Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7873

Search results for: comparing theory with practice

7873 Comparing the Theory to the Practice of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Zareen Khan

Abstract:

Islamic Banking has experienced high growth in Pakistan in recent years and has successfully survived the economic downturn of 2009-2011. Despite the increase in branch network and expansion of services, it is unclear if Islamic banks are truly following the theory and practical application of Shariah Law. This paper explores the theological basis of Islamic finance and examines the discrepancies between the theory and practice of Islamic banking using Pakistan as a case study. It discusses areas where Islamic banks lack proper Shariah compliance and analyzes the financial weaknesses of Islamic banks in terms of the services offered. Furthermore, the paper offers plausible explanations for the clientele of Islamic banks. The case study has three major findings. Firstly, most of the employees of Islamic banks come from conventional banking backgrounds and the banks have to invest in additional trainings to specialize employees in Islamic Banking. Secondly despite the efforts of State Bank of Pakistan, there is a lack of accounting and auditing standards tailored for Islamic Banking. Thirdly, majority of the clients of Islamic banks in Pakistan are accustomed to conventional banking causing the bankers to “speak the conventional banking language.” Combined, these three factors can create gaps in the practical application of Islamic finance in Islamic banks in Pakistan.

Keywords: islamic finance, comparing theory with practice, islamic banking, Pakistan

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7872 The Significance of ‘Practice’ in Art Research: Indian and Western Perspective

Authors: Mukta Avachat-Shirke

Abstract:

The process of manifestation in art has been studied deeply by various Indian and Western philosophers through times. In the art of painting, ‘Practice’ is always considered as techniques or making and ‘Theory’ is related to intelligence or the ‘conceptual.' The question about the significance of ‘Practice’ in artistic research has been a topic of debate. The aim of this qualitative study is to find the relevance of practice and theory while creating artworks. This study analyzes the thoughts and philosophy of Abhinavgupta, Hegel, and Croce to find a new perspective for looking at practice and theory within artistic research. With the method of grounded theory, the study attempts to establish the importance of both in artistic research. It discusses the issues like stages of creating art, role of tacit knowledge and importance of the decision-making the ability of the artist. This comparative analysis of these three philosophers along with the present systems can be used as a point of reference for further developments in the pedagogy of art research and artists, to understand the psychology and to follow the process of creativity effectively.

Keywords: artistic research, Indian philosophy, practice, Western Philosophy

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7871 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira

Abstract:

Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: taxonomy, teacher-mentors, theory, practice, teacher-mentor training

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7870 Exploring the Nature and Meaning of Theory in the Field of Neuroeducation Studies

Authors: Ali Nouri

Abstract:

Neuroeducation is one of the most exciting research fields which is continually evolving. However, there is a need to develop its theoretical bases in connection to practice. The present paper is a starting attempt in this regard to provide a space from which to think about neuroeducational theory and invoke more investigation in this area. Accordingly, a comprehensive theory of neuroeducation could be defined as grouping or clustering of concepts and propositions that describe and explain the nature of human learning to provide valid interpretations and implications useful for educational practice in relation to philosophical aspects or values. Whereas it should be originated from the philosophical foundations of the field and explain its normative significance, it needs to be testable in terms of rigorous evidence to fundamentally advance contemporary educational policy and practice. There is thus pragmatically a need to include a course on neuroeducational theory into the curriculum of the field. In addition, there is a need to articulate and disseminate considerable discussion over the subject within professional journals and academic societies.

Keywords: neuroeducation studies, neuroeducational theory, theory building, neuroeducation research

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7869 Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence

Authors: Shabnam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to see importance of successful intelligence in education which can enhance achievement. There are a number of researches which have tried to apply psychological theories of education and many researches emphasized the role of thinking and intelligence. While going through the various researches, it was found that many students could learn more effectively than they do, if they were taught in a way that better matched their patterns of abilities. Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative and practical intelligence provides a way to create such a match. The results suggest that theory of successful intelligence provides successful interventions in classrooms and provides a proven model for gifted education. This article presents principles for translating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educational practice.

Keywords: successful intelligence, analytical, creative and practical intelligence, achievement, success, resilience

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7868 Internet of Things Professional Construction Building through the School-Enterprise Cooperation

Authors: Jumin Zhao, Na Li, Dengao Li, Yujuan Yan

Abstract:

As the rapid rise of the networking industry, the shortage of Internet of Things (IoT) talented people greatly stimulates the majority of colleges to speed up the pace of professional networking reform. Caused by the construction of the original specialty, many problems appear such as the vague specialty, the mixed theoretical, the poor practical ability and the different goal. To solve the issues above, we build a ‘theory-practice-theory-improvement’ four-step model of school-enterprise integration of personnel training. Besides, we integrate the advanced teaching philosophy: flip class and Mu class, making IoT teaching more professional and the ability of students more comprehensive.

Keywords: IoT, theory-practice-theory-promotion, major construction, school-enterprise cooperation

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7867 Knowledge Transfer and the Translation of Technical Texts

Authors: Ahmed Alaoui

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the ongoing debate as to the relevance of translation studies to professional practitioners. It exposes the various misconceptions permeating the links between theory and practice in the translation landscape in the Arab World. It is a thesis of this paper that specialization in translation should be redefined; taking account of the fact, that specialized knowledge alone is neither crucial nor sufficient in technical translation. It should be tested against the readability of the translated text, the appropriateness of its style and the usability of its content by end-users to carry out their intended tasks. The paper also proposes a preliminary model to establish a working link between theory and practice from the perspective of professional trainers and practitioners, calling for the latter to participate in the production of knowledge in a systematic fashion. While this proposal is driven by a rather intuitive conviction, a research line is needed to specify the methodological moves to establish the mediation strategies that would relate the components in the model of knowledge transfer proposed in this paper.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, misconceptions, specialized texts, translation theory, translation practice

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7866 Multimedia Data Fusion for Event Detection in Twitter by Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

Authors: Samar M. Alqhtani, Suhuai Luo, Brian Regan

Abstract:

Data fusion technology can be the best way to extract useful information from multiple sources of data. It has been widely applied in various applications. This paper presents a data fusion approach in multimedia data for event detection in twitter by using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The methodology applies a mining algorithm to detect the event. There are two types of data in the fusion. The first is features extracted from text by using the bag-ofwords method which is calculated using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF). The second is the visual features extracted by applying scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). The Dempster - Shafer theory of evidence is applied in order to fuse the information from these two sources. Our experiments have indicated that comparing to the approaches using individual data source, the proposed data fusion approach can increase the prediction accuracy for event detection. The experimental result showed that the proposed method achieved a high accuracy of 0.97, comparing with 0.93 with texts only, and 0.86 with images only.

Keywords: data fusion, Dempster-Shafer theory, data mining, event detection

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7865 Affordances in Boating Performative Practices: The Case of Leisure Boating from the Swedish West Coast

Authors: Neva Leposa

Abstract:

While environmental policy makers are trying to increase pro-environmental behavior among tourists or outdoor recreation users through changing users’ attitudes, the focus of this paper is turned to the importance of so far marginalized – materiality in the users’ practices. The case study of leisure boating in Sweden used in this paper demonstrates how through the change of materiality (i.e. equipment and physical size of the leisure boats) emergent affordances in materially bound practices are transformed, and the boater-boat-sea nexus is redefined. Participatory observation and in-depth interviewing of Swedish West Coast visitors reveal two stories, first one points to the fact that sail boating practice is becoming increasingly motorized and second one describes how leisure boats are becoming increasingly perceived and used as mobile summer houses. Hence, such practice increases energy and matter consumption. This paper describes how that change happens through practice theory and affordance theory, thus points to visibility and the importance of materiality in shaping human nature nexus. Boating practice changes through the change of the materiality of the boats. In particular, energy consumption increases through the change of engagement with the matter. This study puts focus environmental attitudes focused strivings in question, for the fact that it is too individual-centered and lacks contextual understanding of the materially bound practices and may fail in the very thing it is aiming to do - reduce the environmental impacts.

Keywords: practice theory, affordance theory, leisure boating, materiality

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7864 Molecular and Electronic Structure of Chromium (III) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor

Abstract:

Here we show that the reduction of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl2] (1) where (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3) and in presence of NaCp (2) (Cp= C5H5 = cyclopentadien), with a center coordination η5 interaction between Cp as co-ligand and chromium metal center, this was optimization by using density functional theory (DFT) and then was comparing with experimental data, also other possibility of Cp interacted with ion metal were tested like η1 ,η2 ,η3 and η4 under optimization system. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP ( Becke)( Lee–Yang–Parr ) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of chromium cyclopentadienyl. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: Chromium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

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7863 Resilient Environments vs. Resilient Architects: Creativity, Practice and Education

Authors: Y. Perera, M. Pathiraja

Abstract:

Within the paradigm of 'Resilient Built-environments,' in order for architecture to be resilient, 'Resilience' should be identified as an essential component of the architect’s notion of creativity. In much simpler terms, 'Resilient Built-Environment' should necessarily be a by-product of the 'Resilient Architect.' The inherent influence of individualistic notions of creativity upon the practice had intensified the dichotomy between theory and practice unless the notion of 'Resilience' is identified as an integral component of the architect’s notion of creativity. Analysing the architectural position is an ideal way of understanding the architect’s notion of creativity, therefore, in exploring the notion of 'Resilience' and the 'Resilient Architect' within the Sri Lankan platform, the architectural positions of two renowned architects; Geoffrey Bawa and Valentine Gunasekara were explored and analysed. The architectural positions of both the architects asserted specific rules and methodologies adopted within the process of problem solving that had subsequently led to a traceable language / pattern within their architecture. The dominance of such rules within the practice could be detrimental to adaptation of theories / notions, such as 'Resilience' and the formation of the 'Resilient Architect', unless methodologies itself are flexible, robust, despite rigidity, or else the notion of 'Resilience' exist in the form of a methodological rule.

Keywords: architectural position, creativity, education, practice, resilience, theory

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7862 Socio-Technical Systems: Transforming Theory into Practice

Authors: L. Ngowi, N. H. Mvungi

Abstract:

This paper critically examines the evolution of socio-technical systems theory, its practices, and challenges in system design and development. It examines concepts put forward by researchers focusing on the application of the theory in software engineering. There are various methods developed that use socio-technical concepts based on systems engineering without remarkable success. The main constraint is the large amount of data and inefficient techniques used in the application of the concepts in system engineering for developing time-bound systems and within a limited/controlled budget. This paper critically examines each of the methods, highlight bottlenecks and suggest the way forward. Since socio-technical systems theory only explains what to do, but not how doing it, hence engineers are not using the concept to save time, costs and reduce risks associated with new frameworks. Hence, a new framework, which can be considered as a practical approach is proposed that borrows concepts from soft systems method, agile systems development and object-oriented analysis and design to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The approach will enable the development of systems using socio-technical systems theory to attract/enable the system engineers/software developers to use socio-technical systems theory in building worthwhile information systems to avoid fragilities and hostilities in the work environment.

Keywords: socio-technical systems, human centered design, software engineering, cognitive engineering, soft systems, systems engineering

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7861 Analyzing Sociocultural Factors Shaping Architects’ Construction Material Choices: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Maiss Razem

Abstract:

The construction sector is considered a major consumer of materials that undergoes processes of extraction, processing, transportation, and maintaining when used in buildings. Several metrics have been devised to capture the environmental impact of the materials consumed during construction using lifecycle thinking. Rarely has the materiality of this sector been explored qualitatively and systemically. This paper aims to explore socio-cultural forces that drive the use of certain materials in the Jordanian construction industry, using practice theory as a heuristic method of analysis, more specifically Shove et al. three-element model. By conducting semi-structured interviews with architects, the results unravel contextually embedded routines when determining qualities of three materialities highlighted herein; stone, glass and spatial openness. The study highlights the inadequacy of only using efficiency as a quantitative metric of sustainable materials and argues for the need to link material consumption with socio-economic, cultural, and aesthetic driving forces. The operationalization of practice theory by tracing materials’ lifetimes as they integrate with competencies and meanings captures dynamic engagements through the analyzed routines of actors in the construction practice. This study can offer policymakers better-nuanced representation to green this sector beyond efficiency rhetoric and quantitative metrics.

Keywords: architects' practices, construction materials, Jordan, practice theory

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7860 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: learning, practising, assessment, preservice teacher education program, theory and practice, theory and practice

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7859 Codifying the Creative Self: Conflicts of Theory and Content in Creative Writing

Authors: Danielle L. Iamarino

Abstract:

This paper explores the embattled territory of academic creative writing—and most focally, the use of critical theory in the teaching and structuring of creative practice. It places creative writing in contemporary social, cultural, and otherwise anthropological contexts, and evaluates conventional creative writing pedagogies based on how well they serve the updated needs of increasingly diverse student congregations. With continued emphasis on student-centered learning, this paper compares theoretical to practical applications of discipline-specific knowledge, examining and critiquing theory in terms of its relevance, accessibility, and whether or not it is both actionable and beneficial in the creative writing classroom.

Keywords: creative writing, literary theory, content, pedagogy, workshop, teaching

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7858 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

Abstract:

Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

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7857 Practice Educators' Perspective: Placement Challenges in Social Work Education in England

Authors: Yuet Wah Echo Yeung

Abstract:

Practice learning is an important component of social work education. Practice educators are charged with the responsibility to support and enable learning while students are on placement. They also play a key role in teaching students to integrate theory and practice, as well as assessing their performance. Current literature highlights the structural factors that make it difficult for practice educators to create a positive learning environment for students. Practice educators find it difficult to give sufficient attention to their students because of the lack of workload relief, the increasing emphasis on managerialism and bureaucratisation, and a range of competing organisational and professional demands. This paper reports the challenges practice educators face and how they manage these challenges in this context. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with thirteen practice educators who support students in statutory and voluntary social care settings in the Northwest of England. Interviews were conducted between April and July 2017 and each interview lasted about 40 minutes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. All practice educators are experienced social work practitioners with practice experience ranging from 6 to 42 years. On average they have acted as practice educators for 13 years and all together have supported 386 students. Our findings reveal that apart from the structural factors that impact how practice educators perform their roles, they also faced other challenges when supporting students on placement. They include difficulty in engaging resistant students, complexity in managing power dynamics in the context of practice learning, and managing the dilemmas of fostering a positive relationship with students whilst giving critical feedback. Suggestions to enhance the practice educators’ role include support from organisations and social work teams; effective communication with university tutors, and a forum for practice educators to share good practice and discuss placement issues.

Keywords: social work education, placement challenges, practice educator, practice learning

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7856 Educating the Education Student: Technology as the Link between Theory and Praxis

Authors: Rochelle Botha-Marais

Abstract:

When lecturing future educators in South Africa, praxis is an indispensable aspect that is often neglected. Without properly understanding how the theory taught in lecture halls relates to their future position as educators, we can not expect these students to be fully equipped future teachers. To enable education students at the Vaal Campus of the North West University - who have the Afrikaans language as major - to discover the link between theory and practice, the author created an assignment on phonetics in which the use of technology was incorporated. In the past, students had to submit an assignment or worksheet and they did not get the opportunity to apply their newly found knowledge in a practical manner. For potential future teachers, this application is essential. This paper will demonstrate how technology is used in the second year Afrikaans education module to promote student engagement and self-directed learning. Students were introduced to innovative new technologies alongside more familiar applications to shape a 21st century learning environment where students can think, communicate, solve problems, collaborate and take responsibility for their own teaching and learning. The paper will also reflect on student feedback pertaining the use and efficiency of technology in the Afrikaans module and the possible impact thereof on their own teaching and learning landscape. The aim of this paper is to showcase how technology can be used to maximize the students learning experience and equip future education students with the tools and knowledge to introduce technology-enhanced learning in their own teaching practice.

Keywords: education students, theory and practice, self-directed learning, student engagement, technology

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7855 Towards Establishing a Universal Theory of Project Management

Authors: Divine Kwaku Ahadzie

Abstract:

Project management (PM) as a concept has evolved from the early 20th Century into a recognized academic and professional discipline, and indications are that it has come to stay in the 21st Century as a world-wide paradigm shift for managing successful construction projects. However, notwithstanding the strong inroads that PM has made in legitimizing its academic and professional status in construction management practice, the underlining philosophies are still based on cases and conventional practices. An important theoretical issue yet to be addressed is the lack of a universal theory that offers philosophical legitimacy for the PM concept as a uniquely specialized management concept. Here, it is hypothesized that the law of entropy, the theory of uncertainties and the theory of risk management offer plausible explanations for addressing the lacuna of what constitute PM theory. The theoretical bases of these plausible underlying theories are argued and attempts made to establish the functional relationships that exist between these theories and the PM concept. The paper then draws on data related to the success and/or failure of a number of construction projects to validate the theory.

Keywords: concepts, construction, project management, universal theory

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7854 Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: The Experience of Malaysia and Algeria

Authors: Zidane Abderrezaq

Abstract:

This paper’s primary objective is to identify the relative importance of various Islamic financial products, in theory and in practice, by examining the financing records of the Bank Islam Malaysia (Berhad) and the Algeria Islamic Bank. Currently, seven available Islamic financing products are considered viable alternatives to interest-based conventional contracts: mudarabah (trust financing), musharakah (equity financing), ijarah (lease financing), murabahah (trade financing), qard al-hassan (welfare loan), bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil (deferred payment financing), and istisna` (progressive payments). Among these financial products, mudarabah and musharakah are the most distinct. Their unique characteristics (at least in theory) make Islamic banks and Islamic financing viable alternatives to the conventional interest-based financial system. The question before us is to determine the extent of mudarabah and musharakah in Islamic financing in practice. The data are as follows: the average mudarabah is 5% of total financing, and the average musharakah is less than 3%. The combined average of mudarabah and musharakah for the two Islamic banks is less than 4% of the total finance and advances. The average qard al-hassan is about 4%, while istisna` does not yet exist in practice. Murabahah is the most popular and dominates all other modes of Islamic financing. The average use of murabahah is over 54%. When the bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil is added to the murabahah, the percentage of total financing is shown to be 82.68%. This paper also explores some possible reasons why these two Islamic banks appear to prefer murabahah to mudarabah and musharakah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Islamic banking rofitability, investment banking

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7853 A Modified Refined Higher Order Zigzag Theory for Stress Analysis of Hybrid Composite Laminates

Authors: Dhiraj Biswas, Chaitali Ray

Abstract:

A modified refined higher order zigzag theory has been developed in this paper in order to compute the accurate interlaminar stresses within hybrid laminates. Warping has significant effect on the mechanical behaviour of the laminates. To the best of author(s)’ knowledge the stress analysis of hybrid laminates is not reported in the published literature. The present paper aims to develop a new C0 continuous element based on the refined higher order zigzag theories considering warping effect in the formulation of hybrid laminates. The eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is used for the flexural analysis of laminated composite plates to study the performance of the proposed model. The transverse shear stresses are computed by using the differential equations of stress equilibrium in a simplified manner. A computer code has been developed using MATLAB software package. Several numerical examples are solved to assess the performance of the present finite element model based on the proposed higher order zigzag theory by comparing the present results with three-dimensional elasticity solutions. The present formulation is validated by comparing the results obtained from the relevant literature. An extensive parametric study has been carried out on the hybrid laminates with varying percentage of materials and angle of orientation of fibre content.

Keywords: hybrid laminate, Interlaminar stress, refined higher order zigzag theory, warping effect

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7852 Pracademia in Irish Higher Education: The Only Solution to Contemporary Regulation in Professional Social Care Practice

Authors: Aoife Prendergast

Abstract:

The synergy between theory and practice can be considered elusive, the touchstone for the development of successful undergraduate programmes particularly in allied health professions such as social care. A 'pracademic' is a person who spans both the somewhat ethereal world of academia as a scholar and the pragmatic world of practice. This paper examines the concept of 'pracademia' in relation to the role of the social care practitioner and continuing professional development. It also assists in the understanding of the synergy between social care professionals and higher education. A consideration of the identity and position in terms of approach to regulation is explored as well as an acknowledgement of the strengths and opportunities for sharing power in hierarchical positions. The world of practice serves as the centre point of the academic compass for most professional programs. Just as schools of engineering and law are disciplined by the marketplace, which seeks well-trained students, so our social care programmes must perennially find ways to address the fast changing needs of practitioners, whether they be government, not-for-profit organizations, consulting firms or contractors. We may not expect such traditional academic disciplines as history, sociology, or political science to cater to the needs of external audiences or practitioners— indeed, these disciplines' insulation from public concerns and issues is considered a strength by some. This paper aims to explore the integration of academic teaching and research with the communities of practice in social care. This appears to be a fundamental aspiration of the social care profession. While building and integrating an important body of academic theory and concepts from a variety of disciplines, social care as a field has embraced a professional orientation by seeking to be relevant to practitioners at various levels. While teaching theory, social care programmes, and faculty are often acutely aware that their academic content and credibility, in part, rest on a deep connection with practitioners. While theory can be self-contained, the impact of our research and teaching arguably finds its most compelling and highest audience when it addresses the agenda items and concerns of practitioners.

Keywords: social care, pracademia, supervision, practice education

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7851 Forecasting of Innovative Development of Kondratiev-Schumpeter’s Economic Cycles

Authors: Alexander Gretchenko, Liudmila Goncharenko, Sergey Sybachin

Abstract:

This article summarizes the history of the discovery of N.D. Kondratiev of large cycles of economic conditions, as well as the creation and justification of the theory of innovation-cyclical economic development of Kondratiev-Schumpeter. An analysis of it in modern conditions is providing. The main conclusion in this article is that in general terms today it can be argued that the Kondratiev-Schumpeter theory is sufficiently substantiated. Further, the possibility of making a forecast of the development of the economic situation in the direction of applying this theory in practice, which demonstrate its effectiveness, is considered.

Keywords: Kondratiev's big cycles of economic conjuncture, Schumpeter's theory of innovative economic development, long-term cyclical forecasting, dating of Kondratiev cycles

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7850 The Effect of Internal Auditing Function on the Quality of Financial Reporting: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Hani Albogami

Abstract:

The internal audit function is considered as one of the internal corporate governance mechanisms that may have an impact on improving earnings quality by constraining earnings management. The internal audit function is also a unique corporate governance mechanism because internal auditors have more involvement with the day-to-day operations comparing to the audit committee, and also internal auditors audit their companies the whole year compared to the external auditor who audits only a certain time of the year. The relationships between internal audit function and earnings management can be understood by some theories. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical background of the influence of the quality of internal audit function on earnings management. In particular, the agency theory, institutional theory, singling theory, and resource dependency theory are adapted by this paper to provide some understanding and analyses that can be a basis for future research to contribute to the corporate governance academic studies.

Keywords: internal audit, corporate governance, earnings management, accounting

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7849 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

Abstract:

As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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7848 Classroom Readiness of Open and Distance Learning Student Teachers

Authors: E. C. du Plessis

Abstract:

Teaching practice is a major component of teacher education and the preparation of teachers for the real-life classroom throughout the world. Learning is seen as a constructive process, whether it is classroom based or takes place by means of distance education. Blending theory and practice with effective education in distance context as part of situated learning is crucial. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine distance education student teachers' classroom readiness on completion of the teaching practice modules of their Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) course. A qualitative research approach was used for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. A total of 15 student teachers enrolled at the College of Education of an ODL (Open and Distance Learning) institution were selected and volunteered to participate in the research. In the light of the results of the research, it is recommended that more attention is given to the interaction between mentor teachers, academic lecturers, and student teachers, as well as the expectations and responsibilities of these role-players.

Keywords: communities of practice, mentor teachers, open and distance learning, practicum, professional development, student teachers, teaching practice

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7847 The Flipped Education Case Study on Teacher Professional Learning Community in Technology and Media Implementation

Authors: Juei-Hsin Wang, Yen-Ting Chen

Abstract:

The paper examines teacher professional learning community theory and implementation by using technology and media tools in Taiwan. After literature review, the researcher concluded in five elements of teacher professional learning community theory. They are ‘sharing the vision and value', ‘collaborative cooperation’, ‘ to support the situation', ‘to share practice' and 'Pay Attention to Student Learning Effectiveness' five levels by using technology and media in flipped education. Teacher professional learning community is one kind of models for teacher professional development in flipped education. Due to Taiwan education culture, there is no summative evaluation for teachers. So, there are multiple kinds of ways and education practice in teacher professional learning community nowadays. This study used literature review and quality analysis to analyze the connection theory and practice and discussed the official and non‐official strategies on teacher professional learning community by using technology and media in flipped education. The tablet is used as a camera tool for classroom students to solve problems. The students can instantly see and enable other students to watch the whole class discussion by operating the tablet. This would allow teachers and students to focus on discussing the connotation of subjects, especially bottom‐up and non‐official cases from teachers become an important influence in Taiwan.

Keywords: professional learning community, collaborative cooperation, flipped education, technology application, media application

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7846 Literature Review and Evaluation of the Internal Marketing Theory

Authors: Hsiao Hsun Yuan

Abstract:

Internal marketing was proposed in 1970s. The theory of the concept has continually changed over the past forty years. This study discussed the following themes: the definition and implication of internal marketing, the progress of its development, and the evolution of its theoretical model. Moreover, the study systematically organized the strategies of the internal marketing theory adopted on enterprise and how they were put into practice. It also compared the empirical studies focusing on how the existent theories influenced the important variables of internal marketing. The results of this study are expected to serve as references for future exploration of the boundary and studies aiming at how internal marketing is applied to different types of enterprises.

Keywords: corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
7845 Psychological Interventions as an Effective Treatment of Depression: A Critical Appraisal of the Literature

Authors: Brid Joy

Abstract:

This paper discusses some major psychological interventions and critiques their effectiveness in relation to the treatment of depression. Links are made between this evidence and the social work profession. This paper reviewed the relevant literature and evidence to ascertain the effectiveness of psychological interventions in the treatment of depression. Evidence suggests that psychological interventions are effective in the treatment of depression. However, a gulf between theory and practice remains and the difficulties in implementing evidence-based practice have been documented within this paper.

Keywords: psychological interventions, social work, depression, evidence based practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
7844 Moving from Practice to Theory

Authors: Maria Lina Garrido

Abstract:

This paper aims to reflect upon instruction in English classes with the specific purpose of reading comprehension development, having as its paradigm the considerations presented by William Grabe, in his book Reading in a Second Language: Moving from theory to practice. His concerns regarding the connection between research findings and instructional practices have stimulated the present author to re-evaluate both her long practice as an English reading teacher and as the author of two reading textbooks for graduate students. Elements of the reading process such as linguistic issues, prior knowledge, reading strategies, critical evaluation, and motivation are the main foci of this analysis as far as the activities developed in the classroom are concerned. The experience with university candidates on postgraduate courses with different levels of English knowledge in Bahia, Brazil, has definitely demanded certain adjustments to this author`s classroom setting. Word recognition based on cognates, for example, has been emphasized given the fact that academic texts use many Latin words which have the same roots as the Brazilian Portuguese lexicon. Concerning syntactic parsing, the tenses/verbal aspects, modality and linking words are included in the curriculum, but not with the same depth as the general English curricula. Reading strategies, another essential predictor for developing reading skills, have been largely stimulated in L2 classes in order to compensate for a lack of the appropriate knowledge of the foreign language. This paper presents results that demonstrate that this author`s teaching practice is compatible with the implications and instruction concerning the reading process outlined by Grabe, however, it admits that each class demands specific instructions to meet the needs of that particular group.

Keywords: classroom practice, instructional activities, reading comprehension, reading skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 382