Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: pioglitazone hydrochloride

50 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on Physiochemical Properties of Spherical Agglomerates of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

Authors: S. V. Patil , S. K. Sahoo, K. Y. Chougule, S. S. Patil

Abstract:

Spherically agglomerated crystals of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) with improved flowability and compactibility were successfully prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Plane agglomerates and agglomerates with additives: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and β cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared using methanol, chloroform and water as good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Particle size, flowability, compactibility and packability of plane, PEG and β-CD agglomerates were preferably improved for direct tableting compared with raw crystals and PVP agglomerates of PGH. These improved properties of spherically agglomerated crystals were due to their large and spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction which was well supported by increased tensile strength and less elastic recovery of its compact. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry study were indicated polymorphic transition of PGH from form II to I during recrystallization but not associated with chemical transition indicated by fourier transforms infrared spectra.

Keywords: spherical crystallization, pioglitazone hydrochloride, compactibility, packability

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
49 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Fas Production

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of its most important side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, is known to exert antiinflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of pioglitazone against MTX-induced endothelial impairment. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-pioglitazone interaction was assessed. Pioglitazone treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with pioglitazone. Collectively, pioglitazone abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium, kidney

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
48 [Keynote Talk]: Treatment Satisfaction and Safety of Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Monotherapy

Authors: Shahnaz Haque, Anand Shukla, Sunita Singh, Anil Kem

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first line oral hypoglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but due to progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type 2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary. Objective: This study was designed to assess the treatment satisfaction between Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone added to Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study in SIMS, Hapur, U.P. Eligible patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups having 25 patients in each group using tab Sitagliptin 100mg, tab Pioglitazone 30mg added to ongoing tab Metformin (500mg) therapy for 16 weeks. The follow-up visits were on weeks 4,12 and 16. Result: 16 weeks later, addition of Sitagliptin 100mg compared to that of Pioglitazone 30 mg to ongoing Metformin therapy provided similar glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering efficacy in patients with T2DM with inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. Change in HbA1c in group1 was -0.656±0.21%(p<0.0001) whereas in group2 was -0.748±0.35%(p<0.0001). Hence decrease in HbA1c from baseline was more in group2. Both treatments were well tolerated with negligible risk of hypoglycaemia. Weight loss was observed with Sitagliptin in contrast to weight gain seen in Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In this study, Sitagliptin 100 mg along with metformin therapy in comparison to pioglitazone 30 mg plus metformin therapy was both effective, well-tolerated and improved glycemic control in both the groups. Addition of pioglitazone had cause oedema and weight gain to the patients whereas sitagliptin caused weight loss in its patients.

Keywords: sitagliptin, pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
47 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
46 Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Upasana Khairnar, Chandrashekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period, serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (Hemoglobin content, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Total iron content), tissue parameters (Lipid peroxidation, Reduced glutathione, Nitric oxide content) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with Protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity. In conclusion Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride-induced splenic toxicity in rats.

Keywords: aniline, spleen toxicity, protocatechuic acid, ascorbic acid, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
45 Vitamin D Supplementation Potentiates the Clinical Benefits of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Mohd Asharf Ganie, Aafia Rashid, Mohd Afzal Zargar, Showkat Ali Zargar, Syed Mudasar, Tabasum Parvaiz, Zafar Amin Shah

Abstract:

Accumulating evidence suggests that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) might at least contribute to the metabolic co-morbidities in PCOS. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in co-prescription with insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. In this open label randomized, controlled trial a total of 120 women with PCOS diagnosis (AE-PCOS 2009 Criteria) were assigned to four treatment groups (n= 30 in each): group I (metformin 1 gm/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group II (pioglitazone 30 mg/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group III (metformin 1 gm /day) and group IV (pioglitazone 30 mg/day). Vitamin D supplementation was given as 60,000 units every two weeks for 24 weeks. All the subjects were routinely evaluated for clinical, biochemical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in addition to various safety parameters especially serum calcium levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of the treatment. Our results indicate that 95.5% of PCOS women were vitamin D deficient at baseline. Serum 25 (OH) D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups I and II without any adverse effects after 24 weeks of oral administration of 4000 IU cholecalciferol daily. However, serum 25 (OH) D levels remained unchanged in group III and IV. By six months, number of menstrual cycles per year increased whereas Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum total testosterone and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with cholecalciferol as compared to those treated either drug alone. No significant beneficial changes were observed on weight, BMI, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and serum lipids in any of the groups supplemented with cholecalciferol. We conclude that daily dose of 4000 IU cholecalciferol might be a useful adjunct in complex treatment of PCOS with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, pioglitazone and cholecalciferol combination seems to be marginally better although there was no statistical significance.

Keywords: PCOS, vitamin D supplementation, insulin resistance, spironolactone, metformin, pioglitazone

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
44 Formulation Design and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Having Adequate Mechanical Strength

Authors: Jiwan P. Lavande, A. V. Chandewar

Abstract:

In the present study, orodispersible tablets of diphenhydramine hydrochloride were prepared using croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone and camphor, menthol (as subliming agents) in different ratios and ODTs prepared with superdisintegrants were compared with ODTs prepared with camphor and menthol (subliming agents) for the following evaluation of in vitro disintegration time, dispersion time, wetting time, hardness and water absorption ratio. Results revealed that the tablets of all formulations have acceptable physical parameters. The drug and excipients compatibility study was evaluated using FTIR technique and has not detected any incompatibility. The in vitro release of drug from DC6 formulation was quick when compared to other formulations. Stability study was carried out as per ICH guidelines for three months and results revealed that upon storage disintegration time of tablets had not shown any significant difference. Microscopic study of different formulations of sublimed tablets showed formation of pores for the tablets prepared by sublimation method. Thus, conclusion can be made that the stable orodispersible tablets of diphenhydramine hydrochloride can be developed for the rapid release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride.

Keywords: orodispersible tablet, subliming agent, super disintegrants, diphenhydramine hydrochloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
43 Effect of Pioglitazone on Intracellular Na+ Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Male Rats

Authors: Ayca Bilginoglu, Belma Turan

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome, is associated impaired blood glucose level, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia caused by abdominal obesity. Also, it is related with cardiovascular risk accumulation and cardiomyopathy. The hypothesis of this study was to examine the effect of thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone which is widely used insulin-sensitizing agents that improve glycemic control, on intracellular Na+ homeostasis in metabolic syndrome-induced cardiomyopathy in male rats. Male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control (Con, n=7), metabolic syndrome (MetS, n=7) and pioglitazone treated metabolic syndrome group (MetS+PGZ, n=7). Metabolic syndrome was induced by providing drinking water that was 32% sucrose, for 18 weeks. All of the animals were exposed to a 12 h light – 12 h dark cycle. Abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance had measured as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) is an important modulator of excitation–contraction coupling in heart. [Na+]i at rest and [Na+]i during pacing with electrical field stimulation in 0.2 Hz, 0.8 Hz, 2.0 Hz stimulation frequency were recorded in cardiomyocytes. Also, Na+ channel current (INa) density and I-V curve were measured to understand [Na+]i homeostasis. In results, high sucrose intake, as well as the normal daily diet, significantly increased body mass and blood glucose level of the rats in the metabolic syndrome group as compared with the non-treated control group. In MetS+PZG group, the blood glucose level and body inclined to decrease to the Con group. There was a decrease in INa density and there was a shift both activation and inactivation curve of INa. Pioglitazone reversed the shift to the control side. Basal [Na+]i either MetS and Con group were not significantly different, but there was a significantly increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes in MetS group. Furthermore, pioglitazone had not effect on basal [Na+]i but it reversed the increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes to the that of Con group. Results of the present study suggest that pioglitazone has a significant effect on the Na+ homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome induced cardiomyopathy in rats. All animal procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine (2015-2-37).

Keywords: insulin resistance, intracellular sodium, metabolic syndrome, sodium current

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
42 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
41 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel

Abstract:

The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (∆Gex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: adiphenine hydrochloride, critical micelle concentration, interaction parameter, activity coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
40 Stability Indicating RP – HPLC Method Development, Validation and Kinetic Study for Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: Jignasha Derasari, Patel Krishna M, Modi Jignasa G.

Abstract:

Chemical stability of pharmaceutical molecules is a matter of great concern as it affects the safety and efficacy of the drug product.Stability testing data provides the basis to understand how the quality of a drug substance and drug product changes with time under the influence of various environmental factors. Besides this, it also helps in selecting proper formulation and package as well as providing proper storage conditions and shelf life, which is essential for regulatory documentation. The ICH guideline states that stress testing is intended to identify the likely degradation products which further help in determination of the intrinsic stability of the molecule and establishing degradation pathways, and to validate the stability indicating procedures. A simple, accurate and precise stability indicating RP- HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide in tablet dosage form. Separation was achieved on an Phenomenexluna ODS C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) by using a mobile phase consisting of Ortho phosphoric acid: Acetonitrile (50:50 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min (pH 3.5 adjusted with 0.1 % TEA in Water) isocratic pump mode, Injection volume 20 µl and wavelength of detection was kept at 283 nm. Retention time for Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide was 1.810 min and 4.269 min respectively. Linearity of the proposed method was obtained in the range of 40-60 µg/ml and 320-480 µg/ml and Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.998 for Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide, respectively. Forced degradation study was carried out on combined dosage form with various stress conditions like hydrolysis (acid and base hydrolysis), oxidative and thermal conditions as per ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The RP- HPLC method has shown an adequate separation for Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide from its degradation products. Proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy; precision and robustness for estimation of Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory and significant. The developed and validated stability indicating RP-HPLC method can be used successfully for marketed formulations. Forced degradation studies help in generating degradants in much shorter span of time, mostly a few weeks can be used to develop the stability indicating method which can be applied later for the analysis of samples generated from accelerated and long term stability studies. Further, kinetic study was also performed for different forced degradation parameters of the same combination, which help in determining order of reaction.

Keywords: amiloride hydrochloride, furosemide, kinetic study, stability indicating RP-HPLC method validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
39 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Apoptotic Factors

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of the most important side effects of MTX. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), is known to exert anti-inflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of PIO against MTX-induced nephropathy. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with PIO (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (1-30 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-PIO interaction was assessed. PIO treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with PIO. Collectively, PIO abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium, kidney

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
38 Formulation and Evaluation of Metformin Hydrochloride Microparticles via BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90

Authors: Tamer Shehata

Abstract:

Recently, nanotechnology acquired a great interest in the field of pharmaceutical production. Several pharmaceutical equipment were introduced into the research field for production of nanoparticles, among them, BÜCHI’ fourth generation nano-spray dryer B-90. B-90 is specialized with single step of production and drying of nano and microparticles. Currently, our research group is investigating several pharmaceutical formulations utilizing BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90 technology. One of our projects is the formulation and evaluation of metformin hydrochloride mucoadhesive microparticles for treatment of type 2-diabetis. Several polymers were investigated, among them, gelatin and sodium alginate. The previous polymers are natural polymers with mucoadhesive properties. Preformulation studies such as atomization head mesh size, flow rate, head temperature, polymer solution viscosity and surface tension were performed. Postformulation characters such as particle size, flowability, surface scan and dissolution profile were evaluated. Finally, the pharmacological activity of certain selected formula was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. B-90’spray head was 7 µm hole heated to 120 with air flow rate 3.5 mL/min. The viscosity of the solution was less than 11.5 cP with surface tension less than 70.1 dyne/cm. Successfully, discrete, non-aggregated particles and free flowing powders with particle size was less than 2000 nm were obtained. Gelatin and Sodium alginate combination in ratio 1:3 were successfully sustained the in vitro release profile of the drug. Hypoglycemic evaluation of the previous formula showed a significant reduction of blood glucose level over 24 h. In conclusion, mucoadhesive metformin hydrochloride microparticles obtained from B-90 could offer a convenient dosage form with enhanced hypoglycemic activity.

Keywords: mucoadhesive, microparticles, metformin hydrochloride, nano-spray dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
37 Optimization of Lercanidipine Nanocrystals Using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Dolly Gadhiya, Jayvadan Patel, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blockers used for treating angina pectoris and hypertension. Lercanidipine is a BCS Class II drug having poor aqueous solubility. Absolute bioavailability of Lercanidipine is very low and the main reason ascribed for this is poor aqueous solubility of the drug. Design and formulatation of nanocrystals by media milling method was main focus of this study. In this present study preliminary optimization was carried out with one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. For this different parameters like size of milling beads, amount of zirconium beads, types of stabilizer, concentrations of stabilizer, concentrations of drug, stirring speeds and milling time were optimized on the basis of particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. From the OFAT model different levels for above parameters selected for Plackett - Burman Design (PBD). Plackett-Burman design having 13 runs involving 6 independent variables was carried out at higher and lower level. Based on statistical analysis of PBD it was found that concentration of stabilizer, concentration of drug and stirring speed have significant impact on particle size, PDI, zeta potential value and saturation solubility. These experimental designs for preparation of nanocrystals were applied successfully which shows increase in aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of Lercanidipine hydrochloride.

Keywords: Lercanidipine hydrochloride, nanocrystals, OFAT, Plackett Burman

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
36 Degradation of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride, Methyl Salicylate and 2-Phenoxyethanol in Water Systems by the Combination UV/Cl2

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Francisco J. Real, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco Casas

Abstract:

Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the combined advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol. A later kinetic study was carried out and focused on the specific evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. A comparison between the rate constant values among photochemical experiments without and with the presence of Cl2 reveals a clear increase in the oxidation efficiency of the combined process with respect to the photochemical reaction alone. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water (ultrapure water, surface water from a reservoir, and two secondary effluents) was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl2 under more realistic operating conditions. The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/S2O82- and UV/H2O2 AOPs. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested.

Keywords: emerging contaminants, UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process, amitriptyline, methyl salicylate, 2-phenoxyethanol, chlorination, photolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
35 Transdermal Therapeutic System of Lercanıdipine Hydrochloride: Fabrication and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Jiji Jose, R. Narayanacharyulu, Molly Mathew, Jisha Prems

Abstract:

Introduction: Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LD), an effective calcium channel blocker, widely used for the treatment of chronic stable angina and hypertension seems to be potential transdermal therapeutic system candidate, mainly due to its low oral bio availability, short half life and high first-pass metabolism. Objective: To develop transdermal therapeutic systems for LD and to evaluate its in vivo performance in rabbits. Methodology: Transdermal patches of LD were formulated using the polymer blend of eudragit RL100 (ERL) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) by casting method Propylene glycol (PG) and tween 80 were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. The pharmaco kinetic parameters of LD after the administration of transdermal patches was compared with that of oral administration. The study was carried out in a two way crossover design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. Results: The formulation with ERL: PVP ratio 1:4 with 15% w/w PG as plasticizer and 4% w/w tween 80 as permeation enhancer showed the best drug release results. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC 0-∞) were significantly different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal half life of transdermally administered LD was found to similar that of oral administration. A sustained drug release over a period of 24 hrs was observed after transdermal administration. Conclusion: The fabricated transdermal delivery system have the potential to provide controlled and extended drug release, better bio availability and thus, this may improve the patient compliance.

Keywords: transdermal therapeutic system, lercanidipine hydrochloride, eudragit, skinpermeation

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
34 Electrochemical Behavior of Cocaine on Carbon Paste Electrode Chemically Modified with Cu(II) Trans 3-MeO Salcn Complex

Authors: Alex Soares Castro, Matheus Manoel Teles de Menezes, Larissa Silva de Azevedo, Ana Carolina Caleffi Patelli, Osmair Vital de Oliveira, Aline Thais Bruni, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira

Abstract:

Considering the problem of the seizure of illicit drugs, as well as the development of electrochemical sensors using chemically modified electrodes, this work shows the study of the electrochemical activity of cocaine in carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO salcn complex. In this context, cyclic voltammetry was performed on 0.1 mol.L⁻¹ KCl supporting electrolyte at a scan speed of 100 mV s⁻¹, using an electrochemical cell composed of three electrodes: Ag /AgCl electrode (filled KCl 3 mol.L⁻¹) from Metrohm® (reference electrode); a platinum spiral electrode, as an auxiliary electrode, and a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO complex (as working electrode). Two forms of cocaine were analyzed: cocaine hydrochloride (pH 3) and cocaine free base form (pH 8). The PM7 computational method predicted that the hydrochloride form is more stable than the free base form of cocaine, so with cyclic voltammetry, we found electrochemical signal only for cocaine in the form of hydrochloride, with an anodic peak at 1.10 V, with a linearity range between 2 and 20 μmol L⁻¹ had LD and LQ of 2.39 and 7.26x10-5 mol L⁻¹, respectively. The study also proved that cocaine is adsorbed on the surface of the working electrode, where through an irreversible process, where only anode peaks are observed, we have the oxidation of cocaine, which occurs in the hydrophilic region due to the loss of two electrons. The mechanism of this reaction was confirmed by the ab-inito quantum method.

Keywords: ab-initio computational method, analytical method, cocaine, Schiff base complex, voltammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
33 Effect of Mutagenic Compounds on the Yield of Cultivated Pleurotus Pulmonarius

Authors: Simbiat O. Ayilara-Akande, Soji Fakoya

Abstract:

Quality and yield are always the target of farmers, including mushroom farmers. This study investigated how better Pleurotus pulmonarius can be obtained with the induction of mutagens into the process of spawn production in order to improve both the quality and the yield. Mushroom spawns were treated with ultraviolet radiation (UV) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) at different exposure times (2, 6, and 10 minutes) and different concentrations (10, 30, and 50Mm), respectively. The treated spawns were used to cultivate mushrooms on five substrates in the family of Gramineae viz: sorghum, rice, bamboo, sugarcane, and corn straws. Matured fruit bodies were harvested after a few weeks, and their parameters were taken and recorded. This study reveals a significant yield increase in mushroom grown on all the substrates when treated with ultraviolet radiation (UV) for 10 minutes and 6 minutes, respectively. Mushroom spawns treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride showed a negative correlation in the yield with an increased in mutagen concentration. Hence, Ultraviolet light could be employed to enhance the quality and yield of mushroom production.

Keywords: mushroom, protein, mutagens, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
32 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Gajera Lalit, Shah Pranav, Shah Shailesh

Abstract:

Venlafaxine hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life of 5 ± 2 hr, and absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The conventional tablets need to be administered two to three times a day and possess an oral bioavailability of 45%. The purpose of this study was to formulate gastroretentive effervescent floating tablets of Venlafaxine HCl. Different grades of HPMC namely K15M, K4M, K100M and E15LV were employed as swelling polymers whereas sodium bicarbonate was employed as gas generating agent. The direct compression method was employed for the formulation of tablets. The tablets were evaluated in terms of hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, water uptake, in-vitro floating behavior and in-vitro drug release study. All the formulations exhibited very short floating lag time of < 1 min and total floating time of 12 hr. Formulation L3 containing 25 mg and 75 mg of HPMC E15 LV and HPMC K15M respectively exhibited complete drug release within 12 hrs.

Keywords: venlafaxine HCl, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, floating gastro retentive tablets, in-vitro drug release, non-fickian diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
31 A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects

Authors: Setareh Shekarsaraei, Marjan Moridi, Nasser L. Hadipour

Abstract:

In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.

Keywords: hydrogen bonding, density functional theory (DFT), natural bond orbitals (NBO), cooperativity effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
30 Simple Ecofriendly Cyclodextrine-Surfactant Modified UHPLC Method for Quantification of Multivitamins in Pharmaceutical and Food Samples

Authors: Hassan M. Albishri, Abdullah Almalawi, Deia Abd El-Hady

Abstract:

A simple and ecofriendly cyclodextrine-surfactant modified UHPLC (CDS-UPLC) method for rapid and sensitive simultaneous determination of multi water-soluble vitamins such as ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride and thiamine hydrochloride in commercial pharmaceuticals and milk samples have been firstly developed. Several chromatographic effective parameters have been changed in a systematic way. Adequate results have been achieved by a mixture of β-cyclodextrine (β-CD) and cationic surfactant under acidic conditions as an eco-friendly isocratic mobile phase at 0.02 mL/min flow rate. The proposed CDS- UHPLC method has been validated for the quantitative determination of multivitamins within 8 min in food and pharmaceutical samples. The method showed excellent linearity for analytes in a wide range of 10-1000 ng/µL. The repeatability and reproducibility of data were about 2.14 and 4.69 RSD%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of analytes ranged between 0.86 and 5.6 ng/µL with a range of 81.8 -115.8% recoveries in tablets and milk samples. The current first CDS- UHPLC method could have vast applications for the precise analysis of multivitamins in complicated matrices.

Keywords: ecofriendly, cyclodextrine-surfactant, multivitamins, UHPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
29 Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin

Authors: Amira M. Hassanein, Nehal A. Salahuddin, Atsunori Matsuda, Toshiaki Hattori, Mona N. Elfiky

Abstract:

New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, polypyrrole, terazosin hydrochloride, square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
28 Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Orodispersisble Tablets: Formulation and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation in Healthy Human Volunteers

Authors: Soad Ali Yehia, Mohamed Shafik El-Ridi, Mina Ibrahim Tadros, Nolwa Gamal El-Sherif

Abstract:

Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) is a slightly soluble, bitter-tasting, drug having an oral bioavailability of 35%. The maximum plasma concentration is reached 2.6 hours (Tmax) post-dose. The current work aimed to develop taste-masked FXD orodispersible tablets (ODTs) to increase extent of drug absorption and reduce Tmax. Taste masking was achieved via solid dispersion (SD) with chitosan (CS) or sodium alginate (ALG). FT-IR, DSC and XRD were performed to identify physicochemical interactions and FXD crystallinity. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs were developed via addition of superdisintegrants (crosscarmelose sodium or sodium starch glycolate, 5% and 10%, w/w) or sublimable agents (camphor, menthol or thymol; 10% and 20%, w/w) to FXD-SDs. ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, drug-content, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and drug release. Camphor-based (20%, w/w) FXD-ODT (F12) was optimized (F23) by incorporation of a more hydrophilic lubricant, sodium stearyl fumarate (Pruv®). The topography of the latter formula was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vivo estimation of FXD pharmacokinetics, relative to Allegra® tablets, was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the gustatory sensation test in healthy volunteers, FXD:CS (1:1) and FXD:ALG (1:0.5) SDs were selected. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs had appropriate physicochemical properties and showed short wetting and disintegration times. Drug release profiles of F23 and phenylalanine-containing Allegra® ODT were similar (f2 = 96) showing a complete release in two minutes. SEM micrographs revealed pores following camphor sublimation. Compared to Allegra® tablets, pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers proved F23 ability to increase extent of FXD absorption (14%) and reduce Tmax to 1.83 h.

Keywords: fexofenadine hydrochloride, taste masking, chitosan, orodispersible

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
27 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Levamisole Hydrochloride

Authors: Surendra Agrawal, Pravina Gurjar, Supriya Bhide, Ram Gaud

Abstract:

Levamisole hydrochloride is a prominent anticancer drug in the treatment of colon cancer but resulted in toxic effects due poor bioavailability and poor cellular uptake by tumor cells. Levamisole is an unstable drug. Incorporation of this molecule in solid lipids may minimize their exposure to the aqueous environment and partly immobilize the drug molecules within the lipid matrix-both of which may protect the encapsulated drugs against degradation. The objectives of the study were to enhance bioavailability by sustaining drug release and to reduce the toxicities associated with the therapy. Solubility of the drug was determined in different lipids to select the components of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Pseudoternary phase diagrams were created using aqueous titration method. Formulations were subjected to particle size and stability evaluation to select the final test formulations which were characterized for average particle size, zeta potential, and in-vitro drug release and percentage transmittance to optimize the final formulation. SLN of Levamisole hydrochloride was prepared by Nanoprecipitation method. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) was used as core comprising of Tween 80 as surfactant and Lecithin as co-surfactant in (1:1) ratio. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was found to be 45.89%. Particle size was found in the range of 100-600 nm. Zeta potential of the formulation was -17.0 mV revealing the stability of the product. In-vitro release study showed that 66 % drug released in 24 hours in pH 7.2 which represent that formulation can give controlled action at the intestinal environment. In pH 5.0 it showed 64% release indicating that it can even release drug in acidic environment of tumor cells. In conclusion, results revealed SLN to be a promising approach to sustain the drug release so as to increase bioavailability and cellular uptake of the drug with reduction in toxic effects as dose has been reduced with controlled delivery.

Keywords: SLN, nanoparticulate delivery of levamisole, pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
26 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Transdermal Delivery of Articaine

Authors: Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Paul Chambers, Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to formulate different topical preparations containing articaine and to investigate their permeation through goat skin. Initially, articaine and its hydrochloride salt were compared for in vitro permeation using Franz cell model. Goat skin samples were collected after euthanizing male goat kids purchased from the dairy goat farmers. Subcutaneous fat was removed and the skin was mounted on the donor chamber (orifice area 1.00 cm²) and drugs were applied onto the epidermis. Phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was used to maintain sink condition in the receptor chamber (8 ml) of the Franz cell. Samples (0.4 ml) were collected at various intervals over 24 hours after each sampling equal volume of PBS was replaced in the receptor chamber. Articaine in the collected samples were quantified using LC/MS. The results suggested that articaine free base permeates better than its hydrochloride salt through goat skin. This study results support the fact that local anesthetics in its base form are lipophilic and thus penetrates faster through cell membranes than their salts. Later, articaine free base was formulated either using ethanol and octyl salicylate or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as penetration enhancers and was compared for in vitro permeation. The transdermal flux of articaine in the formulation containing DMSO was approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the formulation containing ethanol and octyl salicylate. Further studies to evaluate the local anesthetic efficacy of the topical formulation containing articaine for dermal anesthesia in animals have been planned.

Keywords: articaine, dermal anesthesia, local anesthetic, transdermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
25 Characterization of Herberine Hydrochloride Nanoparticles

Authors: Bao-Fang Wen, Meng-Na Dai, Gao-Pei Zhu, Chen-Xi Zhang, Jing Sun, Xun-Bao Yin, Yu-Han Zhao, Hong-Wei Sun, Wei-Fen Zhang

Abstract:

A drug-loaded nanoparticles containing berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS-NPs) was prepared. The physicochemical characterizations of BH/FA-CTS-NPs and the inhibitory effect on the HeLa cells were investigated. Folic acid-conjugated chitosan (FA-CTS) was prepared by amino reaction of folic acid active ester and chitosan molecules; BH/FA-CTS-NPs were prepared using ionic cross-linking technique with BH as a model drug. The morphology and particle size were determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The interaction between various components and the nanocomplex were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL) and in vitro release were studied by UV spectrophotometer. The effect of cell anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH/FA-CTS-NPs were investigated using MTT assays, wound healing assays, Annexin-V-FITC single staining assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. HeLa nude mice subcutaneously transplanted tumor model was established and treated with different drugs to observe the effect of BH/FA-CTS-NPs in vivo on HeLa bearing tumor. The BH/FA-CTS-NPs prepared in this experiment have a regular shape, uniform particle size, and no aggregation phenomenon. The results of DLS showed that mean particle size, PDI and Zeta potential of BH/FA-CTS NPs were (249.2 ± 3.6) nm, 0.129 ± 0.09, 33.6 ± 2.09, respectively, and the average diameter and PDI were stable in 90 days. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic peaks of FA-CTS and BH/FA-CTS-NPs confirmed that FA-CTS cross-linked successfully and BH was encapsulated in NPs. The EE and DL amount were (79.3 ± 3.12) % and (7.24 ± 1.41) %, respectively. The results of in vitro release study indicated that the cumulative release of BH/FA-CTS NPs was (89.48±2.81) % in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) within 48h; these results by MTT assays and wund healing assays indicated that BH/FA-CTS NPs not only inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but can induce apoptosis as well. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor formation rate of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa in nude mice was 98% after inoculation for 2 weeks. Compared with BH group and BH/CTS-NPs group, the xenograft tumor growth of BH/FA-CTS-NPs group was obviously slower; the result indicated that BH/FA-CTS-NPs could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa xenograft tumor. BH/FA-CTS NPs with the sustained release effect could be prepared successfully by the ionic crosslinking method. Considering these properties, block proliferation and impairing the migration of the HeLa cell line, BH/FA-CTS NPs could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: folic-acid, chitosan, berberine hydrochloride, nanoparticles, cervical cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
24 A New Technology for Metformin Hydrochloride Mucoadhesive Microparticles Preparation Utilizing BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata

Abstract:

Objective: Currently, mucoadhesive microparticles acquired a high interest in both research and pharmaceutical technology fields. Recently, BÜCHI lunched its latest fourth generation nano spray dryer B-90 used for nanoparticle production. B-90 offers an elegant technology combined particle engineering and drying in one step. In our laboratory, we successfully developed a new formulation for metformin hydrochloride, mucoadhesive microparticles utilizing B-90 technology for treatment of type 2-diabetis. Method: Gelatin or sodium alginate, natural occurring polymers with mucoadhesive properties, solely or in combination was used in our formulation trials. Preformulation studies (atomization head mesh size, flow rate, head temperature, polymer solution viscosity and surface tension) and postformulation characters (particle size, flowability, surface scan and dissolution profile) were evaluated. Finally, hypoglycemic effect of the selected formula was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Spray head with 7 µm hole, flow rate of 3.5 mL/min and head temperature 120 ºC were selected. Polymer viscosity was less than 11.5 cP with surface tension less than 70.1 dyne/cm. Result: Discrete, non aggregated particles and free flowing powders with particle size was less than 2000 nm were obtained. Gelatin and sodium alginate combination in ratio 1:3 were successfully sustained the in vitro release profile of the drug. Hypoglycemic evaluation of the previous formula, showed a significant reduction of blood glucose level over 24 h. Conclusion: B-90 technology can open a new era of , mucoadhesive microparticles preparation offering convenient dosage form that can enhance compliance of type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: mucoadhesive, microparticles, technology, diabetis

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
23 Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline

Authors: Sulaiman Gafar Muhamad

Abstract:

A rapid spectrophotometric method for the micro-determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHE) has been developed. The proposed method involves the coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium at λmax 455 nm. Under the present optimum condition, Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20 μg/ml of PHE with molar absorptivity of 1.915 ×104 l. mol-1.cm-1, with a relative error of 0.015 and a relative standard deviation of 0.024%. The current method has been applied successfully to estimate phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (nose drop and syrup).

Keywords: diazo-coupling, 2, 4-dinitroaniline, phenylephrine-HCl, spectrophotometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
22 Quantum Confinement in LEEH Capped CdS Nanocrystalline

Authors: Mihir Hota, Namita Jena, S. N. Sahu

Abstract:

LEEH (L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride) capped CdS semiconductor nanocrystals are grown at 800C using a simple chemical route. Photoluminescence (PL), Optical absorption (UV) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have been carried out to evaluate the structural and optical properties of the nanocrystal. Optical absorption studies have been carried out to optimize the sample. XRD and TEM analysis shows that the nanocrystal belongs to FCC structure having average size of 3nm while a bandgap of 2.84eV is estimated from Photoluminescence analysis. The nanocrystal emits bluish light when excited with 355nm LASER.

Keywords: cadmium sulphide, nanostructures, luminescence, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
21 Formulation and In vivo Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Long Acting Tablet

Authors: Abdulwahhab Khedr, Tamer Shehata, Hanaa El-Ghamry

Abstract:

Venlafaxine HCl is a novel antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Conventional therapeutic regimens with venlafaxine HCl immediate-release dosage forms require frequent dosing due to short elimination half-life of the drug and reduced bioavailability. Hence, this study was carried out to develop sustained-release dosage forms of venlafaxine HCl to reduce its dosing frequency, to improve patient compliance and to reduce side effects of the drug. The polymers used were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbopol 940 and ethyl cellulose. The physical properties of the prepared tablets including tablet thickness, diameter, weight uniformity, content uniformity, hardness and friability were evaluated. Also, the in-vitro release of venlafaxine HCl from different matrix tablets was studied. Based on physical characters and in-vitro release profiles, certain formulae showing promising sustained-release profiles were subjected to film coating with 15% w/v EC in dichloromethane/ethanol mixture (1:1 ratio) using 1% w/v HPMC as pore former and 30% w/w dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer. The optimized formulations were investigated for drug-excipient compatibility using FTIR and DSC studies. Physical evaluation of the prepared tablets fulfilled the pharmacopoeial requirements for tablet friability test, where the weight loss of the prepared formulae did not exceed 1% of the weight of the tested tablets. Moderate release was obtained from tablets containing HPMC. FTIR and DSC studies for such formulae revealed the absence of any type of chemical interaction between venlafaxine HCl and the used polymers or excipients. Forced swimming test in rats was used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of the selected matrix tablets of venlafaxine HCl. Results showed that formulations significantly decreased the duration of animals’ immobility during the 24 hr-period of the test compared to non-treated group.

Keywords: antidepressant, sustained-release, matrix tablet, venlafaxine hydrochloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 160