Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Savita

9 Recent Advancement in Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Authors: Savita, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh

Abstract:

Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG) is a widely used technique to assess the fetal well-being and identify any changes that might be with problems during pregnancy and to evaluate the health and conditions of the fetus. Various techniques or methods have been employed to diagnose the fECG from abdominal signal. This paper describes the facile approach for the estimation of the fECG known as Adaptive Comb. Filter (ACF). The ACF can adjust according to the temporal variations in fundamental frequency by itself that used for the estimation of the quasi periodic signal of ECG signal.

Keywords: aECG, ACF, fECG, mECG

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8 Excitation Dependent Luminescence in Cr³+ Doped MgAl₂O₄ Nanocrystals

Authors: Savita, Pargam Vashishtha, Govind Gupta, Ankush Vij, Anup Thakur

Abstract:

The ligand field dependent visible as well as NIR emission of the Cr³+dopant in spinel hosts has attracted immense attention in tuning the color emitted by the material. In this research, Mg1-xCrxAl₂O₄(x=0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mol%) nanocrystals have been synthesizedby solution combustion method. The synthesized nanocrystals possessed a single phase cubic structure. The strong absorption by host lattice defects (antisite defects, F centres) andd-d transitions of Cr³+ ions lead to radiative emission in the visible and NIR region, respectively. The red-NIR emission in photoluminescence spectra inferred the octahedral symmetry of Cr³+ ions and anticipated the site distortion by the presence ofCr³+ clusters and antisite defects in the vicinity of Cr³+ ions. The thermoluminescence response of UV and γ-irradiated Cr doped MgAl2O4 samples revealed the formation of various shallow and deep defects with doping Cr³+ions. The induced structural cation disorder with an increase in doping concentration caused photoluminescence quenching beyond 3 mol% Cr³+ doping. The color tuning exhibited by Cr doped MgAl₂O₄ nanocrystals by varying Cr³+ ion concentration and excitation wavelength find its applicability in solid state lighting.

Keywords: antisite defects, cation disorder, color tuning, combustion synthesis

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7 Anticancer Effect of Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum Aestivum Straw in Mice

Authors: Savita Dixit

Abstract:

Rutin is the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Rutin produced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results of the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

Keywords: chemoprevention, papilloma, rutin, skin carcinogenesis

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6 Impact of Crime on Women and Their Families in Rural Areas of Haryana State in India

Authors: Rashmi Tyagi, Savita Vermani

Abstract:

Violence against women is the result of long-standing power imbalance between men and women and thus seriously compromises the well-being, productivity and contribution of one half the population. The costs incurred to the family especially children and society at large in terms of physical, psychological, social and financial losses are huge. The communities’ native to the state of Haryana in India is primarily patriarchal, burdened with age old regressive mindset under the socio-cultural and religious structures which discriminates against women. Therefore it was important to bring to light the issues affecting women in this region. Therefore this study focused on studying the consequences of crime on victim women and their families. Two hundred women were randomly selected and out of those one hundred twenty, who were affected with some kind of violence were interviewed. Data was collected and statistically analyzed for physical, psychological, inter-family and societal consequences of violence on these women. Women reported physical injuries, gynecological problems, unwanted pregnancies, frigidity, phobia and sexual dysfunction. 58.9% women felt decreased work efficiency. Psychological problems encountered were anxiety, isolation, depression, suicidal tendencies. 66.7% respondents suffered from anxiety followed by 65.0% faced depression symptoms. At family levels, 40.0% respondents felt the atmosphere was unsuitable for children while 39.2% reported lack of interaction. The societal consequences reported were breakdown of interaction with friends and family (44.2%) and resulting humiliation and demeaning remarks from others (38.3%). The impact of violence on women had an adverse effect on children. 36.7% children felt responsible for abuse and powerless to stop it, 29.2% reported living with fear. Concerted efforts are required to curb violence against women in Haryana.

Keywords: impact of violence against women on children, patriarchal society, physical psychological and societal consequences, violence against women

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5 Polymer Impregnated Sulfonated Carbon Composite as a Solid Acid Catalyst for the Dehydration of Xylose to Furfural

Authors: Praveen K. Khatri, Neha Karanwal, Savita Kaul, Suman L. Jain

Abstract:

Conversion of biomass through green chemical routes is of great industrial importance as biomass is considered to be most widely available inexpensive renewable resource that can be used as a raw material for the production of bio fuel and value-added organic products. In this regard, acid catalyzed dehydration of biomass derived pentose sugar (mainly D-xylose) to furfural is a process of tremendous research interest in current scenario due to the wider industrial applications of furfural. Furfural is an excellent organic solvent for refinement of lubricants and separation of butadiene from butene mixture in synthetic rubber fabrication. In addition it also serve as a promising solvent for many organic materials, such as resins, polymers and also used as a building block for synthesis of various valuable chemicals such as furfuryl alcohol, furan, pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and THF. Here in a sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite solid acid catalyst (P-C-SO3H) was prepared by the pyrolysis of a polymer matrix impregnated with glucose followed by its sulfonation and used for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. The developed catalyst exhibited excellent activity and provided almost quantitative conversion of xylose with the selective synthesis of furfural. The higher catalytic activity of P-C-SO3H may be due to the more even distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated from incomplete carbonization of glucose along the polymer matrix network, leading to more available sites for sulfonation which resulted in greater sulfonic acid density in P-C-SO3H as compared to sulfonated carbon catalyst (C-SO3H). In conclusion, we have demonstrated sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite (P-C-SO3H) as an efficient and selective solid acid catalyst for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered and reused for several runs without noticeable loss in its activity and selectivity.

Keywords: Solid acid , Biomass conversion, Xylose Dehydration, Heterogeneous catalyst

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4 Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Ankush M. Dewle, Suditi Bhattacharya, Prachi R. Abhang, Savita Datar, Ajay J. Jog, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Geetanjali Tomar

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cell therapy, senescence, stem cell

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3 Atherosclerosis Prevalence Within Populations of the Southeastern United States

Authors: Samuel P. Prahlow, Anthony Sciuva, Katherine Bombly, Emily Wilson, Shiv Dhiman, Savita Arya

Abstract:

A prevalence cohort study of atherosclerotic lesions within cadavers was performed to better understand and characterize the prevalence of atherosclerosis among Georgia residents within body donors in the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM) - Georgia body donor program. We procured specimens from cadavers used for medical students, physical therapy students, and biomedical science students cadaveric anatomical dissection at PCOM - South Georgia and PCOM - Georgia. Tissues were prepared using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainas histological slides by Colquitt Regional Medical Center Laboratory Services. One section from each of the following arteries was taken after cadaveric dissection at the site of most calcification palpated grossly (if present): left anterior descending coronary artery, left internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, splenic artery, and hepatic artery. All specimens were graded and categorized according to the American Heart Association’s Modified and Conventional Standards for Atherosclerotic Lesions using x4, x10, x40 microscopic magnification. Our study cohort included 22 cadavers, with 16 females and 6 males. The average age was 72.54, and the median age was 72, with a range of 52 to 90 years old. The cause of death determination listing vascular and/or cardiovascular causes was present on 6 of the 22 death certificates. 19 of 22 (86%) cadavers had at least a single artery grading > 5. Of the cadavers with at least a single artery graded at greater than 5, only 5 of 19 (26%) cadavers had a vascular or cardiovascular cause of death reported. Malignancy was listed as a cause of death on 7 (32%) death certificates. The average atherosclerosis grading of the common hepatic, splenic and left internal carotid arteries (2.15, 3.05, and 3.36 respectively) were lower than the left anterior descending artery and the abdominal aorta (5.16 and 5.86 respectively). This prevalence study characterizes atherosclerosis found in five medium and large systemic arteries within cadavers from the state of Georgia.

Keywords: pathology, atherosclerosis, histology, cardiovascular

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2 Geochemistry and Tectonic Framework of Malani Igneous Suite and Their Effect on Groundwater Quality of Tosham, India

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Savita Kumari, Naresh Kochhar

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to assess the role of mineralogy and subsurface structure on water quality of Tosham, Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), Western Rajasthan, India. MIS is the largest (55,000 km2) A-type, anorogenic and high heat producing acid magmatism in the peninsular India and owes its origin to hot spot tectonics. Apart from agricultural and industrial wastes, geogenic activities cause fluctuations in quality parameters of water resources. Twenty water samples (20) selected from Tosham and surrounding areas were analyzed for As, Pb, B, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni using Inductive coupled plasma emission and F by Ion Chromatography. The concentration of As, Pb, B, Ni and F was above the stipulated level specified by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards IS-10500, 2012). The concentration of As and Pb in surrounding areas of Tosham ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 mg/l and from 0.59 to 0.9 mg/l respectively which is higher than limits of 0.05mg/l (As) and 0.01 mg/l (Pb). Excess trace metal accumulation in water is toxic to humans and adversely affects the central nervous system, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, skin and cause mental confusion. Groundwater quality is defined by nature of rock formation, mineral water reaction, physiography, soils, environment, recharge and discharge conditions of the area. Fluoride content in groundwater is due to the solubility of fluoride-bearing minerals like fluorite, cryolite, topaz, and mica, etc. Tosham is comprised of quartz mica schist, quartzite, schorl, tuff, quartz porphyry and associated granites, thus, fluoride is leached out and dissolved in groundwater. In the study area, Ni concentration ranged from 0.07 to 0.5 mg/l (permissible limit 0.02 mg/l). The primary source of nickel in drinking water is leached out nickel from ore-bearing rocks. Higher concentration of As is found in some igneous rocks specifically containing minerals as arsenopyrite (AsFeS), realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As2S3). MIS consists of granite (hypersolvus and subsolvus), rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, andesite, pyroclasts, basalt, gabbro and dolerite which increased the trace elements concentration in groundwater. Nakora, a part of MIS rocks has high concentration of trace and rare earth elements (Ni, Rb, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd, Eu and Yb) which percolates the Ni and Pb to groundwater by weathering, contacts and joints/fractures in rocks. Additionally, geological setting of MIS also causes dissolution of trace elements in water resources beneath the surface. NE–SW tectonic lineament, radial pattern of dykes and volcanic vent at Nakora created a way for leaching of these elements to groundwater. Rain water quality might be altered by major minerals constituents of host Tosham rocks during its percolation through the rock fracture, joints before becoming the integral part of groundwater aquifer. The weathering process like hydration, hydrolysis and solution might be the cause of change in water chemistry of particular area. These studies suggest that geological relation of soil-water horizon with MIS rocks via mineralogical variations, structures and tectonic setting affects the water quality of the studied area.

Keywords: geochemistry, groundwater, malani igneous suite, tosham

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1 Thai Cane Farmers' Responses to Sugar Policy Reforms: An Intentions Survey

Authors: Savita Tangwongkit, Chittur S Srinivasan, Philip J. Jones

Abstract:

Thailand has become the world’s fourth largest sugarcane producer and second largest sugar exporter. While there have been a number of drivers of this growth, the primary driver has been wide-ranging government support measures. Recently, the Thai government has emphasized the need for policy reform as part of a broader industry restructuring to bring the sector up-to-date with the current and future developments in the international sugar market. Because of the sectors historical dependence on government support, any such reform is likely to have a very significant impact on the fortunes of Thai cane farmers. This study explores the impact of three policy scenarios, representing a spectrum of policy approaches, on Thai cane producers. These reform scenarios were designed in consultation with policy makers and academics working in the cane sector. Scenario 1 captures the current ‘government proposal’ for policy reform. This scenario removes certain domestic production subsidies but seeks to maintain as much support as is permissible under current WTO rules. The second scenario, ‘protectionism’, maintains the current internal market producer supports, but otherwise complies with international (WTO) commitments. Third, the ‘libertarian scenario’ removes all production support and market interventions, trade and domestic consumption distortions. Most important driver of producer behaviour in all of the scenarios is the producer price of cane. Cane price is obviously highest under the protectionism scenario, followed by government proposal and libertarian scenarios, respectively. Likely producer responses to these three policy scenarios was determined by means of a large-scale survey of cane farmers. The sample was stratified by size group and quotas filled by size group and region. One scenario was presented to each of three sub-samples, consisting of approx.150 farmers. Total sample size was 462 farms. Data was collected by face-to-face interview between June and August 2019. There was a marked difference in farmer response to the three scenarios. Farmers in the ‘Protectionism’ scenario, which maintains the highest cane price and those who farm larger cane areas are more likely to continue cane farming. The libertarian scenario is likely to result in the greatest losses in terms of cane production volume broadly double that of the ‘protectionism’ scenario, primarily due to farmers quitting cane production altogether. Over half of loss cane production volume comes from medium-size farm, i.e. the largest and smallest producers are the most resilient. This result is likely due to the fact that the medium size group are large enough to require hired labour but lack the economies of scale of the largest farms. Over all size groups the farms most heavily specialized in cane production, i.e. those devoting 26-50% of arable land to cane, are also the most vulnerable, with 70% of all farmers quitting cane production coming from this group. This investigation suggests that cane price is the most significant determinant of farmer behaviour. Also, that where scenarios drive significantly lower cane price, policy makers should target support towards mid-sized producers, with policies that encourage efficiency gains and diversification into alternative agricultural crops.

Keywords: farmer intentions, farm survey, policy reform, Thai cane production

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