, radioactive source direction

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