Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: M. Schwarz

19 Extensions of Schwarz Lemma in the Half-Plane

Authors: Nicolae Pascu


Aside from being a fundamental tool in Complex analysis, Schwarz Lemma-which was finalized in its most complete form at the beginning of the last century-generated an important area of research in various fields of mathematics, which continues to advance even today. We present some properties of analytic functions in the half-plane which satisfy the conditions of the classical Schwarz Lemma (Carathéodory functions) and obtain a generalization of the well-known Aleksandrov-Sobolev Lemma for analytic functions in the half-plane (the correspondent of Schwarz-Pick Lemma from the unit disk). Using this Schwarz-type lemma, we obtain a characterization for the entire class of Carathéodory functions, which might be of independent interest. We prove two monotonicity properties for Carathéodory functions that do not depend upon their normalization at infinity (the hydrodynamic normalization). The method is based on conformal mapping arguments for analytic functions in the half-plane satisfying appropriate conditions, in the spirit of Schwarz lemma. According to the research findings in this paper, our main results give estimates for the modulus and the argument for the entire class of Carathéodory functions. As applications, we give several extensions of Julia-Wolf-Carathéodory Lemma in a half-strip and show that our results are sharp.

Keywords: schwarz lemma, Julia-wolf-caratéodory lemma, analytic function, normalization condition, caratéodory function

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18 Robust Variable Selection Based on Schwarz Information Criterion for Linear Regression Models

Authors: Shokrya Saleh A. Alshqaq, Abdullah Ali H. Ahmadini


The Schwarz information criterion (SIC) is a popular tool for selecting the best variables in regression datasets. However, SIC is defined using an unbounded estimator, namely, the least-squares (LS), which is highly sensitive to outlying observations, especially bad leverage points. A method for robust variable selection based on SIC for linear regression models is thus needed. This study investigates the robustness properties of SIC by deriving its influence function and proposes a robust SIC based on the MM-estimation scale. The aim of this study is to produce a criterion that can effectively select accurate models in the presence of vertical outliers and high leverage points. The advantages of the proposed robust SIC is demonstrated through a simulation study and an analysis of a real dataset.

Keywords: influence function, robust variable selection, robust regression, Schwarz information criterion

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17 [Keynote Talk]: Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

Authors: Lina Wu, Jia Liu, Ye Li


The goal of this project is to investigate constant properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid. The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant. Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1) parameters in the general setting.

Keywords: Bochner formula, Calculus Stokes' Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, first and second variation formulas, Liouville-type problem, p-harmonic map

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16 Using of Cavitational Disperser for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation

Authors: Andrei Shishkin, Aleksandrs Korjakins, Viktors Mironovs


Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF-1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55, and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was the development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.

Keywords: ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming

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15 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann


In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.


Keywords: defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography

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14 Change Point Analysis in Average Ozone Layer Temperature Using Exponential Lomax Distribution

Authors: Amjad Abdullah, Amjad Yahya, Bushra Aljohani, Amani Alghamdi


Change point detection is an important part of data analysis. The presence of a change point refers to a significant change in the behavior of a time series. In this article, we examine the detection of multiple change points of parameters of the exponential Lomax distribution, which is broad and flexible compared with other distributions while fitting data. We used the Schwarz information criterion and binary segmentation to detect multiple change points in publicly available data on the average temperature in the ozone layer. The change points were successfully located.

Keywords: binary segmentation, change point, exponentialLomax distribution, information criterion

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13 A Comparative Analysis of ARIMA and Threshold Autoregressive Models on Exchange Rate

Authors: Diteboho Xaba, Kolentino Mpeta, Tlotliso Qejoe


This paper assesses the in-sample forecasting of the South African exchange rates comparing a linear ARIMA model and a SETAR model. The study uses a monthly adjusted data of South African exchange rates with 420 observations. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz information criteria (SIC) are used for model selection. Mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are error metrics used to evaluate forecast capability of the models. The Diebold –Mariano (DM) test is employed in the study to check forecast accuracy in order to distinguish the forecasting performance between the two models (ARIMA and SETAR). The results indicate that both models perform well when modelling and forecasting the exchange rates, but SETAR seemed to outperform ARIMA.

Keywords: ARIMA, error metrices, model selection, SETAR

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12 An Equivalence between a Harmonic Form and a Closed Co-Closed Differential Form in L^Q and Non-L^Q Spaces

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li


An equivalent relation between a harmonic form and a closed co-closed form is established on a complete non-compact manifold. This equivalence has been generalized for a differential k-form ω from Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces when q=2 in the context of p-balanced growth where p=2. Especially for a simple differential k-form on a complete non-compact manifold, the equivalent relation has been verified with the extended scope of q for from finite q-energy in Lq spaces to infinite q-energy in non-Lq spaces when with 2-balanced growth. Generalized Hadamard Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, and Calculus skills including Integration by Parts as well as Convergent Series have been applied as estimation techniques to evaluate growth rates for a differential form. In particular, energy growth rates as indicated by an appropriate power range in a selected test function lead to a balance between a harmonic differential form and a closed co-closed differential form. Research ideas and computational methods in this paper could provide an innovative way in the study of broadening Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces with a wide variety of infinite energy growth for a differential form.

Keywords: closed forms, co-closed forms, harmonic forms, L^q spaces, p-balanced growth, simple differential k-forms

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11 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein


Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

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10 Multi-Modal Visualization of Working Instructions for Assembly Operations

Authors: Josef Wolfartsberger, Michael Heiml, Georg Schwarz, Sabrina Egger


Growing individualization and higher numbers of variants in industrial assembly products raise the complexity of manufacturing processes. Technical assistance systems considering both procedural and human factors allow for an increase in product quality and a decrease in required learning times by supporting workers with precise working instructions. Due to varying needs of workers, the presentation of working instructions leads to several challenges. This paper presents an approach for a multi-modal visualization application to support assembly work of complex parts. Our approach is integrated within an interconnected assistance system network and supports the presentation of cloud-streamed textual instructions, images, videos, 3D animations and audio files along with multi-modal user interaction, customizable UI, multi-platform support (e.g. tablet-PC, TV screen, smartphone or Augmented Reality devices), automated text translation and speech synthesis. The worker benefits from more accessible and up-to-date instructions presented in an easy-to-read way.

Keywords: assembly, assistive technologies, augmented reality, manufacturing, visualization

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9 Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment

Authors: Chen Zhang, Bernhard Schwarz-Röhr, Alexander Härting


To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, nonlinear estimation, sea trial, ship motion estimation

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8 Determinants of Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Structural Vector Auto Regression Approach

Authors: Muhammad Ajmair


This empirical study followed structural vector auto regression (SVAR) approach proposed by the so-called AB-model of Amisano and Giannini (1997) to check the impact of relevant macroeconomic determinants on economic growth in Pakistan. Before that auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing technique and time varying parametric approach along with general to specific approach was employed to find out relevant significant determinants of economic growth. To our best knowledge, no author made such a study that employed auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing and time varying parametric approach with general to specific approach in empirical literature, but current study will bridge this gap. Annual data was taken from World Development Indicators (2014) during period 1976-2014. The widely-used Schwarz information criterion and Akaike information criterion were considered for the lag length in each estimated equation. Main findings of the study are that remittances received, gross national expenditures and inflation are found to be the best relevant positive and significant determinants of economic growth. Based on these empirical findings, we conclude that government should focus on overall economic growth augmenting factors while formulating any policy relevant to the concerned sector.

Keywords: economic growth, gross national expenditures, inflation, remittances

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7 The Holistic Nursing WebQuest: An Interactive Teaching/Learning Strategy

Authors: Laura M. Schwarz


WebQuests are an internet-based interactive teaching/learning tool and utilize a scaffolded methodology. WebQuests employ critical thinking, afford inquiry-based constructivist learning, and readily employ Bloom’s Taxonomy. WebQuests have generally been used as instructional technology tools in primary and secondary education and have more recently grown in popularity in higher education. The study of the efficacy of WebQuests as an instructional approach to learning, however, has been limited, particularly in the nursing education arena. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine nursing students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the Nursing WebQuest as a teaching/learning strategy for holistic nursing-related content. Quantitative findings (N=42) suggested that learners were active participants, used reflection, thought of new ideas, used analysis skills, discovered something new, and assessed the worth of something while taking part in the WebQuests. Qualitative findings indicated that participants found WebQuest positives as easy to understand and navigate; clear and organized; interactive; good alternative learning format, and used a variety of quality resources. Participants saw drawbacks as requiring additional time and work; and occasional failed link or link causing them to lose their location in the WebQuest. Recommendations include using larger sample size and more diverse populations from various programs and universities. In conclusion, WebQuests were found to be an effective teaching/learning tool as positively assessed by study participants.

Keywords: holistic nursing, nursing education, teaching/learning strategy, WebQuests

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6 A Controlled Natural Language Assisted Approach for the Design and Automated Processing of Service Level Agreements

Authors: Christopher Schwarz, Katrin Riegler, Erwin Zinser


The management of outsourcing relationships between IT service providers and their customers proofs to be a critical issue that has to be stipulated by means of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Since service requirements differ from customer to customer, SLA content and language structures vary largely, standardized SLA templates may not be used and an automated processing of SLA content is not possible. Hence, SLA management is usually a time-consuming and inefficient manual process. For overcoming these challenges, this paper presents an innovative and ITIL V3-conform approach for automated SLA design and management using controlled natural language in enterprise collaboration portals. The proposed novel concept is based on a self-developed controlled natural language that follows a subject-predicate-object approach to specify well-defined SLA content structures that act as templates for customized contracts and support automated SLA processing. The derived results eventually enable IT service providers to automate several SLA request, approval and negotiation processes by means of workflows and business rules within an enterprise collaboration portal. The illustrated prototypical realization gives evidence of the practical relevance in service-oriented scenarios as well as the high flexibility and adaptability of the presented model. Thus, the prototype enables the automated creation of well defined, customized SLA documents, providing a knowledge representation that is both human understandable and machine processable.

Keywords: automated processing, controlled natural language, knowledge representation, information technology outsourcing, service level management

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5 Strain Sensing Seams for Monitoring Body Movement

Authors: Sheilla Atieno Odhiambo, Simona Vasile, Alexandra De Raeve, Ann Schwarz


Strain sensing seams have been developed by integrating conductive sewing threads in different types of seams design on a fabric typical for sports clothing using sewing technology. The aim is to have a simple integrated textile strain sensor that can be applied to sports clothing to monitor the movements of the upper body parts of the user during sports. Different types of commercially available sewing threads were used as the bobbin thread in the production of different architectural seam sensors. These conductive sewing threads have been integrated into seams in particular designs using specific seam types. Some of the threads are delicate and needed to be laid into the seam with as little friction as possible and less tension; thus, they could only be sewn in as the bobbin thread and not the needle thread. Stitch type 304; 406; 506; 601;602; 605. were produced. The seams were made on a fabric of 80% polyamide 6.6 and 20% elastane. The seams were cycled(stretch-release-stretch) for five cycles and up to 44 cycles following EN ISO 14704-1: 2005 (modified), using a tensile instrument and the changes in the resistance of the seams with time were recorded using Agilent meter U1273A. Both experiments were conducted simultaneously on the same seam sample. Sensing functionality, among which is sensor gauge and reliability, were evaluated on the promising sensor seams. The results show that the sensor seams made from HC Madeira 40 conductive yarns performed better inseam stitch 304 and 602 compared to the other combination of stitch type and conductive sewing threads. These sensing seams 304, 406 and 602 will further be interconnected to our developed processing and communicating unit and further integrated into a sports clothing prototype that can track body posture. This research is done within the framework of the project SmartSeam.

Keywords: conductive sewing thread, sensing seams, smart seam, sewing technology

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4 Modeling of Drug Distribution in the Human Vitreous

Authors: Judith Stein, Elfriede Friedmann


The injection of a drug into the vitreous body for the treatment of retinal diseases like wet aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common medical intervention worldwide. We develop mathematical models for drug transport in the vitreous body of a human eye to analyse the impact of different rheological models of the vitreous on drug distribution. In addition to the convection diffusion equation characterizing the drug spreading, we use porous media modeling for the healthy vitreous with a dense collagen network and include the steady permeating flow of the aqueous humor described by Darcy's law driven by a pressure drop. Additionally, the vitreous body in a healthy human eye behaves like a viscoelastic gel through the collagen fibers suspended in the network of hyaluronic acid and acts as a drug depot for the treatment of retinal diseases. In a completely liquefied vitreous, we couple the drug diffusion with the classical Navier-Stokes flow equations. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of the weak solution of the developed initial-boundary value problem describing the drug distribution in the healthy vitreous considering the permeating aqueous humor flow in the realistic three-dimensional setting. In particular, for the drug diffusion equation, results from the literature are extended from homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions to our mixed boundary conditions that describe the eye with the Galerkin's method using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and trace theorem. Because there is only a small effective drug concentration range and higher concentrations may be toxic, the ability to model the drug transport could improve the therapy by considering patient individual differences and give a better understanding of the physiological and pathological processes in the vitreous.

Keywords: coupled PDE systems, drug diffusion, mixed boundary conditions, vitreous body

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3 Mapping the Digital Landscape: An Analysis of Party Differences between Conventional and Digital Policy Positions

Authors: Daniel Schwarz, Jan Fivaz, Alessia Neuroni


Although digitization is a buzzword in almost every election campaign, the political parties leave voters largely in the dark about their specific positions on digital issues. In the run-up to the 2019 elections in Switzerland, the ‘Digitization Monitor’ project (DMP) was launched in order to change this situation. Within the framework of the DMP, all 4,736 candidates were surveyed about their digital policy positions and values. The DMP is designed as a digital policy supplement to the existing ‘smartvote’ voting advice application. This enabled a direct comparison of the digital policy attitudes according to the DMP with the topics of the ‘smartvote’ questionnaire which are comprehensive in content but mainly related to conventional policy areas. This paper’s main research goal is to analyze and visualize possible differences between conventional and digital policy areas in terms of response patterns between and within political parties. The analysis is based on dimensionality reduction methods (multidimensional scaling and principal component analysis) for the visualization of inter-party differences, and on standard deviation as a measure of variation for the evaluation of intra-party unity. The results reveal that digital issues show a lower degree of inter-party polarization compared to conventional policy areas. Thus, the parties have more common ground in issues on digitization than in conventional policy areas. In contrast, the study reveals a mixed picture regarding intra-party unity. Homogeneous parties show a lower degree of unity in digitization issues whereas parties with heterogeneous positions in conventional areas have more united positions in digital areas. All things considered, the findings are encouraging as less polarized conditions apply to the debate on digital development compared to conventional politics. For the future, it would be desirable if in further countries similar projects to the DMP could emerge to broaden the basis for conclusions.

Keywords: comparison of political issue dimensions, digital awareness of candidates, digital policy space, party positions on digital issues

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2 Modeling Biomass and Biodiversity across Environmental and Management Gradients in Temperate Grasslands with Deep Learning and Sentinel-1 and -2

Authors: Javier Muro, Anja Linstadter, Florian Manner, Lisa Schwarz, Stephan Wollauer, Paul Magdon, Gohar Ghazaryan, Olena Dubovyk


Monitoring the trade-off between biomass production and biodiversity in grasslands is critical to evaluate the effects of management practices across environmental gradients. New generations of remote sensing sensors and machine learning approaches can model grasslands’ characteristics with varying accuracies. However, studies often fail to cover a sufficiently broad range of environmental conditions, and evidence suggests that prediction models might be case specific. In this study, biomass production and biodiversity indices (species richness and Fishers’ α) are modeled in 150 grassland plots for three sites across Germany. These sites represent a North-South gradient and are characterized by distinct soil types, topographic properties, climatic conditions, and management intensities. Predictors used are derived from Sentinel-1 & 2 and a set of topoedaphic variables. The transferability of the models is tested by training and validating at different sites. The performance of feed-forward deep neural networks (DNN) is compared to a random forest algorithm. While biomass predictions across gradients and sites were acceptable (r2 0.5), predictions of biodiversity indices were poor (r2 0.14). DNN showed higher generalization capacity than random forest when predicting biomass across gradients and sites (relative root mean squared error of 0.5 for DNN vs. 0.85 for random forest). DNN also achieved high performance when using the Sentinel-2 surface reflectance data rather than different combinations of spectral indices, Sentinel-1 data, or topoedaphic variables, simplifying dimensionality. This study demonstrates the necessity of training biomass and biodiversity models using a broad range of environmental conditions and ensuring spatial independence to have realistic and transferable models where plot level information can be upscaled to landscape scale.

Keywords: ecosystem services, grassland management, machine learning, remote sensing

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1 Weathering the Storm: Presenting a Framework for Navigating Unplanned Change in Organisations

Authors: Natasha Winkler-Titus, Nicole Hayes, Dieter Veldsman


We live in Confucius’ interesting times, and Coorperider (2020) said that the 2020’s may be the decade of last chances. Every sector and industry are experiencing seismic change, and the experience is that of continuous motion and unprecedented disruption. This paper presents empirical research exploring how two organisations managed through disruptive unplanned change events, and we propose a pragmatic framework guiding the navigation of unplanned change. With the nature and pace of change shifting, this has an equal knock-on impact on organisational change processes and how these are navigated. Schwarz and Bouckenooghe (2021) have challenged scholars to shine a renewed spotlight on the vast change literature. Instead of confirming old models in new contexts, researchers must start conceptualising “new ways of modelling change” (p.6). While planned change infers a managerial response based on anticipated events which can be accommodated in the management systems, unplanned change stems from unanticipated events or crisis and requires a different management response. Nevertheless, most approaches to change continue to adopt the same models and continue to make the same mistakes. The application of complex adaptive systems theory to human social systems have enriched traditional management theories, but they still require more structured methodologies and methods to support more generic organisational analyses. Complex adaptive systems theory has been applied predominantly in planned instances of change management to analyse collective behaviour emergenceand to study narratives of change. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel approach to navigating through forced unplanned change utilising a framework derived from the theory of complex adaptive systems. An interpretivist paradigm was followed in a case study following grounded theory methodology of analysis, and data was collected at two time points at two organisations experiencing disruptive, unplanned change events. Viewing unplanned change through the lens of complex adaptive systems theory provides the opportunity to understand unplanned change as a navigational and iterative occurrence that draws from the dialogic OD perspective. The study culminates in a framework providing a conseptualisation of how unplanned change can be navigated through the iterative and non-linear domains of survival, sensemaking, and sustainability through iterative phases of containing, mobilising, stabalising and shaping the context of these domains. This occurs in the context of the macro-environment and the historical narrative that informs the institutional memory of the system. This aligns with the understanding of complex adaptive systems where the pattern of interaction is understood to be complex, thus requires sensemaking, emergent, and evolving, which is contained through survival and informed by agents in the systems and their connections, which relates to sustainability.

Keywords: organisational change, complex adaptive systems theory, unplanned change navigation, sensemaking

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