Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: preconditioning

13 Regulating Nanocarrier and Mononuclear Phagocyte System Interactions through Esomeprazole-Based Preconditioning Strategy

Authors: Zakia Belhadj, Bing He, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Wenbing Dai, Qiang Zhang


Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) forms an abominable obstacle hampering the tumor delivery efficiency of nanoparticles. Passively targeted nanocarriers have received clinical approval over the past 20 years. However, none of the actively targeted nanocarriers have entered clinical trials. Thus it is important to endue effective targeting ability to actively targeted approaches by overcoming biological barriers to nanoparticle drug delivery. Here, it presents that an Esomeprazole-based preconditioning strategy for regulating nanocarrier-MPS interaction to substantially prolong circulation time and enhance tumor targeting of nanoparticles. In vitro, the clinically approved proton pump inhibitor Esomeprazole “ESO” was demonstrated to reduce interactions between macrophages and subsequently injected targeted vesicles by interfering with their lysosomal trafficking. Of note, in vivo studies demonstrated that ESO pretreatment greatly decreased the liver and spleen uptake of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles, highly enhanced their tumor accumulation, thereby provided superior therapeutic efficacy of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles co-loaded with Doxorubicin (DOX) and Gefitinib (GE). This MPS-preconditioning strategy using ESO provides deeper insights into regulating nanoparticles interaction with the phagocytic system and enhancing their cancer cells' accessibility for anticancer therapy.

Keywords: esomeprazole (ESO), mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), preconditioning strategy, targeted lipid vesicles

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12 Dynamic Cardiac Mitochondrial Proteome Alterations after Ischemic Preconditioning

Authors: Abdelbary Prince, Said Moussa, Hyungkyu Kim, Eman Gouda, Jin Han


We compared the dynamic alterations of mitochondrial proteome of control, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemic preconditioned (IPC) rabbit hearts. Using 2-DE, we identified 29 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in the IR heart compared with the control and IPC hearts. For two of the spots, the expression patterns were confirmed by Western blotting analysis. These proteins included succinate dehydrogenase complex, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, Atpase, ATP synthase, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, translation elongation factor, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, actin alpha, succinyl-CoA Ligase, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase, citrate synthase, acetyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, prohibitin, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein, enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase, superoxide dismutase [Mn], and 24-kDa subunit of complex I. Interestingly, most of these proteins are associated with the mitochondrial respiratory chain, antioxidant enzyme system, and energy metabolism. The results provide clues as to the cardioprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning at the protein level and may serve as potential biomarkers for detection of ischemia-induced cardiac injury.

Keywords: ischemic preconditioning, mitochondria, proteome, cardioprotection

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11 Effects of Preparation Caused by Ischemic-Reperfusion along with Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Submaximal Dynamic Force Production

Authors: Sara Nasiri Semnani, Alireza Ramzani


Background and Aims: Sodium bicarbonate is a supplementation that used to reduce fatigue and increase power output in short-term training. On the other hand, the Ischemic Reperfusion Preconditioning (IRPC) is an appropriate stimulus to increase the submaximal contractile response. Materials and methods: 9 female student-athletes in double-blind randomized crossover design were three mode, sodium bicarbonate + IRPC, sodium bicarbonate and placebo+ IRPC. Participants moved forward single arm dumbbell hand with a weight of 2 kg can be carried out most frequently. Results: The results showed that plasma lactate concentration and records of sodium bicarbonate + IRPC and sodium bicarbonate conditions were significantly different compared to placebo + IRPC (Respectively p=0.001, p=0/02). Conclusion: According to the research findings, bicarbonate supplementation in IRPC training condition increased force and delay fatigue in submaximal dynamic contraction.

Keywords: ischemic reperfusion, preconditioning, sodium bicarbonate, submaximal dynamic force

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10 Possible Role of Fenofibrate and Clofibrate in Attenuated Cardioprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning in Hyperlipidemic Rat Hearts

Authors: Gurfateh Singh, Mu Khan, Razia Khanam, Govind Mohan


Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the beneficial role of Fenofibrate & Clofibrate in attenuated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Materials & Methods: Experimental hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding high fat diet to rats for a period of 28 days. Isolated langendorff’s perfused normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. The myocardial infarct size was assessed macroscopically using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB release to assess the extent of cardiac injury. Moreover, the oxidative stress in heart was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide anion generation and reduced form of glutathione. Results: The ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been noted to induce oxidative stress by increasing TBARS, superoxide anion generation and decreasing reduced form of glutathione in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Moreover, I/R produced myocardial injury, which was assessed in terms of increase in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent and decrease in coronary flow rate in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. In addition, the hyperlipidemic rat hearts showed enhanced I/R-induced myocardial injury with high degree of oxidative stress as compared with normal rat hearts subjected to I/R. Four episodes of IPC (5 min each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal rat hearts as assessed in terms of improvement in coronary flow rate and reduction in myocardial infarct size, LDH, CK-MB and oxidative stress. On the other hand, IPC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was abolished in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. However, Treatment with Fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), Clofibrate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) as a agonists of PPAR-α have not affected the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat hearts, but its treatment markedly restored the cardioprotective potentials of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Conclusion: It is noted that the high degree of oxidative stress produced in hyperlipidemic rat heart during reperfusion and consequent down regulation of PPAR-α may be responsible to abolish the cardioprotective potentials of IPC.

Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic preconditioning, PPAR-α

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9 Effects of Moisture on Fatigue Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Four-Point Bending Test

Authors: Mohit Chauhan, Atul Narayan


Moisture damage is the continuous deterioration of asphalt concrete mixtures by the loss of adhesive bond between the asphalt binder and aggregates, or loss of cohesive bonds within the asphalt binder in the presence of moisture. Moisture has been known to either cause or exacerbates distresses in asphalt concrete pavements. Since moisture would often retain for a relatively long duration at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer, the movement of traffic loading in this saturated condition would cause excess stresses or strains within the mixture. This would accelerate the degradation of the adhesion and cohesion within the mixture and likely to contribute the development of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. In view of this, it is important to investigate the effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of asphalt concrete mixtures. In this study, changes in fatigue characteristics after moisture conditioning were evaluated by conducting four-point beam fatigue tests on dry and moisture conditioned specimens. For this purpose, mixtures with two different types of binders were prepared and saturated with moisture using 700 mm Hg vacuum. Beam specimens, in this way, were taken to a saturation level of 65-75 percent. After preconditioning specimens in this degree of saturation and 60°C for a period of 24 hours, they were subjected to four point beam fatigue tests in strain-controlled mode with a strain amplitude of 400 microstrain. The results were then compared with the fatigue test results obtained with beam specimens that were not subjected to moisture conditioning. Test results show that the conditioning reduces both fatigue life and initial flexural stiffness of specimen significantly. The moisture conditioning was also found to increase the rate of reduction of flexural stiffness. Moreover, it was observed that the fatigue life ratio (FLR), the ratio of the fatigue life of the moisture conditioned sample to that of the dry sample, is significantly lower than the flexural stiffness ratio (FSR). The study indicates that four-point bending test is an appropriate tool with FLR and FSR as the potential parameters for moisture-sensitivity evaluation.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, fatigue cracking, moisture damage, preconditioning

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8 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen


A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

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7 Raman Spectroscopic of Cardioprotective Mechanism During the Metabolic Inhibition of Heart Cells

Authors: A. Almohammedi, A. J. Hudson, N. M. Storey


Following ischaemia/reperfusion injury, as in a myocardial infraction, cardiac myocytes undergo oxidative stress which leads to several potential outcomes including; necrotic or apoptotic cell death or dysregulated calcium homeostasis or disruption of the electron transport chain. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide donors protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia and reperfusion. However until present, the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is not fully understood and has not been investigated before using Raman spectroscopy. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to develop a novel technique, pre-resonance Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to metabolic inhibition and re-energisation. The results demonstrated the first time that Raman microspectroscopy technique has the capability to monitor the metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes and to monitor the effectiveness of cardioprotection by nitric oxide donor prior to metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes. Metabolic inhibition and reenergisation were used in this study to mimic the low and high oxygen levels experienced by cells during ischaemic and reperfusion treatments. A laser wavelength of 488 nm used in this study has been found to provide the most sensitive means of observe the cellular mechanisms of myoglobin during nitric oxide donor preconditioning, metabolic inhibition and re-energisation and did not cause any damage to the cells. The data also highlight the considerably different cellular responses to metabolic inhibition to ischaemia. Moreover, the data has been shown the relationship between the release of myoglobin and chemical ischemia where that the release of myoglobin from the cell only occurred if a cell did not recover contractility.

Keywords: ex vivo biospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, biophotonics, cardiomyocytes, ischaemia / reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, nitric oxide donor

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6 Sustainable Technologies for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes


The German nuclear industry, while implementing the German policy, believes that the journey towards the green-field, namely phasing out of nuclear energy, should be achieved through green techniques. The most important techniques required for the wide range of decommissioning activities are decontamination techniques, cutting techniques, radioactivity measuring techniques, remote control techniques, techniques for worker and environmental protection and techniques for treating, preconditioning and conditioning nuclear waste. Many decontamination techniques are used for removing contamination from metal, concrete or other surfaces like the scales inside pipes. As the pipeline system is one of the important components of nuclear power plants, the process of decontamination in tubing is of more significance. The development of energy sectors like oil sector, gas sector and nuclear sector, since the middle of 20th century, increased the pipeline industry and the research in the decontamination of tubing in each sector is found to serve each other. The extraction of natural products and material through the pipeline can result in scale formation. These scales can be radioactively contaminated through an accumulation process especially in the petrochemical industry when oil and gas are extracted from the underground reservoir. The radioactivity measured in these scales can be significantly high and pose a great threat to people and the environment. At present, the decontamination process involves using high pressure water jets with or without abrasive material and this technology produces a high amount of secondary waste. In order to overcome it, the research team within Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed a new sustainable method to carry out the decontamination of tubing without producing any secondary waste. This method is based on vibration technique which removes scales and also does not require any auxiliary materials. The outcome of the research project proves that the vibration technique used for decontamination of tubing is environmental friendly in other words a sustainable technique.

Keywords: sustainable technologies, decontamination, pipeline, nuclear industry

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5 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam


The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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4 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander


In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: lamb waves, industry 4.0, process control, elasticity, acoustoelasticity, microstructure

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3 Trehalose Application Increased Membrane Stability and Cell Viability to Affect Growth of Wheat Genotypes under Heat Stress

Authors: S. K. Thind, Aparjot Kaur


Heat stress is one of the major environmental factors drastically reducing wheat production. Crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants by exogenous application of osmoprotectants. Presently, the effect of trehalose pretreatment (at 1 mM, and 1.5 nM) under heat stress of 35±2˚C (moderate) and 40±2˚ (severe) for four and eight hour was conducted in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz. HD2967, PBW 175, PBW 343, PBW 621, and PBW 590. Heat stress affects wide spectrum of physiological processes within plants that are irreversibly damaged by stress. Membrane thermal stability (MTS) and cell viability was significantly decreased under heat stress for eight hours. Pretreatment with trehalose improved MTS and cell viability under stress and this effect was more promotory with higher concentration. Thermal stability of photosynthetic apparatus differed markedly between genotypes and Hill reaction activity was recorded more in PBW621 followed by C306 as compared with others. In all genotypes photolysis of water showed decline with increase in temperature stress. Trehalose pretreatment helped in sustaining Hill reaction activity probably by stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus against heat-induced photo inhibition. Both plant growth and development were affected by temperature in both shoot and root under heat stress. The reduction was compensated partially by trehalose (1.5 mM) application. Adaption to heat stress is associated with the metabolic adjustment which led to accumulation of soluble sugars including non-reducing and reducing for their role in adaptive mechanism. Higher acid invertase activity in shoot of tolerant genotypes appeared to be a characteristic for stress tolerance. As sucrose synthase play central role in sink strength and in studied wheat genotype was positively related to dry matter accumulation. The duration of heat stress for eight hours had more severe effect on these parameters and trehalose application at 1.5 mM ameliorated it to certain extent.

Keywords: heat stress, Triticum aestivum, trehalose, membrane thermal stability, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, reduction test, growth, sugar metabolism

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2 Utilization of Fly Ash Amended Sewage Sludge as Sustainable Building Material

Authors: Kaling Taki, Rohit Gahlot, Manish Kumar


Disposal of Sewage Sludge (SS) is a big issue especially in developing nation like India, where there is no control in the dynamicity of SS produced. The present research work demonstrates the potential application of SS amended with varying percentage (0-100%) of Fly Ash (FA) for brick manufacturing as an alternative of SS management. SS samples were collected from Jaspur sewage treatment plant (Ahmedabad, India) and subjected to different preconditioning treatments: (i) atmospheric drying (ii) pulverization (iii) heat treatment in oven (110°C, moisture removal) and muffle furnace (440°C, organic content removal). Geotechnical parameters of the SS were obtained as liquid limit (52%), plastic limit (24%), shrinkage limit (10%), plasticity index (28%), differential free swell index (DFSI, 47%), silt (68%), clay (27%), organic content (5%), optimum moisture content (OMC, 20%), maximum dry density (MDD, 1.55gm/cc), specific gravity (2.66), swell pressure (57kPa) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS, 207kPa). For FA liquid limit, plastic limit and specific gravity was 44%, 0% and 2.2 respectively. Initially, for brick casting pulverized SS sample was heat treated in a muffle furnace around 440℃ (5 hours) for removal of organic matter. Later, mixing of SS, FA and water by weight ratio was done at OMC. 7*7*7 cm3 sample mold was used for casting bricks at MDD. Brick samples were then first dried in room temperature for 24 hours, then in oven at 100℃ (24 hours) and finally firing in muffle furnace for 1000℃ (10 hours). The fired brick samples were then cured for 3 days according to Indian Standards (IS) common burnt clay building bricks- specification (5th revision). The Compressive strength of brick samples (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ,60, 70, 80, 90, 100%) of FA were 0.45, 0.76, 1.89, 1.83, 4.02, 3.74, 3.42, 3.19, 2.87, 0.78 and 4.95MPa when evaluated through compressive testing machine (CTM) for a stress rate of 14MPa/min. The highest strength was obtained at 40% FA mixture i.e. 4.02MPa which is much higher than the pure SS brick sample. According to IS 1077: 1992 this combination gives strength more than 3.5 MPa and can be utilized as common building bricks. The loss in weight after firing was much higher than the oven treatment, this might be due to degradation temperature higher than 100℃. The thermal conductivity of the fired brick was obtained as 0.44Wm-1K-1, indicating better insulation properties than other reported studies. TCLP (Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) test of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe and Ni in raw SS was found as 69, 70, 21, 39502 and 47 mg/kg. The study positively concludes that SS and FA at optimum ratio can be utilized as common building bricks such as partitioning wall and other small strength requirement works. The uniqueness of the work is it emphasizes on utilization of FA for stabilizing SS as construction material as a replacement of natural clay as reported in existing studies.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Curing, Fly Ash, Sewage Sludge.

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1 Stochastic Matrices and Lp Norms for Ill-Conditioned Linear Systems

Authors: Riadh Zorgati, Thomas Triboulet


In quite diverse application areas such as astronomy, medical imaging, geophysics or nondestructive evaluation, many problems related to calibration, fitting or estimation of a large number of input parameters of a model from a small amount of output noisy data, can be cast as inverse problems. Due to noisy data corruption, insufficient data and model errors, most inverse problems are ill-posed in a Hadamard sense, i.e. existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution are not guaranteed. A wide class of inverse problems in physics relates to the Fredholm equation of the first kind. The ill-posedness of such inverse problem results, after discretization, in a very ill-conditioned linear system of equations, the condition number of the associated matrix can typically range from 109 to 1018. This condition number plays the role of an amplifier of uncertainties on data during inversion and then, renders the inverse problem difficult to handle numerically. Similar problems appear in other areas such as numerical optimization when using interior points algorithms for solving linear programs leads to face ill-conditioned systems of linear equations. Devising efficient solution approaches for such system of equations is therefore of great practical interest. Efficient iterative algorithms are proposed for solving a system of linear equations. The approach is based on a preconditioning of the initial matrix of the system with an approximation of a generalized inverse leading to a stochastic preconditioned matrix. This approach, valid for non-negative matrices, is first extended to hermitian, semi-definite positive matrices and then generalized to any complex rectangular matrices. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) We are able to build a generalized inverse of any complex rectangular matrix which satisfies the convergence condition requested in iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear equations. This completes the (short) list of generalized inverse having this property, after Kaczmarz and Cimmino matrices. Theoretical results on both the characterization of the type of generalized inverse obtained and the convergence are derived. 2) Thanks to its properties, this matrix can be efficiently used in different solving schemes as Richardson-Tanabe or preconditioned conjugate gradients. 3) By using Lp norms, we propose generalized Kaczmarz’s type matrices. We also show how Cimmino's matrix can be considered as a particular case consisting in choosing the Euclidian norm in an asymmetrical structure. 4) Regarding numerical results obtained on some pathological well-known test-cases (Hilbert, Nakasaka, …), some of the proposed algorithms are empirically shown to be more efficient on ill-conditioned problems and more robust to error propagation than the known classical techniques we have tested (Gauss, Moore-Penrose inverse, minimum residue, conjugate gradients, Kaczmarz, Cimmino). We end on a very early prospective application of our approach based on stochastic matrices aiming at computing some parameters (such as the extreme values, the mean, the variance, …) of the solution of a linear system prior to its resolution. Such an approach, if it were to be efficient, would be a source of information on the solution of a system of linear equations.

Keywords: conditioning, generalized inverse, linear system, norms, stochastic matrix

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