Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 842

Search results for: passive filters

842 Application of Single Tuned Passive Filters in Distribution Networks at the Point of Common Coupling

Authors: M. Almutairi, S. Hadjiloucas

Abstract:

The harmonic distortion of voltage is important in relation to power quality due to the interaction between the large diffusion of non-linear and time-varying single-phase and three-phase loads with power supply systems. However, harmonic distortion levels can be reduced by improving the design of polluting loads or by applying arrangements and adding filters. The application of passive filters is an effective solution that can be used to achieve harmonic mitigation mainly because filters offer high efficiency, simplicity, and are economical. Additionally, possible different frequency response characteristics can work to achieve certain required harmonic filtering targets. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is to determine what size single tuned passive filters work in distribution networks best, in order to economically limit violations caused at a given point of common coupling (PCC). This article suggests that a single tuned passive filter could be employed in typical industrial power systems. Furthermore, constrained optimization can be used to find the optimal sizing of the passive filter in order to reduce both harmonic voltage and harmonic currents in the power system to an acceptable level, and, thus, improve the load power factor. The optimization technique works to minimize voltage total harmonic distortions (VTHD) and current total harmonic distortions (ITHD), where maintaining a given power factor at a specified range is desired. According to the IEEE Standard 519, both indices are viewed as constraints for the optimal passive filter design problem. The performance of this technique will be discussed using numerical examples taken from previous publications.

Keywords: harmonics, passive filter, power factor, power quality

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841 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: pulse-shaping filters, FIR filters, jittering, QAM

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840 Optimal Harmonic Filters Design of Taiwan High Speed Rail Traction System

Authors: Ying-Pin Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for combining a particle swarm optimization with nonlinear time-varying evolution and orthogonal arrays (PSO-NTVEOA) in the planning of harmonic filters for the high speed railway traction system with specially connected transformers in unbalanced three-phase power systems. The objective is to minimize the cost of the filter, the filters loss, the total harmonic distortion of currents and voltages at each bus simultaneously. An orthogonal array is first conducted to obtain the initial solution set. The set is then treated as the initial training sample. Next, the PSO-NTVEOA method parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments would have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. This PSO-NTVEOA method is then applied to design optimal harmonic filters in Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR) traction system, where both rectifiers and inverters with IGBT are used. From the results of the illustrative examples, the feasibility of the PSO-NTVEOA to design an optimal passive harmonic filter of THSR system is verified and the design approach can greatly reduce the harmonic distortion. Three design schemes are compared that V-V connection suppressing the 3rd order harmonic, and Scott and Le Blanc connection for the harmonic improvement is better than the V-V connection.

Keywords: harmonic filters, particle swarm optimization, nonlinear time-varying evolution, orthogonal arrays, specially connected transformers

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839 The Prospective Assessment of Zero-Energy Dwellings

Authors: Jovana Dj. Jovanovic, Svetlana M. Stevovic

Abstract:

The highest priority of so called, projected passive houses is to meet the appropriate energy demand. Every single material and layer which is injected into a dwelling has a certain energy quantity stored. The passive houses include optimized insulation levels with minimal thermal bridges, minimum of air leakage through the building, utilization of passive solar and internal gains, and good circulation of air which leans on mechanical ventilation system. The focus of this paper is on passive house features, benefits and targets, their feasibility and energy demands which are set up during each project. Numerous passive house-standards outline the very significant role of zero-energy dwellings towards the modern label of sustainable development. It is clear that the performance of both built and existing housing stock must be addressed if the population across the world sets out the energy objectives. This scientific article examines passive house features since the many passive house cases are launched.

Keywords: benefits, energy demands, passive houses, sustainable development

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838 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn

Abstract:

Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

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837 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok

Abstract:

The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
836 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
835 Insight on Passive Design for Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building for Hot and Humid Climate

Authors: Aravind J.

Abstract:

Passive design can be referred to a way of designing buildings that takes advantage of the prevailing climate and natural energy resources. Which will be a key to reduce the increasing energy usage in commercial buildings. Most of the small scale commercial buildings made are merely a thermal mass inbuilt with active systems to bring lively conditions. By bringing the passive design strategies for energy efficiency in commercial buildings will reduce the usage of active systems. Thus the energy usage can be controlled through analysis of daylighting and improved living conditions in the indoor spaces by using passive techniques. And comparative study on different passive design systems and conventional methods will be approached for commercial buildings in hot and humid region. Possible effects of existing risks implied with solution for those problems is also a part of the paper. The result will be carried on with the design programme to prove the workability of the strategies.

Keywords: passive design, energy efficiency, commercial buildings, hot and humid climate

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834 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, lattice structure, quincunx QMF bank, symmetric half-plane digital filter

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833 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

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832 Experimental Investigation of Powder Holding Capacities of H13 and H14 Class Activated Carbon Filters Based on En 779 Standard

Authors: Abdullah Işıktaş, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

The use of HEPA filters for air conditioning systems in clean rooms tends to increase progressively in pharmaceutical, food stuff industries and in hospitals. There are two standards widely used for HEPA filters; the EN 1822 standards published by the European Union, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and the US based IEST standard (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. Both standards exhibit some differences in the definitions of efficiency and its measurement methods. While IEST standard defines efficiency at the grit diameter of 0.3 µm, the EN 1822 standard takes MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) as the basis of its definition. That is, the most difficult grit size to catch up. On the other hand, while IEST suggests that photometer and grit counters be used for filter testing, in EN 1822 standard, only the grit (grain) counters are recommended for that purpose. In this study, powder holding capacities of H13 and H14 grade materials under the EN 779 standard are investigated experimentally by using activated carbon. Measurements were taken on an experimental set up based on the TS 932 standard. Filter efficiency was measured by injecting test powder at amounts predetermined in the standards into the filters at certain intervals. The data obtained showed that the powder holding capacities of the activated carbon filter are high enough to yield efficiency of around 90% and that the H13 and H14 filters exhibit high efficiency suitable for the standard used.

Keywords: activated carbon filters, HEPA filters, powder holding capacities, air conditioning systems

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831 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan

Abstract:

In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

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830 Seismic Response Control of 20-Storey Benchmark Building Using True Negative Stiffness Device

Authors: Asim Qureshi, R. S. Jangid

Abstract:

Seismic response control of structures is generally achieved by using control devices which either dissipate the input energy or modify the dynamic properties of structure.In this paper, the response of a 20-storey benchmark building supplemented by viscous dampers and Negative Stiffness Device (NSD) is assessed by numerical simulations using the Newmark-beta method. True negative stiffness is an adaptive passive device which assists the motion unlike positive stiffness. The structure used in this study is subjected to four standard ground motions varying from moderate to severe, near fault to far-field earthquakes. The objective of the present study is to show the effectiveness of the adaptive negative stiffness device (NSD and passive dampers together) relative to passive dampers alone. This is done by comparing the responses of the above uncontrolled structure (i.e., without any device) with the structure having passive dampers only and also with the structure supplemented with adaptive negative stiffness device. Various performance indices, top floor displacement, top floor acceleration and inter-storey drifts are used as comparison parameters. It is found that NSD together with passive dampers is quite effective in reducing the response of aforementioned structure relative to structure without any device or passive dampers only. Base shear and acceleration is reduced significantly by incorporating NSD at the cost of increased inter-storey drifts which can be compensated using the passive dampers.

Keywords: adaptive negative stiffness device, apparent yielding, NSD, passive dampers

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829 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

Abstract:

Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption

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828 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: passive solar systems, heating, cooling, thermal comfort, ventilation systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
827 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder

Abstract:

The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
826 Active Power Filters and their Smart Grid Integration - Applications for Smart Cities

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Most installations nowadays are exposed to many power quality problems, and they also face numerous challenges to comply with grid code and energy efficiency requirements. The reason behind this is that they are not designed to support nonlinear, non-balanced, and variable loads and generators that make up a large percentage of modern electric power systems. These problems and challenges become especially critical when designing green buildings and smart cities. These problems and challenges are caused by equipment that can be typically found in these installations like variable speed drives (VSD), transformers, lighting, battery chargers, double-conversion UPS (uninterruptible power supply) systems, highly dynamic loads, single-phase loads, fossil fuel generators and renewable generation sources, to name a few. Moreover, events like capacitor switching (from existing capacitor banks or passive harmonic filters), auto-reclose operations of transmission and distribution lines, or the starting of large motors also contribute to these problems and challenges. Active power filters (APF) are one of the fastest-growing power electronics technologies for solving power quality problems and meeting grid code and energy efficiency requirements for a wide range of segments and applications. They are a high performance, flexible, compact, modular, and cost-effective type of power electronics solutions that provide an instantaneous and effective response in low or high voltage electric power systems. They enable longer equipment lifetime, higher process reliability, improved power system capacity and stability, and reduced energy losses, complying with most demanding power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid codes. There can be found several types of active power filters, including active harmonic filters (AHF), static var generators (SVG), active load balancers (ALB), hybrid var compensators (HVC), and low harmonic drives (LHD) nowadays. All these devices can be used in applications in Smart Cities bringing several technical and economic benefits.

Keywords: power quality improvement, energy efficiency, grid code compliance, green buildings, smart cities

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825 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee

Abstract:

Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

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824 Harmonic Assessment and Mitigation in Medical Diagonesis Equipment

Authors: S. S. Adamu, H. S. Muhammad, D. S. Shuaibu

Abstract:

Poor power quality in electrical power systems can lead to medical equipment at healthcare centres to malfunction and present wrong medical diagnosis. Equipment such as X-rays, computerized axial tomography, etc. can pollute the system due to their high level of harmonics production, which may cause a number of undesirable effects like heating, equipment damages and electromagnetic interferences. The conventional approach of mitigation uses passive inductor/capacitor (LC) filters, which has some drawbacks such as, large sizes, resonance problems and fixed compensation behaviours. The current trends of solutions generally employ active power filters using suitable control algorithms. This work focuses on assessing the level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on medical facilities and various ways of mitigation, using radiology unit of an existing hospital as a case study. The measurement of the harmonics is conducted with a power quality analyzer at the point of common coupling (PCC). The levels of measured THD are found to be higher than the IEEE 519-1992 standard limits. The system is then modelled as a harmonic current source using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To mitigate the unwanted harmonic currents a shunt active filter is developed using synchronous detection algorithm to extract the fundamental component of the source currents. Fuzzy logic controller is then developed to control the filter. The THD without the active power filter are validated using the measured values. The THD with the developed filter show that the harmonics are now within the recommended limits.

Keywords: power quality, total harmonics distortion, shunt active filters, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
823 Evaluation of Heating/Cooling Potential of a Passive Building

Authors: M. Jamil Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, the heating/cooling potential of a passive building (mosque) of Prof. K. A. Nizami center for Quranic studies at AMU Aligarh, has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation. The study has been carried out for composite climate of Aligarh. The performance of the above mentioned building has been presented in this study. It is observed that the premises of the mosque are cooler than the outside ambient temperature by an average of 2°C and 4°C during the month of March and April respectively. Provision of excellent ventilation, high amount of thermal mass, high ceilings and circulation of cool natural air helps in maintaining an optimal thermal comfort temperature in the passive building.

Keywords: heating/cooling potential, passive building, ambient temperatures

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822 On Voice in English: An Awareness Raising Attempt on Passive Voice

Authors: Meral Melek Unver

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore ways to help English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners notice and revise voice in English and raise their awareness of when and how to use active and passive voice to convey meaning in their written and spoken work. Because passive voice is commonly preferred in certain genres such as academic essays and news reports, despite the current trends promoting active voice, it is essential for learners to be fully aware of the meaning, use and form of passive voice to better communicate. The participants in the study are 22 EFL learners taking a one-year intensive English course at a university, who will receive English medium education (EMI) in their departmental studies in the following academic year. Data from students’ written and oral work was collected over a four-week period and the misuse or inaccurate use of passive voice was identified. The analysis of the data proved that they failed to make sensible decisions about when and how to use passive voice partly because the differences between their mother tongue and English and because they were not aware of the fact that active and passive voice would not alternate all the time. To overcome this, a Test-Teach-Test shape lesson, as opposed to a Present-Practice-Produce shape lesson, was designed and implemented to raise their awareness of the decisions they needed to make in choosing the voice and help them notice the meaning and use of passive voice through concept checking questions. The results first suggested that awareness raising activities on the meaning and use of voice in English would be beneficial in having accurate and meaningful outcomes from students. Also, helping students notice and renotice passive voice through carefully designed activities would help them internalize the use and form of it. As a result of the study, a number of activities are suggested to revise and notice passive voice as well as a short questionnaire to help EFL teachers to self-reflect on their teaching.

Keywords: voice in English, test-teach-test, passive voice, English language teaching

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821 Automation of Process Waste-Free Air Filtration in Production of Concrete, Reinforced with Basalt Fiber

Authors: Stanislav Perepechko

Abstract:

Industrial companies - one of the major sources of harmful substances to the atmosphere. The main cause of pollution on the concrete plants are cement dust emissions. All the cement silos, pneumatic transport, and ventilation systems equipped with filters, to avoid this. Today, many Russian companies have to decide on replacement morally and physically outdated filters and guided back to the electrostatic filters as usual equipment. The offered way of a cleaning of waste-free filtering of air differs in the fact that a filtering medium of the filter is used in concrete manufacture. Basalt is widespread and pollution-free material. In the course of cleaning, one part of basalt fiber and cement immediately goes to the mixer through flow-control units of initial basalt fiber and cement. Another part of basalt fiber goes to filters for purification of the air used in systems of an air lift, and ventilating emissions passes through them, and with trapped particles also goes to the mixer through flow-control units of the basalt fiber fulfilled in filters. At the same time, regulators are adjusted in such a way that total supply of basalt fiber and cement into the mixer remains invariable and corresponds to a given technological mode.

Keywords: waste-free air filtration, concrete, basalt fiber, building automation

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820 Passive Non-Prehensile Manipulation on Helix Path Based on Mechanical Intelligence

Authors: Abdullah Bajelan, Adel Akbarimajd

Abstract:

Object manipulation techniques in robotics can be categorized in two major groups including manipulation with grasp and manipulation without grasp. The original aim of this paper is to develop an object manipulation method where in addition to being grasp-less, the manipulation task is done in a passive approach. In this method, linear and angular positions of the object are changed and its manipulation path is controlled. The manipulation path is a helix track with constant radius and incline. The method presented in this paper proposes a system which has not the actuator and the active controller. So this system requires a passive mechanical intelligence to convey the object from the status of the source along the specified path to the goal state. This intelligent is created based on utilizing the geometry of the system components. A general set up for the components of the system is considered to satisfy the required conditions. Then after kinematical analysis, detailed dimensions and geometry of the mechanism is obtained. The kinematical results are verified by simulation in ADAMS.

Keywords: mechanical intelligence, object manipulation, passive mechanism, passive non-prehensile manipulation

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819 Integrated Passive Cooling Systems for Tropical Residential Buildings: A Review through the Lens of Latent Heat Assessment

Authors: O. Eso, M. Mohammadi, J. Darkwa, J. Calautit

Abstract:

Residential buildings are responsible for 22% of the global end-use energy demand and 17% of global CO₂ emissions. Tropical climates particularly present higher latent heat gains, leading to more cooling loads. However, the cooling processes are all based on conventional mechanical air conditioning systems which are energy and carbon intensive technologies. Passive cooling systems have in the past been considered as alternative technologies for minimizing energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, replacing mechanical cooling systems with passive ones will require a careful assessment of the passive cooling system heat transfer to determine if suitable to outperform their conventional counterparts. This is because internal heat gains, indoor-outdoor heat transfer, and heat transfer through envelope affects the performance of passive cooling systems. While many studies have investigated sensible heat transfer in passive cooling systems, not many studies have focused on their latent heat transfer capabilities. Furthermore, combining heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation to passively cool indoor spaces in the tropical climates is critical to achieve thermal comfort. Since passive cooling systems use only one of these three approaches at a time, integrating more than one passive cooling system for effective indoor latent heat removal while still saving energy is studied. This study is a systematic review of recently published peer review journals on integrated passive cooling systems for tropical residential buildings. The missing links in the experimental and numerical studies with regards to latent heat reduction interventions are presented. Energy simulation studies of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings are also discussed. The review has shown that comfortable indoor environment is attainable when two or more passive cooling systems are integrated in tropical residential buildings. Improvement occurs in the heat transfer rate and cooling performance of the passive cooling systems when thermal energy storage systems like phase change materials are included. Integrating passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings can reduce energy consumption by 6-87% while achieving up to 17.55% reduction in indoor heat flux. The review has highlighted a lack of numerical studies regarding passive cooling system performance in tropical savannah climates. In addition, detailed studies are required to establish suitable latent heat transfer rate in passive cooling ventilation devices under this climate category. This should be considered in subsequent studies. The conclusions and outcomes of this study will help researchers understand the overall energy performance of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical climates and help them identify and design suitable climate specific options for residential buildings.

Keywords: energy savings, latent heat, passive cooling systems, residential buildings, tropical residential buildings

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818 Design of Bidirectional Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network in Optisystem Environment

Authors: Ashiq Hussain, Mahwash Hussain, Zeenat Parveen

Abstract:

Now a days the demand for broadband service has increased. Due to which the researchers are trying to find a solution to provide a large amount of service. There is a shortage of bandwidth because of the use of downloading video, voice and data. One of the solutions to overcome this shortage of bandwidth is to provide the communication system with passive optical components. We have increased the data rate in this system. From experimental results we have concluded that the quality factor has increased by adding passive optical networks.

Keywords: WDM-PON, optical fiber, BER, Q-factor, eye diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
817 Recursive Doubly Complementary Filter Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of DC digital filters using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the phase response errors of the designed DAFs. To deal with the stability of the recursive DC filters during the design process, we can either impose some necessary constraints on the phases of the recursive DAFs. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a population based stochastic optimization approach. The resulting DC digital filters can possess satisfactory frequency response. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: doubly complementary, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

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816 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

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815 Space Time Adaptive Algorithm in Bi-Static Passive Radar Systems for Clutter Mitigation

Authors: D. Venu, N. V. Koteswara Rao

Abstract:

Space – time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in spaceborne or airborne radar systems. Since airborne passive radar systems utilize broadcast, navigation and excellent communication signals to perform various surveillance tasks and also has attracted significant interest from the distinct past, therefore the need of the hour is to have cost effective systems as compared to conventional active radar systems. Moreover, requirements of small number of secondary samples for effective clutter suppression in bi-static passive radar offer abundant illuminator resources for passive surveillance radar systems. This paper presents a framework for incorporating knowledge sources directly in the space-time beam former of airborne adaptive radars. STAP algorithm for clutter mitigation for passive bi-static radar has better quantitation of the reduction in sample size thereby amalgamating the earlier data bank with existing radar data sets. Also, we proposed a novel method to estimate the clutter matrix and perform STAP for efficient clutter suppression based on small sample size. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using MATLAB simulations in order to validate STAP algorithm for passive bi-static radar. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance for various applications which augments traditional active radars using cost-effective measures.

Keywords: bistatic radar, clutter, covariance matrix passive radar, STAP

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814 Single Tuned Shunt Passive Filter Based Current Harmonic Elimination of Three Phase AC-DC Converters

Authors: Mansoor Soomro

Abstract:

The evolution of power electronic equipment has been pivotal in making industrial processes productive, efficient and safe. Despite its attractive features, it has been due to nonlinear loads which make it vulnerable to power quality conditions. Harmonics is one of the power quality problem in which the harmonic frequency is integral multiple of supply frequency. Therefore, the supply voltage and supply frequency do not last within their tolerable limits. As a result, distorted current and voltage waveform may appear. Attributes of low power quality confirm that an electrical device or equipment is likely to malfunction, fail promptly or unable to operate under all applied conditions. The electrical power system is designed for delivering power reliably, namely maximizing power availability to customers. However, power quality events are largely untracked, and as a result, can take out a process as many as 20 to 30 times a year, costing utilities, customers and suppliers of load equipment, a loss of millions of dollars. The ill effects of current harmonics reduce system efficiency, cause overheating of connected equipment, result increase in electrical power and air conditioning costs. With the passage of time and the rapid growth of power electronic converters has highlighted the damages of current harmonics in the electrical power system. Therefore, it has become essential to address the bad influence of current harmonics while planning any suitable changes in the electrical installations. In this paper, an effort has been made to mitigate the effects of dominant 3rd order current harmonics. Passive filtering technique with six pulse multiplication converter has been employed to mitigate them. Since, the standards of power quality are to maintain the supply voltage and supply current within certain prescribed standard limits. For this purpose, the obtained results are validated as per specifications of IEEE 519-1992 and IEEE 519-2014 performance standards.

Keywords: current harmonics, power quality, passive filters, power electronic converters

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813 Feasibility Analysis of Active and Passive Technical Integration of Rural Buildings

Authors: Chanchan Liu

Abstract:

In the process of urbanization in China, the rapid development of urban construction has been achieved, but a large number of rural buildings still continue the construction mode many years ago. This paper mainly analyzes the rural residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions analyze the active and passive technologies of the buildings. It explored the feasibility of realizing the sustainable development of rural buildings in an economically reasonable range, using mainly passive technologies, innovative building design methods, reducing the buildings’ demand for conventional energy, and supplementing them with renewable energy sources. On this basis, appropriate technology and regional characteristics are proposed to keep the rural architecture retain its characteristics in the development process. It is hoped that this exploration can provide reference and help for the development of rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions.

Keywords: the rural building, active technology, passive technology, sustainable development

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