Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1626

Search results for: contact tracing

1626 A Machine Learning Approach to Digital Contact Tracing

Authors: Badrinath Singhal, Chris Vorster, Di Meng, Gargi Gupta, Laura Dunne, Mark Germaine

Abstract:

Contact tracing is a method used by public health organisations to try to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the community. Traditionally performed by manual contact tracers, more recently, the use of apps has been considered utilising phone sensor data to determine the distance between two phones. In this paper, we investigate the development of machine learning approaches to determine the distance between two mobile phone devices using Bluetooth Low Energy, sensory data and meta data. We use the Tab-Net architecture and feature engineering to improve the existing state-of-the-art (total nDCF 0.21 vs 2.08), significantly outperforming existing models.

Keywords: BLE, COVID-19, contact tracing, RSSI, TabNet

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1625 Digital Health During a Pandemic: Critical Analysis of the COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps

Authors: Mohanad Elemary, Imose Itua, Rajeswari B. Matam

Abstract:

Virologists and public health experts have been predicting potential pandemics from coronaviruses for decades. The viruses which caused the SARS and MERS pandemics and the Nipah virus led to many lost lives, but still, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus surprised many scientific communities, experts, and governments with its ease of transmission and its pathogenicity. Governments of various countries reacted by locking down entire populations to their homes to combat the devastation caused by the virus, which led to a loss of livelihood and economic hardship to many individuals and organizations. To revive national economies and support their citizens in resuming their lives, governments focused on the development and use of contact tracing apps as a digital way to track and trace exposure. Google and Apple introduced the Exposure Notification Systems (ENS) framework. Independent organizations and countries also developed different frameworks for contact tracing apps. The efficiency, popularity, and adoption rate of these various apps have been different across countries. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the different contact tracing apps with respect to their efficiency, adoption rate and general perception, and the governmental strategies and policies, which led to the development of the applications. When it comes to the European countries, each of them followed an individualistic approach to the same problem resulting in different realizations of a similarly functioning application with differing results of use and acceptance. The study conducted an extensive review of existing literature, policies, and reports across multiple disciplines, from which a framework was developed and then validated through interviews with six key stakeholders in the field, including founders and executives in digital health startups and corporates as well as experts from international organizations like The World Health Organization. A framework of best practices and tactics is the result of this research. The framework looks at three main questions regarding the contact tracing apps; how to develop them, how to deploy them, and how to regulate them. The findings are based on the best practices applied by governments across multiple countries, the mistakes they made, and the best practices applied in similar situations in the business world. The findings include multiple strategies when it comes to the development milestone regarding establishing frameworks for cooperation with the private sector and how to design the features and user experience of the app for a transparent, effective, and rapidly adaptable app. For the deployment section, several tactics were discussed regarding communication messages, marketing campaigns, persuasive psychology, and the initial deployment scale strategies. The paper also discusses the data privacy dilemma and how to build for a more sustainable system of health-related data processing and utilization. This is done through principles-based regulations specific for health data to allow for its avail for the public good. This framework offers insights into strategies and tactics that could be implemented as protocols for future public health crises and emergencies whether global or regional.

Keywords: contact tracing apps, COVID-19, digital health applications, exposure notification system

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1624 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

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1623 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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1622 A Novel Method for Live Debugging of Production Web Applications by Dynamic Resource Replacement

Authors: Khalid Al-Tahat, Khaled Zuhair Mahmoud, Ahmad Al-Mughrabi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel methodology for enabling debugging and tracing of production web applications without affecting its normal flow and functionality. This method of debugging enables developers and maintenance engineers to replace a set of existing resources such as images, server side scripts, cascading style sheets with another set of resources per web session. The new resources will only be active in the debug session and other sessions will not be affected. This methodology will help developers in tracing defects, especially those that appear only in production environments and in exploring the behaviour of the system. A realization of the proposed methodology has been implemented in Java.

Keywords: live debugging, web application, web resources, inconsistent bugs, tracing

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1621 Ray Tracing Modified 3D Image Method Simulation of Picocellular Propagation Channel Environment

Authors: Fathi Alwafie

Abstract:

In this paper we present the simulation of the propagation characteristics of the picocellular propagation channel environment. The first aim has been to find a correct description of the environment for received wave. The result of the first investigations is that the environment of the indoor wave significantly changes as we change the electric parameters of material constructions. A modified 3D ray tracing image method tool has been utilized for the coverage prediction. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the indoor wave on the wide-band characteristics of the channel: Root Mean Square (RMS) delay spread characteristics and mean excess delay, is also investigated.

Keywords: propagation, ray tracing, network, mobile computing

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1620 Free to Select vTuber Avatar eLearning Video for University Ray Tracing Course

Authors: Rex Hsieh, Kosei Yamamura, Satoshi Cho, Hisashi Sato

Abstract:

This project took place in the fall semester of 2019 from September 2019 to February 2020. It improves upon the design of a previous vTuber based eLearning video system by correcting criticisms from students and enhancing the positive aspects of the previous system. The transformed audio which has proven to be ineffective in previous experiments was not used in this experiment. The result is videos featuring 3 avatars covering different Ray Tracing subject matters being released weekly. Students are free to pick which videos they want to watch and can also re-watch any videos they want. The students' subjective impressions of each video is recorded and analysed to help further improve the system.

Keywords: vTuber, eLearning, Ray Tracing, Avatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
1619 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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1618 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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1617 Development of Internet of Things (IoT) with Mobile Voice Picking and Cargo Tracing Systems in Warehouse Operations of Third-Party Logistics

Authors: Eugene Y. C. Wong

Abstract:

The increased market competition, customer expectation, and warehouse operating cost in third-party logistics have motivated the continuous exploration in improving operation efficiency in warehouse logistics. Cargo tracing in ordering picking process consumes excessive time for warehouse operators when handling enormous quantities of goods flowing through the warehouse each day. Internet of Things (IoT) with mobile cargo tracing apps and database management systems are developed this research to facilitate and reduce the cargo tracing time in order picking process of a third-party logistics firm. An operation review is carried out in the firm with opportunities for improvement being identified, including inaccurate inventory record in warehouse management system, excessive tracing time on stored products, and product misdelivery. The facility layout has been improved by modifying the designated locations of various types of products. The relationship among the pick and pack processing time, cargo tracing time, delivery accuracy, inventory turnover, and inventory count operation time in the warehouse are evaluated. The correlation of the factors affecting the overall cycle time is analysed. A mobile app is developed with the use of MIT App Inventor and the Access management database to facilitate cargo tracking anytime anywhere. The information flow framework from warehouse database system to cloud computing document-sharing, and further to the mobile app device is developed. The improved performance on cargo tracing in the order processing cycle time of warehouse operators have been collected and evaluated. The developed mobile voice picking and tracking systems brings significant benefit to the third-party logistics firm, including eliminating unnecessary cargo tracing time in order picking process and reducing warehouse operators overtime cost. The mobile tracking device is further planned to enhance the picking time and cycle count of warehouse operators with voice picking system in the developed mobile apps as future development.

Keywords: warehouse, order picking process, cargo tracing, mobile app, third-party logistics

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1616 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou

Abstract:

When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

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1615 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

Abstract:

Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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1614 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing

Abstract:

Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

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1613 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding

Abstract:

The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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1612 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

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1611 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat

Abstract:

In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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1610 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih

Abstract:

In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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1609 Energy-Efficient Contact Selection Method for CARD in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Mehdi Assefi, Keihan Hataminezhad

Abstract:

One of the efficient architectures for exploring the resources in wireless ad-hoc networks is contact-based architecture. In this architecture, each node assigns a unique zone for itself and each node keeps all information from inside the zone, as well as some from outside the zone, which is called contact. Reducing the overlap between different zones of a node and its contacts increases its performance, therefore Edge Method (EM) is designed for this purpose. Contacts selected by EM do not have any overlap with their sources, but for choosing the contact a vast amount of information must be transmitted. In this article, we will offer a new protocol for contact selection, which is called PEM. The objective would be reducing the volume of transmitted information, using Non-Uniform Dissemination Probabilistic Protocols. Consumed energy for contact selection is a function of the size of transmitted information between nodes. Therefore, by reducing the content of contact selection message using the PEM will decrease the consumed energy. For evaluation of the PEM we applied the simulation method. Results indicated that PEM consumes less energy compared to EM, and by increasing the number of nodes (level of nodes), performance of PEM will improve in comparison with EM.

Keywords: wireless ad-hoc networks, contact selection, method for CARD, energy-efficient

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1608 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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1607 Simulation the Stress Distribution of Wheel/Rail at Contact Region

Authors: Norie A. Akeel, Z. Sajuri, A. K. Ariffin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of different loading analysis on crack initiation life of wheel/rail in the contact region. A simulated three dimensional (3D) elasto plastic model of a wheel/rail contact is modeled using the fine mesh technique in the contact region by using Finite Element Method FEM code ANSYS 11.0 software. Different loads of approximately from 70 to 140 KN was applied on the wheel tread through the running surface on the railhead surface to simulate stress distribution (Von Mises) and a life prediction of the crack initiation under rolling contact motion. Stress analysis is achieved and the fatigue life to the rail head surface is calculated numerically by using a multi-axial fatigue life of crack initiation model. All results obtained from the previous researches are compared with this research.

Keywords: FEM, rolling contact, rail track, stress distribution, fatigue life

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1606 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

Abstract:

We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Au/Graphene contacts, graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts, Raman spectroscopy

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1605 Increasing the Forecasting Fidelity of Current Collection System Operating Capability by Means of Contact Pressure Simulation Modelling

Authors: Anton Golubkov, Gleb Ermachkov, Aleksandr Smerdin, Oleg Sidorov, Victor Philippov

Abstract:

Current collection quality is one of the limiting factors when increasing trains movement speed in the rail sector. With the movement speed growth, the impact forces on the current collector from the rolling stock and the aerodynamic influence increase, which leads to the spread in the contact pressure values, separation of the current collector head from the contact wire, contact arcing and excessive wear of the contact elements. The upcoming trend in resolving this issue is the use of the automatic control systems providing stabilization of the contact pressure value. The present paper considers the features of the contemporary automatic control systems of the current collector’s pressure; their major disadvantages have been stated. A scheme of current collector pressure automatic control has been proposed, distinguished by a proactive influence on undesirable effects. A mathematical model of contact strips wearing has been presented, obtained in accordance with the provisions of the central composition rotatable design program. The analysis of the obtained dependencies has been carried out. The procedures for determining the optimal current collector pressure on the contact wire and the pressure control principle in the pneumatic drive have been described.

Keywords: contact strip, current collector, high-speed running, program control, wear

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1604 The Contact between a Rigid Substrate and a Thick Elastic Layer

Authors: Nicola Menga, Giuseppe Carbone

Abstract:

Although contact mechanics has been widely focused on the study of contacts between half-space, it has been recently pointed out that in presence of finite thickness elastic layers the results of the contact problem show significant difference in terms of the main contact quantities (e.g. contact area, penetration, mean pressure, etc.). Actually, there exist a wide range of industrial application demanding for this kind of studies, such as seals leakage prediction or pressure-sensitive coatings for electrical applications. In this work, we focus on the contact between a rigid profile and an elastic layer of thickness h confined under two different configurations: rigid constrain and applied uniform pressure. The elastic problem at hand has been formalized following Green’s function method and then numerically solved by means of a matrix inversion. We study different contact conditions, both considering and neglecting adhesive interactions at the interface. This leads to different solution techniques: Adhesive contacts equilibrium solution is found, in term of contact area for given penetration, making stationary the total free energy of the system; whereas, adhesiveless contacts are addressed defining an equilibrium criterion, again on the contact area, relying on the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor KI. In particular, we make the KI vanish at the edges of the contact area, as peculiar for adhesiveless elastic contacts. The results are obtained in terms of contact area, penetration, and mean pressure for both adhesive and adhesiveless contact conditions. As expected, in the case of a uniform applied pressure the slab turns out much more compliant than the rigidly constrained one. Indeed, we have observed that the peak value of the contact pressure, for both the adhesive and adhesiveless condition, is much higher for the rigidly constrained configuration than in the case of applied uniform pressure. Furthermore, we observed that, for little contact area, both systems behave the same and the pull-off occurs at approximately the same contact area and mean contact pressure. This is an expected result since in this condition the ratio between the layers thickness and the contact area is very high and both layer configurations recover the half-space behavior where the pull-off occurrence is mainly controlled by the adhesive interactions, which are kept constant among the cases.

Keywords: contact mechanics, adhesion, friction, thick layer

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1603 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher

Abstract:

In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

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1602 Wettability Behavior of Organic Silane Molecules with Different Alkyl-Chain Length Coated Si Surface

Authors: Takahiro Ishizaki, Shutaro Hisada, Oi Lun Li

Abstract:

Control of surface wettability is very important in various industrial fields. Thus, contact angle hysteresis which is defined as the difference between advancing and receding water contact angles has been paid attention because the surface having low contact angle hysteresis can control wetting behavior of water droplet. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed using organic silane molecules has been used to control surface wettability, in particular, static contact angles, however, the effect of alkyl-chain length in organic silane molecules on the contact angle hysteresis has not yet clarified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of alkyl-chain length (C1-C18) in organic silane molecules on the contact angle hysteresis. SAMs were formed on Si wafer by thermal CVD method using silane coupling agents having different alkyl-chain length. The static water contact angles increased with an increase in the alkyl-chain length. On the other hand, although the water contact angle hysteresis tended to decrease with an increase in the alkyl-chain length, in case of the alkyl-chain length of more than C16 the contact angle hysteresis increased. This could be due to the decrease in the molecular mobility because of the increase in the molecular packing density in chemisorbed silane molecules.

Keywords: alkyl-chain length, self-assembled monolayer, silane coupling agent, surface wettability

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1601 Iterative Solver for Solving Large-Scale Frictional Contact Problems

Authors: Thierno Diop, Michel Fortin, Jean Deteix

Abstract:

Since the precise formulation of the elastic part is irrelevant for the description of the algorithm, we shall consider a generic case. In practice, however, we will have to deal with a non linear material (for instance a Mooney-Rivlin model). We are interested in solving a finite element approximation of the problem, leading to large-scale non linear discrete problems and, after linearization, to large linear systems and ultimately to calculations needing iterative methods. This also implies that penalty method, and therefore augmented Lagrangian method, are to be banned because of their negative effect on the condition number of the underlying discrete systems and thus on the convergence of iterative methods. This is in rupture to the mainstream of methods for contact in which augmented Lagrangian is the principal tool. We shall first present the problem and its discretization; this will lead us to describe a general solution algorithm relying on a preconditioner for saddle-point problems which we shall describe in some detail as it is not entirely standard. We will propose an iterative approach for solving three-dimensional frictional contact problems between elastic bodies, including contact with a rigid body, contact between two or more bodies and also self-contact.

Keywords: frictional contact, three-dimensional, large-scale, iterative method

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1600 Checking Planetary Clutch on the Romania Tractor Using Mathematical Equations

Authors: Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi

Abstract:

In this investigation, at first, bending stress, contact stress, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact between sun gear and planet gear tooth was determined using mathematical equations. Also, The amount of Sun Revolution in, Speed carrier, power Transmitted of the sun, sun torque, sun peripheral speed, Enter the tangential force gears, was calculated using mathematical equations. According to the obtained results, maximum of bending stress and contact stress occurred in three plantary and low status of four plantary. Also, maximum of Speed carrier, sun peripheral speed, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact obtained in four plantary and maximum of power Transmitted of the sun, Enter the tangential force gears, bending stress and contact stress was in three pantry and factors And other factors were equal in the two planets.

Keywords: bending stress, contact stress, plantary, mathematical equations

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1599 Evaluation of TRIS-DMA-NVP Hydrogels for Making Silicone-Based Contact Lenses

Authors: N. P. D. Tran, H. Q. D. Nguyen, M. C. Yang

Abstract:

In this study, contact lenses were prepared through the polymerization of tris-(trimethyl-silyl-propyl-methacrylate) (TRIS), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), and cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). The equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), light transmittance, and in vitro cytotoxicity of TRIS-DMA-NVP with various ratios were measured. The results showed that the EWC increased while the Dk decreased with the increase of NVP content. For the sample with 25 wt% NVP, the EWC attained 53% whereas the Dk decreased to 46 barrers. All these lenses exhibited light transmittance over than 95%. In addition, all these lenses exhibited no inhibition to the growth of L292 fibroblasts. Thus, this study showed that TRIS-DMA-NVP can be applicable for making contact lens.

Keywords: DMA, TRIS, NVP, silicone hydrogel, contact lens

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1598 The Role of Long-Chain Ionic Surfactants on Extending Drug Delivery from Contact Lenses

Authors: Cesar Torres, Robert Briber, Nam Sun Wang

Abstract:

Eye drops are the most commonly used treatment for short-term and long-term ophthalmic diseases. However, eye drops could deliver only about 5% of the functional ingredients contained in a burst dosage. To address the limitations of eye drops, the use of therapeutic contact lenses has been introduced. Drug-loaded contact lenses provide drugs a longer residence time in the tear film and hence, decrease the potential risk of side effects. Nevertheless, a major limitation of contact lenses as drug delivery devices is that most of the drug absorbed is released within the first few hours. This fact limits their use for extended release. The present study demonstrates the application of long-alkyl chain ionic surfactants on extending drug release kinetics from commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In vitro release experiments were carried by immersing drug-containing contact lenses in phosphate buffer saline at physiological pH. The drug concentration as a function of time was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate that release kinetics is dependent on the ionic surfactant weight percent in the contact lenses, and on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the ionic surfactants. The use of ionic surfactants in contact lenses can extend the delivery of drugs from a few hours to a few weeks, depending on the physicochemical properties of the drugs. Contact lenses embedded with ionic surfactants could be potential biomaterials to be used for extended drug delivery and in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, ocular irritation and toxicity studies would be needed to evaluate the safety of the approach.

Keywords: contact lenses, drug delivery, controlled release, ionic surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1597 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 190