Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3648

Search results for: traditional Assamese jewellery motifs

3648 Revival and Protection of Traditional Jewellery Motifs of Assam (India), over Eri Silk by Innovative Techniques

Authors: Ratna Sharma, Kaveri Dutta

Abstract:

Assam (India), the gate way to the Northeast India is mainly known for its exquisite silks, the art and craft. The state has a rich collection of traditional jewellery which is unique and exclusive to the state. These jewelleries hold a special place in the heart of the Assamese women. Similarly handloom industry of Assam is basically silk oriented. Among the wild silk, Eri silk fabric has remained as “the poor man’s silk” but it is closely attached to the assamese society, dress for it's warm quality. In view of the changing market trends, fashion and consumer demands, Silk is emerging as a fashion fabric both in India and abroad. In case of Eri silk fabric it has limited use in clothing and accessories. Hence the restructured and redesigned traditional jewellery motifs of Assam (India) over Eri silk products will have greater potential in reviving the decline of art, generate revenue, self employment towards craftsmen and also recognition of the art. The information incorporated in the paper is primary and the data have been collected by purposive sampling method. This work of art was expressed on Eri silk fabric in the form of traditional hand embroidery as it is closely connected with the era of the individual in history of mankind and reflects the personal expression of an entity. For this study selected traditional motifs of Assamese ornaments was used. Some of the popular traditional Assamese jewellery include earrings with exquisite Lokaparo, Keru, Thuriya, Jangphai, etc. An array of necklaces including Golpata, Satsori, Jon biri, Bena, Gejera, Dhol biri, Doog doogi, Biri Moni, Mukuta Moni, Poalmoni, Silikha Moni and Magardana and diversified rings including Senpata, Horinsakua, Jethinejia, bakharpata and others. Selected two motifs each from necklace, earring and finger ring designs. Selected motifs were further developed into 3 categories- the border, the main motif and all over butta followed by placement of developed patterns on products. Products developed were stoles, scarf’s, purses, brooch pins, skirts for women and ties, handkerchief, jackets for men. The developed products were surveyed by selected respondents. From the present study it can be observed that the embellished traditional jewellery motifs resulted in fresh and colourful pattern on developed Eri silk products. Moreover the motifs which were gradually fading among the community itself showed a very good recognition towards art. The embroidered Eri silk fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among craftsman.

Keywords: Art and craft of Assam, eri silk, hand embroidery, traditional Assamese jewellery motifs

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3647 Application of Unconventional Materials for ‘Statement Jewellery’

Authors: Shaleni Bajpai, V. Niveditha

Abstract:

A fashion accessory is a product which used to give secondary way to the wearer’s outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century and was specifically chosen to complement the wearer’s look. The aim of project was to introduce the unconventional materials for statement jewellery. The materials used for statement jewellery were waste Cd’s, and scrap fabric. These materials were amalgamated with the traditional raw materials such as beads, sequins, charms and chains to form unique jewellery sets. The sets were divided into two categories based on the type of raw material used i.e. Category 1: Clef-Cd Jewellery, Category 2: Crumb-Fabric Jewellery. Each Jewellery set consisted of a necklace, a pair of earrings, a ring and a bracelet.

Keywords: statement jewellery, unconventional, crumb fabric, Cd’s

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3646 Bilingualism: A Case Study of Assamese and Bodo Classifiers

Authors: Samhita Bharadwaj

Abstract:

This is an empirical study of classifiers in Assamese and Bodo, two genetically unrelated languages of India. The objective of the paper is to address the language contact between Assamese and Bodo as reflected in classifiers. The data has been collected through fieldwork in Bodo recording narratives and folk tales and eliciting specific data from the speakers. The data for Assamese is self-produced as native speaker of the language. Assamese is the easternmost New-Indo-Aryan (henceforth NIA) language mainly spoken in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam and some other north-eastern states of India. It is the lingua franca of Assam and is creolised in the neighbouring state of Nagaland. Bodo, on the other hand, is a Tibeto-Burman (henceforth TB) language of the Bodo-Garo group. It has the highest number of speakers among the TB languages of Assam. However, compared to Assamese, it is still a lesser documented language and due to the prestige of Assamese, all the Bodo speakers are fluent bi-lingual in Assamese, though the opposite isn’t the case. With this context, classifiers, a characteristic phenomenon of TB languages, but not so much of NIA languages, presents an interesting case study on language contact caused by bilingualism. Assamese, as a result of its language contact with the TB languages which are rich in classifiers; has developed the richest classifier system among the IA languages in India. Yet, as a part of rampant borrowing of Assamese words and patterns into Bodo; Bodo is seen to borrow even Assamese classifiers into its system. This paper analyses the borrowed classifiers of Bodo and finds the route of this borrowing phenomenon in the number system of the languages. As the Bodo speakers start replacing the higher numbers from five with Assamese ones, they also choose the Assamese classifiers to attach to these numbers. Thus, the partial loss of number in Bodo as a result of language contact and bilingualism in Assamese is found to be the reason behind the borrowing of classifiers in Bodo. The significance of the study lies in exploring an interesting aspect of language contact in Assam. It is hoped that this will attract further research on bilingualism and classifiers in Assam.

Keywords: Assamese, bi-lingual, Bodo, borrowing, classifier, language contact

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3645 Representation of Traditional Ornament in Modern Architecture Yogyakarta

Authors: Eni Puji Astuti

Abstract:

Yogyakarta has a rich and various form of traditional ornament which can be found on many media. Traditional Ornament has a classical form and being a local identity that can be easily recognized. The retention of traditional ornament can be done in many ways, one of them is aplicating tradisional ornament on modern architecture. This paper is aimed at identifiying the representation of traditional ornament on modern architecture in Yogyakarta. Kawung, parang, tumpal are some of Javaness motifs which often implemented on modern architecture because of their simple and welknown form. The motifs that actually aplicate on textiles ornament, recently often applied on modern architecture as aesthetical element on the facade, interior walls and furniture. The application of traditional ornaments as aesthetic architectural elements provide a strong local identity of Yogyakarta. Traditional ornaments that are applied, no longer refers to the origin local values, norms, and traditions. The form previously be simplified and adapted to the shape of minimalist style of modern architecture.

Keywords: traditional ornament, representation, Yogyakarta, modern architecture

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3644 The Influence of Islamic Arts in Omani Weaving Motifs

Authors: Zahra Ahmed Al-zadjali

Abstract:

The influence of Islam on arts can be found primarily in calligraphy, arabesque designs and architecture. Also, geometric designs were used quite extensively. Muslim craftsmen produced stunning designs based on simple geometric principles and traditional motifs which were used to decorate many surfaces. The idea of interlacing simple rectilinear lines to form the patterns impressed Arabs. Nomads of Persia, Turks and Mongols were equally impressed with the designs so they begin to use them in their homes in carpet weaving. Islamic designs, motifs and colours which were used became common place and served to influence people’s tastes. Modern life style and contemporary products have changed the style of people’s daily lives, however, people still long for the nomadic way of life. This is clearly reflected in people’s homes. In a great many Muslim homes, Islamic decorative motifs can be seen along with traditional ‘Bedouin’ style furnishing, especially in homes of the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: art, craft, design, Oman, weaving

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3643 Automatic Tagging and Accuracy in Assamese Text Data

Authors: Chayanika Hazarika Bordoloi

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to work on a highly inflectional language called Assamese. This is also one of the national languages of India and very little has been achieved in terms of computational research. Building a language processing tool for a natural language is not very smooth as the standard and language representation change at various levels. This paper presents inflectional suffixes of Assamese verbs and how the statistical tools, along with linguistic features, can improve the tagging accuracy. Conditional random fields (CRF tool) was used to automatically tag and train the text data; however, accuracy was improved after linguistic featured were fed into the training data. Assamese is a highly inflectional language; hence, it is challenging to standardizing its morphology. Inflectional suffixes are used as a feature of the text data. In order to analyze the inflections of Assamese word forms, a list of suffixes is prepared. This list comprises suffixes, comprising of all possible suffixes that various categories can take is prepared. Assamese words can be classified into inflected classes (noun, pronoun, adjective and verb) and un-inflected classes (adverb and particle). The corpus used for this morphological analysis has huge tokens. The corpus is a mixed corpus and it has given satisfactory accuracy. The accuracy rate of the tagger has gradually improved with the modified training data.

Keywords: CRF, morphology, tagging, tagset

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3642 Study of Bima Tembe and Its Relation to Rimpu as a Cultural Women Clothes in Bima

Authors: Morinta Rosandini

Abstract:

Bima Tembe is an excellent sample of cultural artifact that many people regard it as: (1) manufactured by a traditional techniques, (2) contained with variety forms and great philosophical motifs, and (3) having valued functions related to women status in the society. This research examined elements of Bima Tembe and their relations and one of the usage of tembe, named Rimpus. The elements include: (1) the traditional techniques of making Bima Tembe, (2) the variety forms (3) and philosophical motifs of Bima Tembe. Rimpu, is a cultural women clothes in Bima, which use Bima Tembe as a main part. From this reseacrh found that the Bima Tembe made by weaving technique using a traditional loom, and has two types of Tembe; Tembe Istana and Tembe Rakyat, with various motif each type. The The usage of Rimpu is as a symbol of the obedience to God and the type of Rimpu indicate the women status in the society.

Keywords: bima, tembe, rimpu, clothes

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3641 Contemporary Vision of Islamic Motifs in Decorating Products

Authors: Shuruq Ghazi Nahhas

Abstract:

Islamic art is a decorative art that depends on repeating motifs in various shapes to cover different surfaces. Each motif has its own characteristics and style that may reflect different Islamic periods, such as Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, Seljuk, Nasrid, Ottoman, and Safavid. These periods were the most powerful periods which played an important role in developing the Islamic motifs. Most of these motifs of the Islamic heritage were not used in new applications. This research focused on reviving the vegetal Islamic motifs found on Islamic heritage and redesign them in a new format to decorate various products, including scarfs, cushions, coasters, wallpaper, wall art, and boxes. The scarf is chosen as one element of these decorative products because it is used as accessories to add aesthetic value to fashion. A descriptive-analytical method is used for this research. The process started with extracting and analyzing the original motifs. Then, creating the new motifs by simplifying, deleting, or adding elements based on the original structure. Then, creating repeated patterns and applying them to decorative products. The findings of this research indicated: repeating patterns based on different structures creates unlimited patterns. Also, changing the elements of the motifs of a pattern adds new characteristics to the pattern. Also, creating frames using elements from the repeated motifs adds aesthetic and contemporary value to decorative products. Finally, using various methods of combining colors creates unlimited variations of each pattern. At the end, reviving the Islamic motifs in contemporary vision enriches decorative products with aesthetic, artistic, and historical values of different Islamic periods. This makes the decorative products valuable that adds uniqueness to their surroundings.

Keywords: Islamic motifs, contemporary patterns, scarfs, decorative products

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3640 Evaluation of Bagh Printing Motifs and Processes of Madhya Pradesh: From Past to Contemporary

Authors: Kaveri Dutta, Ratna Sharma

Abstract:

Indian traditional textile is a synthesis of various cultures. Art and crafts of a country showcases the rich cultural and artistic history of that nation. Prehistorically Indian handicrafts were basically made for day to day use; the yearning for aesthetic application soon saw the development of flooding designs and motifs. Similarly, Bagh print a traditional hand block Print with natural colours an Indian handicraft practiced in Bagh, Madhya Pradesh(India). Bagh print has its roots in Sindh, which is now a part of Pakistan. The present form of Bagh printing actually started in 1962 when the craftsmen migrated from Manavar to the neighboring town of Bagh situated in Madhya Pradesh and hence Bagh has always been associated with this printing style. Bagh printing basically involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya and so on. There are some prints that were inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts. Inspiration is also drawn from the landscapes and geometrical figures. The motifs evoke various moods in the serenity of the prints and that is the catchy element of Bagh prints. The development in this traditional textile is as essential as in another field. Nowadays fashion trends are fragile and innovative changes over existing fashion field in the short span is the demand of times. We must make efforts to preserve this cultural heritage of arts and crafts and this is done either by documenting the various ancient traditions or by making a blend of it. Since this craft is well known over the world, but the need is to document the original motif, fabric, technology and colors used in contemporary fashion. Hence keeping above points in mind this study on bagh print textiles of Madhya Pradesh work has been formulated. The information incorporated in the paper was based on secondary data taken from relevant books, journals, museum visit and articles. Besides for the demographic details and working profile of the artisans dealt with printing, an interview schedule was carried out in three regions of Madhya Pradesh. This work of art was expressed in Cotton fabric. For this study selected traditional motifs for Bang printing was used. Some of the popular traditional Bagh motifs are Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya, geometrical figures and jaali work. The Bagh printed cotton fabrics were developed into a range of men’s ethic wear in combination with embroideries from Rajasthan. Products developed were bandhgala jackets, kurtas, serwani and dupattas. From the present study, it can be observed that the embellished traditional Bang printed range of ethnic men’s wear resulted in the fresh and colourful pattern. The embroidered Bagh printed cotton fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among artisans of the three regions.

Keywords: art and craft of Madhya Pradesh, evolution of printing in India, history of Bagh printing, sources of inspiration

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3639 Fabric Printing Design: An Inspiration from Thai Kites

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

This research paper was aimed to study different motifs found on Thai kites in order to be create new fabric printing designs. The objectives of the study were (1) to examine different motifs of Thai kites; and (2) to create appropriate printing designs for fabric based on an examination of motifs of Thai kites from primary and secondary sources. The study found that designs, motifs and colors found on Thai kites were various based on individual artisans’ imagination in each period. From the historical review, there have been 4 kinds of Thai kites namely I-Loom Kite, Pak Pao Kite, Chula Kite and Dui Dui Kite. Nowadays, the kite designs have been developed to be more various by shape and color such as snake- shaped kite, owl-shaped kite and peacock-shaped kite.

Keywords: Thai kites, fabric printing design

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3638 Geographical Indication (Gi) as a Means of Protecting Traditional Right of Muga Silk (Antheria Assamensis) of Assam-India

Authors: Niranjan Das

Abstract:

‘Geographical indication’ is a sign which is used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. Geographical Indication is primarily granted to agricultural, natural, manufactured, handicrafts originating from a definite geographical territory. It is defined in Article 22(1) of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) 1995 Agreement on ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)’. Assam is literally a ‘Silk country’ where silk culture is rooted in the rural life and culture of Assamese people. This is the only state in India and the world where Muga silk (Antheraea assamensis) is grown. Out of the total production of India’s Muga silk, Assam has the credit of being the sole producer of this 100 percent output, and thus occupies a unique position in the sericulture map of the world. Muga production has been an effective means for generating gainful employment in rural Assam and it has enormous potential in the context of building the rural economy and generating livelihood of this region. Muga, the unique golden-yellow silk of Assam was granted the ‘Geographical Indication (GI)’ registration in 2007. It is the first item from the state of Assam to obtain the GI tag. Besides manufacturing of Muga Silk cloths, the industry is also giving employment to thousands of people, and the silk industry is playing a leading role in the economy of the state. As Brahmaputra Valley is also known for tourist destination, tourists are visiting the valley every year and now the Muga Silk has reached each corner of the country and also in the other parts of the world. This paper tries to emphasizes how the Geographical Indication tag is protecting the traditional right of the Muga Silk of Assam as it has been practised by the Assamese people since times immemorial.

Keywords: Geographical Indication, environment, Muga silk, traditional right and livelihood

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3637 The Design of Decorative Flower Patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace

Authors: Nawaporn Srisarankullawong

Abstract:

The study on the design of decorative flower patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace is the innovative design using flowers grown in Suan Sunandha Palace as the original sources. The research instrument included: 1) the photographs of flowers in watercolors painted by one of the lady in waiting of Her Royal Highness Princess Saisawareepirom as the source for investigating flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 2) pictures of real flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 3) Adobe Illustrator Program and Adobe Photoshop Program in designing the motif and decorative patterns including the prototype. The researcher chose 3 types of Suan Sunandha Palace flowers; moss rose, orchid, and lignum vitae. The details of the flowers were cut down to make simple motifs which were developed for elaborative decoration. There were 4 motifs adapted from moss roses, 3 motifs adapted from orchids, and 3 motifs adapted from lignum vitae. The patterns were used to decorate photo frames, wrapping paper, and gift boxes or souvenir boxes.

Keywords: Suan Sunandha Palace, design of decorative, flower patterns, decorative flower

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3636 Enhancing Visual Corporate Identity on Festive Money Packets Design with Cultural Symbolisms

Authors: Noranis Ismail, Shamsul H. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to accentuate the importance of Visual Corporate Identity by utilizing Malay motifs amalgamated with Malay proverbs to enhance the corporate brand of The Design School (TDS) of Taylor’s University. The researchers aim to manipulate festive money packet as a mean to communicate to the audience by using non-verbal visual cues such as colour, languages, and symbols that reflect styles and cultural heritage. The paper concluded that it is possible to utilize Hari Raya packet as a medium for creative expressions by creating high-impact design through the symbolism of selected Malay proverbs and traditional Malay motifs to enhance TDS corporate visual identity. It also provides a vital contribution to other organizations to understand an integral part of corporate visual identity in heightening corporate brand by communicating indirectly to its stakeholders using visual mnemonic and cultural heritage.

Keywords: corporate branding, cultural cues, Malay culture, visual identity

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3635 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal

Abstract:

Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

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3634 Religion and Social Mobility: A Historical Study of Neovaishnavism of Srimanta Shankardeva

Authors: Satyajit Kalita

Abstract:

Assam from an early period has gone through various religious transformations and has witnessed its impact in different period. One of such epoch is the epoch of Srimanta Shankardeva. Srimanta Shankareva is regarded, as the greatest religious preacher and social reformer in the history of Assam. It was Shankardeva, who brought the faith of vaisnavite movement that prevailed in other parts of India. Before and during his time, the people of Assam were followers of Sakta worship, the worshipping of different gods and goddesses. People worshiped idols and offered sacrifices. Srimanta Shankardeva under the faith neo-vaishnavism and propagated the Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharm, through which spread the splendor of one and only Lord Vishnu or Krishna and abolished offering sacrifices. With the help of Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma, Srimanta Shankardeva tries to vanish the superstitious beliefs and irrational practices of Assamese society. The NeoVaishnavite faith developed a democratic outlook which permeates the entire teachings and practices in Assamese people. His contributions not only made the foundations of Assamese literature, culture, and social structure but also established the super structures the upon. It is understood that all contributions of Srimanta Shankardeva bear his marks distinctively. Religion is said to be biggest and the most influential aspect in bringing about change in the society. In Assam, with the essence of neo-vaishnavism by Shankardeva and the emergence of the Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma came into a huge Change to the region. The movement of religion brought about a social mobility to all sections of society. This paper is a mere initiative to look into the organizational structure of Srimanta Shankardeva Sangha and its maintenance of the ideology and principles without failure. It is aimed to examine the assimilation of different groups and communities of people under the fold of Srimanta Shankardeva Sangha.

Keywords: Neo-Vaishnavism, Srimanta Shankardeva, Srimanta Shankardeva Shangha, Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma

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3633 Plasterwork Ornamentation Finds of Hoşap Castle Archeological Excavation (2007-2015)

Authors: M. Top, H. Telli

Abstract:

Plaster material has been a preferred material especially in the Middle East geography in terms of economy, easy process and thermal insulation since very old times. However, due to the unstable nature of the material, very little has been reached today. For this reason, both finds and studies about stucco ornamentation are very few. In this study, the excavated plasterwork finds used in the architectural ornamentation in the Hosap Castle (Van/Turkey) were considered worth examining since they are rare examples. The stucco relief finds that were found in the castle is discussed. The finds of engraved artifacts on the plasterworks were not addressed. Only the pieces found in Area II and Area III (harem) and surrounding during the cleaning and excavation work carried out at Hosap Kalesi between 2007-2015, will be discussed. This is a general assessment about the finds. It is unknown where many of the pieces found. For this reason, only general appraisal was able to done. Most of the parts are made of mold technique. The motifs on the fragments are similar to the motifs of Ottoman period tiles. Parallel to the settlement history of the castle, thought that these plaster pieces belong to the 16th-17th centuries.

Keywords: stucco decoration, Eastern Anatolia, Ottoman motifs, ornamentation, plasterwork

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3632 Definite Article Errors and Effect of L1 Transfer

Authors: Bimrisha Mali

Abstract:

The present study investigates the type of errors English as a second language (ESL) learners produce using the definite article ‘the’. The participants were provided a questionnaire on the learner's ability test. The questionnaire consists of three cloze tests and two free composition tests. Each participant's response was received in the form of written data. A total of 78 participants from three government schools participated in the study. The participants are high-school students from Rural Assam. Assam is a north-eastern state of India. Their age ranged between 14-15. The medium of instruction and the communication among the students take place in the local language, i.e., Assamese. Pit Corder’s steps for conducting error analysis have been followed for the analysis procedure. Four types of errors were found (1) deletion of the definite article, (2) use of the definite article as modifiers as adjectives, (3) incorrect use of the definite article with singular proper nouns, (4) substitution of the definite article by the indefinite article ‘a’. Classifiers in Assamese that express definiteness is used with nouns, adjectives, and numerals. It is found that native language (L1) transfer plays a pivotal role in the learners’ errors. The analysis reveals the learners' inability to acquire the semantic connotation of definiteness in English due to native language (L1) interference.

Keywords: definite article error, l1 transfer, error analysis, ESL

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3631 Identifying the Traditional Color Scheme in Decorative Patterns Used by the Bahnar Ethnic Group in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Viet Tan

Abstract:

The Bahnar is one of 11 indigenous groups living in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. It is one among the four most popular groups in this area, including the Mnong who speak the same language of Mon Khmer family, while both groups of the Jrai and the Rhade belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. These groups once captured fertile plateaus, left their cultural and artistic heritage which affected the remaining small groups. Despite the difference in ethnic origins, these groups seem to share similar beliefs, customs and related folk arts after a very long time living beside each other. However, through an in-depth study, this paper points out the fact that the decorative patterns used by the Bahnar are different from the other ethnic groups, especially in color. Based on historical materials from the local museums and some studies in 1980s when all of the ethnic groups in this area had still lived in self-sufficient condition, this paper characterizes the traditional color scheme used by the Bahnar and identifies the difference in decorative motifs of this group compared to the others by pointing out they do not use green in their usual decorative patterns. Moreover, combined with some field surveys recently, through comparative analysis, it also discovers stylistic variations of these patterns in the process of cultural exchange with the other ethnic groups, both in and out of the region, in modern living conditions. This study helps to preserve and promote the traditional values and cultural identity of the Bahnar people in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, avoiding the fusion of styles among groups during the cultural exchange.

Keywords: Bahnar ethnic group, decorative patterns, the central highlands of Vietnam, the traditional color scheme

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3630 Complementary and Traditional Medicine in Turkey

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an explanation of using and expectation traditional and complementary medicine in Turkey in terms of regionally, cultural and social. Due to geopolitics position, at the intersection of the Middle East, Africa and Europe, Turkey has historically hosted many civilizations and cultures, and hosts many religions at the same time and therefore is very open to intercultural interaction. For this reason, the traditional medicine of Turkey contains traces of many civilizations rather than a traditional medicine of its own. In Turkey, complementary and traditional medicine are used actively. The aim of the study is to measure whether the patients have ever taken traditional medicine as a caretaker or for the supportive treatment of their diseases, and as a result, their expectations. This cross-sectional, paper-based survey study was conducted in 27 state hospitals and 29 family medicine clinics in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Patients who had an appointment in the waiting rooms that day were included. 77.4% of the patients participating in the study stated that they used traditional medicine at least 5 times in their life, 27.6% stated that traditional medicine was sufficient in some diseases, and 36.8% stated that traditional treatment was a part of normal treatment. Both faith and cultural approaches in Turkey always keep traditional medicine close to drugs. Another danger, apart from traditional medicine drugs that can interact with drugs, is that patients find it sufficient to use traditional and complementary medicine alone.

Keywords: complementary medicine, traditional medicine, medicine in Turkey, alternative medicine

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3629 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya, A. M., S. Srivastava, S. Singh, A. Mani

Abstract:

Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: CspA, homology modelling, mutation, molecular dynamics simulation

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3628 Using India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library on Traditional Tibetan Medicine

Authors: Chimey Lhamo, Ngawang Tsering

Abstract:

Traditional Tibetan medicine, known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of healing) that, originated more than 2500 years ago with an insightful background, and it has been growing significant attention in many Asian countries like China, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. Particularly, the Indian government has targeted Traditional Tibetan medicine as its major Indian medical system, including Ayurveda. Although Traditional Tibetan medicine has been growing interest and has a long history, it is not easily recognized worldwide because it is existing only in Tibetan language, and it is neither accessible nor understood by patent examiners at international patent office, data about Traditional Tibetan medicine is not yet broadly exist in the Internet. There has also been exploitation of traditional Tibetan medicine increasing. The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is a database aiming to prevent the patenting and misappropriation of India’s Traditional medicine Knowledge. By using India’s Traditional knowledge Digital Library on Sowa Rigpa in order to prevent its exploitation at international patent with the help of information technology tools and an innovative classification systems-Traditional knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC). As on date, more than 3000 Sowa Rigpa formulations have been transcribed into a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library database. In this paper, we are presenting India's Traditional Knowledge Digital Library for Traditional Tibetan medicine, and this database system helps to preserve, and prevent the exploitation of Sowa Rigpa. Gradually it will be approved and accepted globally.

Keywords: traditional tibetan medicine, India’s traditional knowledge digital library, traditional knowledge resources classification, international patent classification

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3627 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot–Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hot-humid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: hot-humid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning

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3626 A Study of Lapohan Traditional Pottery Making in Selakan Island, Semporna Sabah: An Initial Framework

Authors: Norhayati Ayob, Shamsu Mohamad

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide an initial background of the process of making traditional ceramic pottery, focusing on the materials and the influence of culture heritage. Ceramic pottery is one of the hallmarks of Sabah’s heirloom, not only use as cooking and storage containers but also closely linked with folk cultures and heritage. The Bajau Laut ethnic community of Semporna or better known as the Sea Gypsies, mostly are boat dwellers and work as fishermen in the coast. This ethnic community is famous for their own artistic traditional heirloom, especially the traditional hand-made clay stove called Lapohan. It is found that in the daily life of Bajau Laut community, Lapohan (clay stove) is used to prepare the meal and as a food warmer while they are at the sea. Besides, Lapohan pottery conveys symbolic meaning of natural objects, which portrays the identity, and values of Bajau Laut community. It is acknowledged that the basic process of making potterywares was much the same for people all across the world, nevertheless, it is crucial to consider that different ethnic groups may have their own styles and choices of raw materials. Furthermore, it is still unknown why and how the Bajau Laut ethnic of Semporna get started making their own pottery and to survive until today by heavily depending on the raw materials available in Semporna. In addition, the emergent problem faced by the pottery maker in Sabah is the absence of young successor to continue the heirloom legacy. Therefore, this research aims to explore the traditional pottery making in Sabah, by investigating the background history of Lapohan pottery and to propose the classification of Lapohan based on design and motifs of traditional pottery that will be recognised throughout the study. It is postulated that different techniques and forms of making traditional pottery may produce different types of pottery in terms of surface decoration, shape, and size that portrays different cultures. This study will be conducted at Selakan Island, Semporna, which is the only location that still has Lapohan making. This study is also based on the chronological process of making pottery and taboos of the process of preparing the clay, forming, decoration technique, motif application and firing techniques. The relevant information for the study will be gathered from field study, including observation, in-depth interview and video recording. In-depth interviews will be conducted with several potters and the conversation and pottery making process will be recorded in order to understand the actual process of making Lapohan. The findings hope to provide several types of Lapohan based on different designs and cultures, for example, the one with flat-shape design or has round-shape on the top of clay stove will be labeled with suitable name based on their culture. In conclusion, it is hoped that this study will contribute to conservation for traditional pottery making in Sabah as well as to preserve their culture and heirloom for future generations.

Keywords: Bajau Laut, culture, Lapohan, traditional pottery

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3625 Identity of Cultural Food: A Case Study of Traditional Mon Cuisine in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Saruda Nitiworakarn

Abstract:

This research aims to identify traditional Mon cuisines as well as gather and classify traditional cuisines of Mon communities in Bangkok. The studying of this research is used by methodology of the quantitative research. Using the questionnaire as the method in collecting information from sampling totally amount of 450 persons analyzed via frequency, percentage and mean value. The results showed that a variety of traditional Mon cuisines of Bangkok could split into 6 categories of meat diet with 54 items and 6 categories of desserts with 19 items.

Keywords: cultural identity, traditional food, Mon cuisine, Thailand

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3624 The Integration of Iranian Traditional Architecture in the Contemporary Housing Design: A Case Study

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

Traditional architecture is a valuable source of inspiration, which needs to be studied and integrated in the contemporary designs for achieving an identifiable contemporary architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is among the distinguished examples of being contextually responsive, not only by considering the environmental conditions of a region, but also in terms of respecting the socio-cultural values of its context. In order to apply these valuable features to the current designs, they need to be adapted to today's condition, needs and desires. In this paper, the main features of the traditional architecture of Iran are explained to interrogate them in the formation of a contemporary house in Tehran, Iran. Also a table is provided to compare the utilization of the traditional design concepts in the traditional houses and the contemporary example of it. It is believed that such study would increase the awareness of contemporary designers by providing them some clues on maintaining the traditional values in the current design layouts particularly in the residential sector that would ultimately improve the quality of space in the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: contemporary housing design, Iran, Tehran, traditional architecture

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3623 An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Student Achievement in Differing Science Content Areas

Authors: Edwin Christmann, John Hicks

Abstract:

This meta-analysis compared the mathematics achievement of students who received either traditional instruction or traditional instruction supplemented with computer-assisted instruction (CAI). From the 27 conclusions, an overall mean effect size of 0.236 was calculated, indicating that, on average, students receiving traditional instruction supplemented with CAI attained higher mathematics achievement than did 59.48 percent of those receiving traditional instruction per se.

Keywords: CAI, science, meta-analysis, traditional

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3622 Biophysical Study of the Interaction of Harmalol with Nucleic Acids of Different Motifs: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Approaches

Authors: Kakali Bhadra

Abstract:

Binding of small molecules to DNA and recently to RNA, continues to attract considerable attention for developing effective therapeutic agents for control of gene expression. This work focuses towards understanding interaction of harmalol, a dihydro beta-carboline alkaloid, with different nucleic acid motifs viz. double stranded CT DNA, single stranded A-form poly(A), double-stranded A-form of poly(C)·poly(G) and clover leaf tRNAphe by different spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. Results of this study converge to suggest that (i) binding constant varied in the order of CT DNA > poly(C)·poly(G) > tRNAphe > poly(A), (ii) non-cooperative binding of harmalol to poly(C)·poly(G) and poly(A) and cooperative binding with CT DNA and tRNAphe, (iii) significant structural changes of CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe with concomitant induction of optical activity in the bound achiral alkaloid molecules, while with poly(A) no intrinsic CD perturbation was observed, (iv) the binding was predominantly exothermic, enthalpy driven, entropy favoured with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) while it was entropy driven with tRNAphe and poly(A), (v) a hydrophobic contribution and comparatively large role of non-polyelectrolytic forces to Gibbs energy changes with CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe, and (vi) intercalated state of harmalol with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) structure as revealed from molecular docking and supported by the viscometric data. Furthermore, with competition dialysis assay it was shown that harmalol prefers hetero GC sequences. All these findings unequivocally pointed out that harmalol prefers binding with ds CT DNA followed by ds poly(C)·poly(G), clover leaf tRNAphe and least with ss poly(A). The results highlight the importance of structural elements in these natural beta-carboline alkaloids in stabilizing different DNA and RNA of various motifs for developing nucleic acid based better therapeutic agents.

Keywords: calorimetry, docking, DNA/RNA-alkaloid interaction, harmalol, spectroscopy

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3621 Nabokov’s Lolita: Externalization of Contemporary Mind in the Configuration of Hedonistic Aesthetics

Authors: Saima Murtaza

Abstract:

Ethics and aesthetics have invariably remained the two closely integrated artistic appurtenances for the production of any work of art. These artistic devices configure themselves into a complex synthesis in our contemporary literature. The labyrinthine integration of ethics and aesthetics, operating in the lives of human characters, to the extent of transcending all limits has resulted in an artistic puzzle for the readers. Art, no doubt, is an extrinsic expression of the intrinsic life of man. The use of aesthetics in literature pertaining to human existence; aesthetic solipsism, has resulted in the artistic objectification of these characters. The practice of the like aestheticism deprives the characters of their souls, rendering them as mere objects of aesthetic gaze at the hands of their artists-creators. Artists orchestrate their lives founding it on a plot which deviates from normal social and ethical standards. Their perverse attitude can be seen in dealing with characters, their feelings and the incidents of their lives. Morality is made to appear not as a religious construct but as an individual’s private affair. Furthermore, the idea of beauty incarnated, in other words hedonistic aesthetic does not placate a true aesthete. Ethics and aesthetics are the two most recurring motifs of our contemporary literature, especially of Nabokov’s world. The purpose of this study is to peruse these aforementioned motifs in Nabokov’s most enigmatic novel Lolita, a story of pedophilia, which is in fact reflective of our complex individual psychic and societal patterns. The narrative subverts all the traditional and hitherto known notions of aesthetics and ethics. When applied to literature, aesthetic does not simply mean ‘beautiful’ in the text. It refers to an intricate relationship between feelings and perception and also incorporates within its range wide-ranging emotional reactions to text. The term aesthetics in literature is connected with the readers whose critical responses to the text determine the merit of any work to be really a piece of art. Aestheticism is the child of ethics. Morality sets the grounds for the production of any work and the idea of aesthetics gives it transcendence.

Keywords: ethics, aesthetics and hedonistic aesthetic, nymphet syndrome, pedophilia

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3620 Investigation and Research on Construction Technology of Tenon and Mortise in Traditional Chinese Architecture

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional architecture has developed a school of its own in the world. It has a different structure and construction technology from western architecture. Tenon and mortise structure and construction technology, as the key to the construction of traditional Chinese architecture, have been inherited for thousands of years by traditional craftsmen in various regions of China. However, the traditional architecture varies greatly in different times and regional cultures in China. It is still a lack of research whether this difference extends to mortise and tenon technology. In this study, we measured the mortise and tenon of traditional buildings in Fujian province, Yunnan province, and Northern China; Interviewed some old craftsmen about their traditional construction methods, And compared the today's traditional mortise and tenon technology with that of Song and Qing Dynasties. The results showed that although Chinese traditional architecture has the same origin, the mortise and tenon construction technology systems have been developed at different times, regions, and cultures. For example, tenon and mortise technology in Yunnan Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to resist earthquakes, while that in Fujian Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to withstand typhoons. People in different regions, cultures, and times have a different understanding of architectural aesthetics, and the evolution of tools also has different effects on mortise and tenon technology. This study explains the manifestations and causes of these differences. At the same time, due to the impact of modern architectural technology, mortise, and tenon, traditional technology is also rapidly disappearing. As a sorting and collection of mortise and tenon techniques of traditional Chinese architecture, this paper puts forward the corresponding traditional technology protection strategy, to guide the protection and maintenance of local traditional buildings.

Keywords: tenon and mortise, traditional Chinese architecture, traditional craftsmen, construction technology

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3619 A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Juanita, B. Kombaitan, Iwan Pratoyo Kusumantoro

Abstract:

The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.

Keywords: traditional mode, sustainable, urban, transportation

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