Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3121

Search results for: shunt active filters

3121 Using Power Flow Analysis for Understanding UPQC’s Behaviors

Authors: O. Abdelkhalek, A. Naimi, M. Rami, M. N. Tandjaoui, A. Kechich


This paper deals with the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) during several cases. The UPQC is a combination of shunt and series active power filter (APF). It is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage sags and swells problems on distribution network. This analysis can provide the helpful information to well understanding the interaction between the series filter, the shunt filter, the DC bus link and electrical network. The mathematical analysis is based on active and reactive power flow through the shunt and series active power filter. Wherein series APF can absorb or deliver the active power to mitigate a swell or sage voltage where in the both cases it absorbs a small reactive power quantity whereas the shunt active power absorbs or releases the active power for stabilizing the storage capacitor’s voltage as well as the power factor correction. The voltage sag and voltage swell are usually interpreted through the DC bus voltage curves. These two phenomena are introduced in this paper with a new interpretation based on the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the UPQC. For simplifying this study, a linear load is supposed in this digital simulation. The simulation results are carried out to confirm the analysis done.

Keywords: UPQC, Power flow analysis, shunt filter, series filter.

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
3120 Power Quality Improvement Using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for Five-Level Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Yousfi Abdelkader, Chaker Abdelkader, Bot Youcef


This article proposes a five-level shunt active power filter for power quality improvement using a interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2 FLC). The reference compensating current is extracted using the P-Q theory. The majority of works previously reported are based on two-level inverters with a conventional Proportional integral (PI) controller, which requires rigorous mathematical modeling of the system. In this paper, a IT2 FLC controlled five-level active power filter is proposed to overcome the problem associated with PI controller. The IT2 FLC algorithm is applied for controlling the DC-side capacitor voltage as well as the harmonic currents of the five-level active power filter. The active power filter with a IT2 FLC is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment. The simulated response shows that the proposed shunt active power filter controller has produced a sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic distortion and in phase with the source voltage.

Keywords: power quality, shunt active power filter, interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FL), multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3119 Harmonic Assessment and Mitigation in Medical Diagonesis Equipment

Authors: S. S. Adamu, H. S. Muhammad, D. S. Shuaibu


Poor power quality in electrical power systems can lead to medical equipment at healthcare centres to malfunction and present wrong medical diagnosis. Equipment such as X-rays, computerized axial tomography, etc. can pollute the system due to their high level of harmonics production, which may cause a number of undesirable effects like heating, equipment damages and electromagnetic interferences. The conventional approach of mitigation uses passive inductor/capacitor (LC) filters, which has some drawbacks such as, large sizes, resonance problems and fixed compensation behaviours. The current trends of solutions generally employ active power filters using suitable control algorithms. This work focuses on assessing the level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on medical facilities and various ways of mitigation, using radiology unit of an existing hospital as a case study. The measurement of the harmonics is conducted with a power quality analyzer at the point of common coupling (PCC). The levels of measured THD are found to be higher than the IEEE 519-1992 standard limits. The system is then modelled as a harmonic current source using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To mitigate the unwanted harmonic currents a shunt active filter is developed using synchronous detection algorithm to extract the fundamental component of the source currents. Fuzzy logic controller is then developed to control the filter. The THD without the active power filter are validated using the measured values. The THD with the developed filter show that the harmonics are now within the recommended limits.

Keywords: power quality, total harmonics distortion, shunt active filters, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3118 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti


In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3117 Renewable Energy Interfaced Shunt Active Filter Using a Virtual Flux Direct Power Control

Authors: M. R. Bengourina, M. Rahli, L. Hassaine, S. Saadi


In this study, we present a control method entitled virtual flux direct power control of a grid connected photovoltaic system associated with an active power filter. The virtual flux direct control of power (VF-DPC) is employed for the calculation of reference current generation. In this technique, the switches states of inverter are selected from a table of switching based on the immediate errors between the active and reactive powers and their reference values. The objectives of this paper are the reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of source current, compensating reactive power and injecting the maximum active power available from the PV array into the load and/or grid. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, VF-DPC, photovoltaic, MPPT

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
3116 Self-Tuning-Filter and Fuzzy Logic Control for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Kaddari Faiza, Mazari Benyounes, Mihoub Youcef, Safa Ahmed


Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for reactive power and harmonic compensation caused by the proliferation of power electronics devices used for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The aim of this study is to enhance the power quality by improving the performances of shunt active power filter in harmonic mitigation to obtain sinusoidal source currents with very weak ripples. A power circuit configuration and control scheme for shunt active power filter are described with an improved method for harmonics compensation using self-tuning-filter for harmonics identification and fuzzy logic control to generate reference current. Simulation results (using MATLAB/SIMULINK) illustrates the compensation characteristics of the proposed control strategy. Analysis of these results proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method to improve the power quality and also show the performances of fuzzy logic control which provides flexibility, high precision and fast response. The total harmonic distortion (THD %) for the simulations found to be within the recommended imposed IEEE 519-1992 harmonic standard.

Keywords: Active Powers Filter (APF), Self-Tuning-Filter (STF), fuzzy logic control, hysteresis-band control

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
3115 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri


This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
3114 Optimal Injected Current Control for Shunt Active Power Filter Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Brahim Berbaoui


In this paper, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) based method is proposed for the implantation of optimal harmonic power flow in power systems. In this algorithm approach, proportional integral controller for reference compensating currents of active power filter is performed in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD). The simulation results show that the new control method using PSO approach is not only easy to be implanted, but also very effective in reducing the unwanted harmonics and compensating reactive power. The studies carried out have been accomplished using the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, current control, proportional integral controller, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
3113 FLC with 3DSVM for 4LEG 4WIRE Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Abdelhalim Kessal, Ali Chebabhi


In this paper, a controller based on fuzzy logic control (FLC) associated to Three Dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3DSVM) is applied for shunt active filter in αβo axes domain. The main goals are to improve power quality under disturbed loads, minimize source currents harmonics and reduce neutral current magnitude in the four-wire structure. FLC is used to obtain the reference current and control the DC-bus voltage at the inverter output. The switching signals of the four-leg inverter are generating through a Three Dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3DSVM). Selected simulation results have been shown to validate the proposed system.

Keywords: flc, 3dsvm, sapf, harmonic, inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3112 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura


This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
3111 DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller

Authors: Abderrahmane El Kachani, El Mahjoub Chakir, Anass Ait Laachir, Abdelhamid Niaaniaa, Jamal Zerouaoui, Tarik Jarou


This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.

Keywords: wind power, doubly fed induction generator, shunt active power filter, double nonlinear predictive controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3110 Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network

Authors: A. Morsli, A. Tlemçani, N. Ould Cherchali, M. S. Boucherit


This article presents two methods for the compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both methods are applied to an Active Power Filter shunt (APFs) based on a three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better than P-Q.

Keywords: fuzzy logic controller, P-Q method, pulse width modulation (PWM), shunt active power filter (sAPF), total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
3109 Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir, Bouzaouit Azzeddine, Gahgah Mounir


The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.

Keywords: Actif power filter, MPPT, pertub&observe algorithm, PV array, PWM-control

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
3108 Artificial Neural Networks Face to Sudden Load Change for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Dehini Rachid, Ferdi Brahim


The shunt active power filter (SAPF) is not destined only to improve the power factor, but also to compensate the unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads. This paper presents a SAPF with identification and control method based on artificial neural network (ANN). To identify harmonics, many techniques are used, among them the conventional p-q theory and the relatively recent one the artificial neural network method. It is difficult to get satisfied identification and control characteristics by using a normal (ANN) due to the nonlinearity of the system (SAPF + fast nonlinear load variations). This work is an attempt to undertake a systematic study of the problem to equip the (SAPF) with the harmonics identification and DC link voltage control method based on (ANN). The latter has been applied to the (SAPF) with fast nonlinear load variations. The results of computer simulations and experiments are given, which can confirm the feasibility of the proposed active power filter.

Keywords: artificial neural networks (ANN), p-q theory, harmonics, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
3107 Performance Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter for Various Reference Current Generation Techniques

Authors: Vishal V. Choudhari, Gaurao A. Dongre, S. P. Diwan


A number of reference current generation have been developed for analysis of shunt active power filter to mitigate the load compensation. Depending upon the type of load the technique has to be chosen. In this paper, six reference current generation techniques viz. instantaneous reactive power theory(IRP), Synchronous reference frame theory(SRF), Perfect harmonic cancellation(PHC), Unity power factor method(UPF), Self-tuning filter method(STF), Predictive filtering method(PFM) are compared for different operating conditions. The harmonics are introduced because of non-linear loads in the system. These harmonics are eliminated using above techniques. The results and performance of system simulated on MATLAB/Simulink platform. The system is experimentally implemented using DS1104 card of dSPACE system.

Keywords: SAPF, power quality, THD, IRP, SRF, dSPACE module DS1104

Procedia PDF Downloads 506
3106 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3105 Active Power Filters and their Smart Grid Integration - Applications for Smart Cities

Authors: Pedro Esteban


Most installations nowadays are exposed to many power quality problems, and they also face numerous challenges to comply with grid code and energy efficiency requirements. The reason behind this is that they are not designed to support nonlinear, non-balanced, and variable loads and generators that make up a large percentage of modern electric power systems. These problems and challenges become especially critical when designing green buildings and smart cities. These problems and challenges are caused by equipment that can be typically found in these installations like variable speed drives (VSD), transformers, lighting, battery chargers, double-conversion UPS (uninterruptible power supply) systems, highly dynamic loads, single-phase loads, fossil fuel generators and renewable generation sources, to name a few. Moreover, events like capacitor switching (from existing capacitor banks or passive harmonic filters), auto-reclose operations of transmission and distribution lines, or the starting of large motors also contribute to these problems and challenges. Active power filters (APF) are one of the fastest-growing power electronics technologies for solving power quality problems and meeting grid code and energy efficiency requirements for a wide range of segments and applications. They are a high performance, flexible, compact, modular, and cost-effective type of power electronics solutions that provide an instantaneous and effective response in low or high voltage electric power systems. They enable longer equipment lifetime, higher process reliability, improved power system capacity and stability, and reduced energy losses, complying with most demanding power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid codes. There can be found several types of active power filters, including active harmonic filters (AHF), static var generators (SVG), active load balancers (ALB), hybrid var compensators (HVC), and low harmonic drives (LHD) nowadays. All these devices can be used in applications in Smart Cities bringing several technical and economic benefits.

Keywords: power quality improvement, energy efficiency, grid code compliance, green buildings, smart cities

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3104 Unified Power Quality Conditioner Presentation and Dimensioning

Authors: Abderrahmane Kechich, Othmane Abdelkhalek


Static converters behave as nonlinear loads that inject harmonic currents into the grid and increase the consumption of the inactive power. On the other hand, the increased use of sensitive equipment requires the application of sinusoidal voltages. As a result, the electrical power quality control has become a major concern in the field of power electronics. In this context, the active power conditioner (UPQC) was developed. It combines both serial and parallel structures; the series filter can protect sensitive loads and compensate for voltage disturbances such as voltage harmonics, voltage dips or flicker when the shunt filter compensates for current disturbances such as current harmonics, reactive currents and imbalance. This double feature is that it is one of the most appropriate devices. Calculating parameters is an important step and in the same time it’s not easy for that reason several researchers based on trial and error method for calculating parameters but this method is not easy for beginners researchers especially what about the controller’s parameters, for that reason this paper gives a mathematical way to calculate of almost all of UPQC parameters away from trial and error method. This paper gives also a new approach for calculating of PI regulators parameters for purpose to have a stable UPQC able to compensate for disturbances acting on the waveform of line voltage and load current in order to improve the electrical power quality.

Keywords: UPQC, Shunt active filer, series active filer, PI controller, PWM control, dual-loop control

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
3103 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao


This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: pulse-shaping filters, FIR filters, jittering, QAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3102 Shunt Placement in Treatment of Hydrocephalus in Patients with Myelomeningocele

Authors: M. M. Akhmediev, J. R. Ashrapov, T. M. Akhmediev


Hydrocephalus frequently occurs with spina bifida, and up to 80% of such patients need to be shunted. Objective: It’s sought to improve the results of the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus in children with spina bifida. Methods: We have analyzed the results of the surgical treatment of 80 patients aged between 1 month and 1,5-year-old with hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele. All patients underwent surgery in the period of 2013-2018. Results: In all patients, spina bifida was associated with hydrocephalus with a predominant extension of the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles in the form of colpocephaly, Chiari malformation type 2. Based on the method “Choose right shunt” the determination of the point of critical deformation of the ventricular system was established, 47 (58.8%) patients for the 1st stage underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery with a low-pressure valve, 28 (35.0%) patients with medium pressure and 5 (6.2%) with high-pressure valve. Under or over drainage complications were not observed in the postoperative period. The 2nd stage of surgery for myelomeningocele repair was planned in 1-2 months with the follow-up head ultrasonography and electromyography study. Conclusion: The implantable shunt systems parameters chosen before surgery in the surgical management of hydrocephalus in children with myelomeningocele are important in the causes of under or over drainage states, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the myelomeningocele sac. Management of hydrocephalus should be performed by considering myelomeningocele affecting craniospinal compliance.

Keywords: hydrocephalus, spina bifida, myelomeningocele, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3101 Nonlinear Passive Shunt for Electroacoustic Absorbers Using Nonlinear Energy Sink

Authors: Diala Bitar, Emmanuel Gourdon, Claude H. Lamarque, Manuel Collet


Acoustic absorber devices play an important role reducing the noise at the propagation and reception paths. An electroacoustic absorber consists of a loudspeaker coupled to an electric shunt circuit, where the membrane is playing the role of an absorber/reflector of sound. Although the use of linear shunt resistors at the transducer terminals, has shown to improve the performances of the dynamical absorbers, it is nearly efficient in a narrow frequency band. Therefore, and since nonlinear phenomena are promising for their ability to absorb the vibrations and sound on a larger frequency range, we propose to couple a nonlinear electric shunt circuit at the loudspeaker terminals. Then, the equivalent model can be described by a 2 degrees of freedom system, consisting of a primary linear oscillator describing the dynamics of the loudspeaker membrane, linearly coupled to a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES). The system is analytically treated for the case of 1:1 resonance, using an invariant manifold approach at different time scales. The proposed methodology enables us to detect the equilibrium points and fold singularities at the first slow time scales, providing a predictive tool to design the nonlinear circuit shunt during the energy exchange process. The preliminary results are promising; a significant improvement of acoustic absorption performances are obtained.

Keywords: electroacoustic absorber, multiple-time-scale with small finite parameter, nonlinear energy sink, nonlinear passive shunt

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3100 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ali Ravangard, S. Mohammadi


Shunt Capacitors have several uses in the electric power systems. They are utilized as sources of reactive power by connecting them in line-to-neutral. Electric utilities have also connected capacitors in series with long lines in order to reduce its impedance. This is particularly common in the transmission level, where the lines have length in several hundreds of kilometers. However, this post will generally discuss shunt capacitors. In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. For solving the problem, a new enhanced cuckoo optimization algorithm is presented.The proposed method is tested on distribution test system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: capacitor placement, power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
3099 Integration of UPQC Based on Fuzzy Controller for Power Quality Enhancement in Distributed Network

Authors: M. Habab, C. Benachaiba, B. Mazari, H. Madi, C. Benoudjafer


The use of Distributed Generation (DG) has been increasing in recent years to fill the gap between energy supply and demand. This paper presents the grid connected wind energy system with UPQC based on fuzzy controller to compensate for voltage and current disturbances. The proposed system can improve power quality at the point of installation on power distribution systems. Simulation results show the capability of the DG-UPQC intelligent system to compensate sags voltage and current harmonics at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC).

Keywords: shunt active filter, series active filter, UPQC, power quality, sags voltage, distributed generation, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
3098 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou


This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, lattice structure, quincunx QMF bank, symmetric half-plane digital filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3097 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim


Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
3096 Artificial Neural Networks Controller for Active Power Filter Connected to a Photovoltaic Array

Authors: Rachid Dehini, Brahim Berbaoui


The main objectives of shunt active power filter (SAPF) is to preserve the power system from unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads, as well as to compensate the reactive power. The aim of this paper is to present a (PAPF) supplied by the Photovoltaic cells ,in such a way that the (PAPF) feeds the linear and nonlinear loads by harmonics currents and the excess of the energy is injected into the power system. In order to improve the performances of conventional (PAPF) This paper also proposes artificial neural networks (ANN) for harmonics identification and DC link voltage control. The simulation study results of the new (SAPF) identification technique are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability.

Keywords: SAPF, harmonics current, photovoltaic cells, MPPT, artificial neural networks (ANN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3095 Experimental Investigation of Powder Holding Capacities of H13 and H14 Class Activated Carbon Filters Based on En 779 Standard

Authors: Abdullah Işıktaş, Kevser Dincer


The use of HEPA filters for air conditioning systems in clean rooms tends to increase progressively in pharmaceutical, food stuff industries and in hospitals. There are two standards widely used for HEPA filters; the EN 1822 standards published by the European Union, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and the US based IEST standard (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. Both standards exhibit some differences in the definitions of efficiency and its measurement methods. While IEST standard defines efficiency at the grit diameter of 0.3 µm, the EN 1822 standard takes MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) as the basis of its definition. That is, the most difficult grit size to catch up. On the other hand, while IEST suggests that photometer and grit counters be used for filter testing, in EN 1822 standard, only the grit (grain) counters are recommended for that purpose. In this study, powder holding capacities of H13 and H14 grade materials under the EN 779 standard are investigated experimentally by using activated carbon. Measurements were taken on an experimental set up based on the TS 932 standard. Filter efficiency was measured by injecting test powder at amounts predetermined in the standards into the filters at certain intervals. The data obtained showed that the powder holding capacities of the activated carbon filter are high enough to yield efficiency of around 90% and that the H13 and H14 filters exhibit high efficiency suitable for the standard used.

Keywords: activated carbon filters, HEPA filters, powder holding capacities, air conditioning systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
3094 Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement

Authors: Jihan Albayati, Kim Abdullah


This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.

Keywords: active learning, learner engagement, student-centered, teaching strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
3093 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder


The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3092 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran


This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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