Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: Solanum nigrum

67 Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach), Celosia argentea (Cock's Comb) and Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade)

Authors: S. O. Oladeji, I. Saleh, A. U. Adamu, S. A. Fowotade

Abstract:

The proximate composition, trace metal level and amino acid composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea and Solanum nigrum were determined. These vegetables were high in their ash contents. Twelve elements were determined: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, nickel, phosphorous, potassium, sodium and zinc using flame photometer, atomic absorption and UV-Visible spectrophotometers. Calcium levels were highest ranged between 145.28±0.38 to 235.62±0.41mg/100g in all the samples followed by phosphorus. Quantitative chromatographic analysis of the vegetables hydrolysates revealed seventeen amino acids with concentration of leucine (6.51 to 6.66±0.21g/16gN) doubling that of isoleucine (2.99 to 3.33±0.21g/16gN) in all the samples while the limiting amino acids were cystine and methionine. The result showed that these vegetables were of high nutritive values and could be adequate used as supplement in diet.

Keywords: proximate, amino acids, Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, Solanum nigrum

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66 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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65 Rapid Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Solanum Nigrum Leaves Extract with Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Anushaa A.

Abstract:

In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were manufactured directly without harmful chemicals utilising methanol extract (SNLME) Solanum nigrume leaves. We are using nigrum leaf extract from Solanum, which converts silver nitrate to silver ions, for synthesization purposes. An examination of the AgNP produced was performed using ultraviolet (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) transformed from Fourier and scanning electrons (SEM). Biological activity was also tested. UV-VIS has proven that biosynthesized AgNP exists (420-450 nm). The FTIR spectrum has been utilised to confirm the presence of different functional groups within the biomolecules, which are a nanoparticular capping agent and the spectroscopic and crystal nature of AgNP. The viability of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated using zeta potential calculations. Negative zeta potential of -33.4 mV demonstrated the stability of silver-nanoparticles. The morphology of AgNP was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Greenly generated AgNP showed significant anti-Staphylococcus aureus, Candida, and Escherichia coli action. The green AgNP demonstration indicated that the IC50 for the human teratocarcinoma cell line was 29.24 μg/ml during 24 hours of therapy (PA1 Ovarian cell line). The dose-dependent effects were reported in both antibacterial and cytotoxicity assays and as an effective agent. Finally, the findings of this research showed that silver nanoparticles generated might serve as a viable therapeutic agent to combat microorganisms killing and curing cancer.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PA1 ovarian cancer cell line, silver nanoparticles, Solanum nigrum

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64 Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene: Some Bioinformatics Insights

Authors: A. T. Adetunji, F. B. Lewu, R. Mundembe

Abstract:

Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design AMT1-specific primers which were used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th - 10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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63 Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene Using Bioinformatics Approach

Authors: Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Francis Bayo Lewu, Richard Mundembe

Abstract:

Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. There is a need for better understanding of N transport mechanism in order to improve N assimilation by plant root. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which N is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was amplified, sequenced and characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design 976 base pairs AMT1-specific primers which include forward primer 5’- GCCATCGCCGCCGCCGG-3’ and reverse primer 5’-GGGTCAGATCCATACCCGC-3’. These primers were used to amplify the Solanum tuberosum AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family due to the clade and high similarity it shared with other plant AMT1 genes. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1, and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th-10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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62 Economic Analysis, Growth and Yield of Grafting Tomato Varieties for Solanum torvum as a Rootstock

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, M. Dawam Maghfoer, Arifin

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is potential vegetables to develop, because it has high economic value and has the potential to be exported. There is a decrease in tomato productivity due to unfavorable growth conditions such as bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt, high humidity, high temperature and inappropriate production technology. Grafting technology is one alternative technology. In addition to being able to control the disease in the soil, grafting is also able to increase the growth and yield of production. Besides, it is also necessary to know the economic benefits if using grafting technology. A promising eggplant rootstock for tomato grafting is Solanum torvum. S. torvum is selected as a rootstock with high compatibility. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of grafting several varieties of tomatoes with Solanum torvum as a rootstock. The experiment was conducted in Agricultural Extension Center Pare. Experimental Garden of Pare Kediri sub-district from July to early December 2016. The materials used were tomato Cervo varieties, Karina, Timoty, and Solanum torvum. Economic analysis, growth, and yield including plant height, number of leaves, percentage of disease and tomato production were used as performance measures. The study showed that grafting tomato Timoty scion with Solanum torvum as rootstock had higher production. Financially, grafting tomato Timoty and Cervo scion had higher profit about. 28,6% and 16,3% compared to Timoty and Cervo variety treatment without grafting.

Keywords: grafting technology, economic analysis, growth, yield of tomato, Solanum torvum

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61 Lead and Cadmium Residue Determination in Spices Available in Tripoli City Markets (Libya)

Authors: Mohamed Ziyaina, Ahlam Rajab, Khadija Alkhweldi, Wafia Algami, Omer Al. Toumi, Barbara Rasco1

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination in food products. Spices can improve the taste of food and can also be a source of many bioactive compounds but can unfortunately, also be contaminated with dangerous materials, potentially heavy metals. This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in selected spices commonly consumed in Libya including Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper) Piper nigrum, (black pepper), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and mixed spices (HRARAT) which consist of a combination of: Alpinia officinarum, Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Spices were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide. The highest level of lead (Pb) was found in Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens in wholesale markets (1.05 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.96 ± 0.06 mg/kg). Cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded FAO/WHO permissible limit. Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum sold in retail markets had a high concentration of Cd (0.36 ± 0.09, 0.35 ± 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) followed by (0.32 ± 0.04 mg/kg) for Capsicum frutescens. Mixed spices purchased from wholesale markets also had high levels of Cd (0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg). Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens may pose a food safety risk due to high levels of lead and cadmium. Cadmium levels exceeded FAO/WHO recommendations (0.2 ppm) for Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and mixed spices (HRARAT).

Keywords: heavy metals, lead, cadmium determination, spice

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60 Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Enhancement of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Growth Using Solanum linnaeanum L. Extracts

Authors: Ahlem Nefzi, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Nawaim Ammar, Sined Medimagh-Saidana, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

In the present study, leaf, stem, and fruit aqueous extracts of native wild Solanum linnaeanum L. were screened for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease and to enhance tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth under greenhouse conditions. Leaf extract used at 30% w/v was the most effective in reducing leaf and root damage index by 92.3% and the extent of vascular discoloration by 97.56% compared to Fusarium oxyxporum f. sp radicis lycopersici -inoculated and untreated control. A significant promotion of growth parameters (root length, shoot height, root and shoot biomass and stem diameter) was recorded on tomato cv. Rio Grande seedlings by 40.3-94.1% as compared to FORL inoculated control and by 9.6-88.8% over pathogen-free control. All S. linnaeanum aqueous extracts tested significantly stimulated the germination by 10.2 to 80.1% relative to the untreated control. FORL mycelial growth, assessed using the poisoned food technique, varied depending on plant organs, extracts, and concentrations used. Butanolic extracts were the most active, leading to 60.81% decrease in FORL mycelial growth. HPLC analysis of butanolic extract revealed the presence of thirteen phenolic compounds. Thus, S. linnaeanum can be explored as a potential natural source of antifungal and biofertilizing compounds.

Keywords: antifungal activity, HPLC-MS analysis, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, tomato growth

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59 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur

Abstract:

Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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58 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti

Abstract:

This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: saponin, diabetes, metformin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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57 Eco-Friendly Control of Bacterial Speck on Solanum lycopersicum by Azadirachta indica Extract

Authors: Navodit Goel, Prabir K. Paul

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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is attacked by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causing speck lesions on the leaves leading to severe economic casualty. In the present study, aqueous fruit extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) were sprayed on a single node of tomato plants grown under controlled contamination-free conditions. The treatment of plants was performed with neem fruit extract either alone or along with the pathogen. The parameters of observation were activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lysozyme, and isoform analysis of PPO; both at the treated leaves as well as untreated leaves away from the site of extract application. Polyphenol oxidase initiates phenylpropanoid pathway resulting in the synthesis of quinines from cytoplasmic phenols and production of reactive oxygen species toxic to broad spectrum microbes. Lysozyme is responsible for the breakdown of bacterial cell wall. The results indicate the upregulation of PPO and lysozyme activities in both the treated and untreated leaves along with de novo expression of newer PPO isoenzymes (which were absent in control samples). The appearance of additional PPO isoenzymes in bioelicitor-treated plants indicates that either the isoenzymes were expressed after bioelicitor application or the already expressed but inactive isoenzymes were activated by it. Lysozyme activity was significantly increased in the plants when treated with the bioelicitor or the pathogen alone. However, no new isoenzymes of lysozyme were expressed upon application of the extract. Induction of resistance by neem fruit extract could be a potent weapon in eco-friendly plant protection strategies.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, lysozyme, polyphenol oxidase, Solanum lycopersicum

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56 Prediction of Solanum Lycopersicum Genome Encoded microRNAs Targeting Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Zobia Sarwar, Salah-ud-Din

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) belongs to the genus Tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). It is one of the most devastating pathogens of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) and heavily damages the crop yield each year around the globe. In this study, we retrieved 329 mature miRNA sequences from two microRNA databases (miRBase and miRSoldb) and checked the putative target sites in the downloaded-genome sequence of TSWV. A consensus of three miRNA target prediction tools (RNA22, miRanda and psRNATarget) was used to screen the false-positive microRNAs targeting sites in the TSWV genome. These tools calculated different target sites by calculating minimum free energy (mfe), site-complementarity, minimum folding energy and other microRNA-mRNA binding factors. R language was used to plot the predicted target-site data. All the genes having possible target sites for different miRNAs were screened by building a consensus table. Out of these 329 mature miRNAs predicted by three algorithms, only eight miRNAs met all the criteria/threshold specifications. MC-Fold and MC-Sym were used to predict three-dimensional structures of miRNAs and further analyzed in USCF chimera to visualize the structural and conformational changes before and after microRNA-mRNA interactions. The results of the current study show that the predicted eight miRNAs could further be evaluated by in vitro experiments to develop TSWV-resistant transgenic tomato plants in the future.

Keywords: tomato spotted wild virus (TSWV), Solanum lycopersicum, plant virus, miRNAs, microRNA target prediction, mRNA

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55 Transcriptome Analysis of Dry and Soaked Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Seeds in Response to Fast Neutron Irradiation

Authors: Yujie Zhou, Hee-Seong Byun, Sang-In Bak, Eui-Joon Kil, Kyung Joo Min, Vivek Chavan, Won Kyong Cho, Sukchan Lee, Seung-Woo Hong, Tae-Sun Park

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation (FNI) can cause mutations on plant genome but, in the most of cases, these irradiated plants have not shown significant characteristics phenotypically. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq to generate a high-resolution transcriptome map of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome effected by FNI. To quantify the different transcription levels in tomato irradiated by FNI, tomato seeds were irradiated by using MC-50 cyclotron (KIRAMS, Korea) for 0, 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. To investigate the effects on the pre-soaking condition, experimental groups were divided into dry and soaked seeds, which were soaked for 8 hours before irradiation. There was no noticeable difference in the percentage germination (PG) among dry seeds, while irradiated soaked seeds have about 10 % lower PG compared to the unirradiated control group. Using whole transcriptome sequencing by HiSeq 2000, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to different time of FNI in dry and soaked seeds. More than 1.4 million base pair reads were mapped onto the tomato reference genome and the expression pattern differences between irradiated and unirradiated seeds were assessed. In 0, 30 and 90 minutes irradiation, 12,135, 28,495 and 28,675 transcripts were generated, respectively. Gene ontology analysis suggested the different enrichment of transcripts involved in response to different FNI. The present study showed that FNI effects on plant gene expression, which can become a new parameters for evaluating the responses against FNI on plants. In addition, the comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in D and S seeds by FNI will also give us a chance to deep explore novel candidate genes for FNI, which could be a good model system to understand the mechanisms behind the adaption of plant to space biology research.

Keywords: tomato (solanum lycopersicum), fast neutron irradiation, RNA-sequence, transcriptome expression

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54 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

Abstract:

Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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53 Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza on Phytoremedial Potential and Physiological Changes in Solanum melongena Plants Grown under Heavy Metal Stress

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Mayank Varun, M. S. Paul

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Heavy metal contamination of soil is a growing area of concern since the soil is the matrix that supports flora and impacts humans directly. Phytoremediation of contaminated sites is gaining popularity due to its cost effectiveness and solar driven nature. Some hyperaccumulators have been identified for their potential. Metal-accumulating plants have various mechanisms to cope up with stress and one of them is increasing antioxidative capacity. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) application on the phytoremedial potential of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and level of photosynthetic pigments along with antioxidative enzymes. Results showed that VAM application increased shoot length, root proliferation pattern of plants. The level of photosynthetic pigments, proline, SOD, CAT, APX altered significantly in response to heavy metal treatment. In conclusion, VAM increased the uptake of heavy metals which lead to the activation of the defense system in plants for scavenging free radicals.

Keywords: heavy metal, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, reactive oxygen species

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52 In vitro Antioxidant and DNA Protectant Activity of Different Skin Colored Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: K. M. Somawathie, V. Rizliya, H. A. M. Wickrmasinghe, Terrence Madhujith

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The main objective of our study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant and DNA protectant activity of aqueous extract of S. melongena with different skin colors; dark purple (DP), moderately purple (MP), light purple (LP) and purple and green (PG). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the egg yolk model. The effectiveness of eggplant extracts against radical induced DNA damage was also determined. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the skin color and antioxidant activity. TPC and FRAP values of eggplant extracts ranged from 48.67±0.27-61.11±0.26 (mg GAE/100 g fresh weight) and 4.19±0.11-7.46±0.26 (mmol of FeS04/g of fresh weight) respectively. MP displayed the highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity while, DP demonstrated the strongest total antioxidant capacity. In the FTC and egg yolk model, DP and MP showed better antioxidant activity than PG and LP. All eggplant extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in retaining DNA against AAPH mediated radical damage. DP and MP demonstrated better antioxidant activity which may be attributed to the higher phenolic content since a positive correlation was observed between the TPC and the antioxidant parameters.

Keywords: Solanum melongena, skin color, antioxidant, DNA protection, lipid peroxidation

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51 Evaluation of Anti-Leishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

Authors: Saeed S. Al-Sokari, Nasser A. Awadh Ali, Lianet Monzote

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Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in at least 82 countries and considered to be a major public-health problem (1). The annual incidence of CL is 1–1.5 million cases of which 90% occur in only seven countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Syria (2). In Saudi Arabia, the disease was first described in 1973 by Moursy and Shoura (3). Currently, CL is common in the human population in different localities, including the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and in particular the Al-Hassa Oasis that is a known endemic area for CL (4). Five methanolic extracts obtained from Achillea biebersteinii (flower leaf), Euphorbia antiquorm, Solanum incanum (leaf and fruit extracts), collected from Albaha region and selected from ethno-botanical data, were screened for their anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis (6). The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined (6). The five extracts had IC50 values ranging from < 12.5 to 37.8 µg/ml against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia antiquorm, Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed anti-leishmanial activities with IC50 between < 12.5 - 26.9µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8 - 5.

Keywords: plant extracts, Albaha, Leishmania amazonensis, Medicinal

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50 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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49 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi

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Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: agriculture, allelopathic, salinity, soil, tomato, production, photosynthesis

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48 Preservative Potentials of Piper Guineense on Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit

Authors: Grace O. Babarinde, Adegoke O.Gabriel, Rahman Akinoso, Adekanye Bosede R.

Abstract:

Health risks associated with the use of synthetic chemicals to control post-harvest losses in fruit calls for use of natural biodegradable compounds. The potential of Piper guineense as postharvest preservative for Roma tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was investigated. Freshly harvested red tomato (200 g) was dipped into five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of P. guineense aqueous extract, while untreated fruits served as control. The samples were stored under refrigeration and analysed at 5-day interval for physico-chemical properties. P. guineense essential oil (EO) was characterised using GC-MS and its tomato preservative potential was evaluated. Percentage weight loss (PWL) in extract-treated tomato ranged from 0.0-0.68% compared to control (0.3-19.97%) during storage. Values obtained for firmness ranged from 8.23-16.88 N and 8.4 N in extract-treated and control. pH reduced from 5.4 to 4.5 and 3.7 in extract-treated and untreated samples, respectively. Highest value of Total Soluble Solid (1.8 °Brix) and maximum retention of Ascorbic acid (13.0 mg/100 g) were observed in 4% P. guineense-treated samples. Predominant P. guineense EO components were zingiberene (9.9%), linalool (10.7%), β-caryophyllene (12.6%), 1, 5-Heptadiene, 6-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-yl) (16.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (23.7%). Tomatoes treated with EO had lower PWL (5.2%) and higher firmness (14.2 N) than controls (15.3% and 11.9 N) respectively. The result indicates that P. guineense can be incorporated in to post harvest technology of Roma tomato fruit.

Keywords: aqueous extract, essential oil, piper guineense, Roma tomato, storage condition

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47 Influence of Maturity Stage on Nutritional and Therapeutic Potentialities of Solanum anguivi Lam Berries (Gnagnan) Cultivated in CôTe D'Ivoire

Authors: G. Dan Chépo, L. Ban-Koffi, N. Kouassi Kouakou, M. Dje Kouakou, J. Nemlin, A. Sahore Drogba, L. Kouame Patrice

Abstract:

Solanum anguivi Lam, collectively called Gnagnan in Côte d'Ivoire is an eggplant with nutritional and therapeutic potentialities more or less known. The present study was undertaken to analyze the biochemical composition of berries at the different stages of maturity. Data showed that at the first stage of maturity (green berries), fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (34.48 ± 1.7 mg / 100 g dm), phenolic compounds (956.7 ± 71.14 mg / 100 g dm), iron (467.7 ± 1.84 mg / 100 g dm), magnesium (404.6 ± 16.25 mg / 100 g dm) and potassium (404.64 ± 16.25 mg/100 g dm). However, at the last stage of maturity (red berries), fruits are rich in proteins, cellulose, total sugars, fat and potassium with the values of 22.53 ± 2 g/100 g dm, 19.12 ± 0.35 g/100 g dm, 3.7 ± 0.2 g/100 g dm, 2.65 ± 0.19 g/100 g dm and 2290.84 ± 22.24 mg / 100 g dm, respectively. The chromatography on thin layer revealed the presence of glucose, ribose, xylose, arabinose and fructose at all the maturity stages. Except for alkaloids and gallic tannins, the phytochemical sorting revealed that Gnagnan contain many pharmacological components. According to the maturity stages, orange and red berries showed a higher content in sterols and polyterpens, flavonoids and saponins. The green berries contain most of polyphenols, catechintannins and quinons. As for the yellow berries, they are rich in polyphenols and catechintannins. These data contribute to enhance clinical researches on nutritional and pharmacological properties of S. anguivi Lam.

Keywords: Gnagnan, maturity stage, chemical composition, chromatography thin layer, phytochemical sorting

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46 A Novel PfkB Gene Cloning and Characterization for Expression in Potato Plants

Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important cash crop and popular vegetable in Pakistan and throughout the world. Cold storage of potatoes accelerates the conversion of starch into reduced sugars (glucose and fructose). This process causes dry mass and bitter taste in the potatoes that are not acceptable to end consumers. In the current study, the phosphofructokinase B gene was cloned into the pET-30 vector for protein expression and the pCambia-1301 vector for plant expression. Amplification of a 930bp product from an E. coli strain determined the successful isolation of the phosphofructokinase B gene. Restriction digestion using NcoI and BglII along with the amplification of the 930bp product using gene specific primers confirmed the successful cloning of the PfkB gene in both vectors. The protein was expressed as a His-PfkB fusion protein. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35 Kda PfkB protein when hybridized with anti-His antibodies. The construct Fani-01 was evaluated transiently using a histochemical gus assay. The appearance of blue color in the agroinfiltrated area of potato leaves confirmed the successful expression of construct Fani-01. Further, the area displaying gus expression was evaluated for PfkB expression using ELISA. Moreover, PfkB gene expression evaluated through transient expression determined successful gene expression and highlighted its potential utilization for stable expression in potato to reduce sweetening due to long-term storage.

Keywords: potato, Solanum tuberosum, transformation, PfkB, anti-sweetening

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45 Salt Tolerance of Potato: Genetically Engineered with Atriplex canescens BADH Gene Driven by 3 Copies of CAMV35s Promoter

Authors: Arfan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is ranked among the top leading staple foods in the world. Salinity adversely affects potato crop yield and quality. Therefore, increased level of salt tolerance is a key factor to ensure high yield. The present study focused on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Atriplex canescens betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene, using single, double and triple CAMV35s promoter to improve salt tolerance in potato. Detection of seven potato lines harboring BADH gene, followed by identification of T-DNA insertions, determination of transgenes copies no through Southern Hybridization and quantification of BADH protein through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay were considered in this study. The results clearly depict that the salt tolerance of potato was found to be promoter-dependent, as the potato transgenic lines with triple promoter showed 4.4 times more glycine betaine production which consequently leads towards high resistance to salt stress as compared to transgenic potato lines with single and double promoters having least production of glycine betaine. Moreover, triple promoter transgenic potato lines have also shown lower levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrical conductivity, high proline and chlorophyll content as compared other two lines having a single and double promoter. Insilco analysis also confirmed that Atriplex canescens BADH has the tendency to interact with sodium ions and water molecules. Taken together these facts it can be concluded that over-expression of BADH under triple CAMV35s promoter with more glycine betaine, chlorophyll & MDA contents, high relative quantities of other metabolites results in an enhanced level of salt tolerance in potato.

Keywords: Atriplex canescens, BADH, CAMV35s promotor, potato, Solanum tubersum

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
44 Field Evaluation of Different Aubergine Cultivars against Infestation of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer

Authors: Ajmal Khan Kassi, Humayun Javed, Muhammad Asif Aziz

Abstract:

Response of different aubergine cultivars against Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee.) was evaluated at research farm of PMAS, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, during 2013. Field trials were conducted in randomized completed block design with four replications for the screening of five cultivars of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L) (Short Purpal, Singhnath 666, Brinjal long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602, Round Egg Plant White). Cultivar Round White Brinjal showed maximum fruit infestation (54.44%) followed by Singhnath 666 (53.19%), while minimum fruit infestation was observed in Round Brinjal 86602 (42.39%). Cultivar Short Purpal showed maximum larval population (0.43) followed by Round White Brinjal (0.39), while the minimum larval population was observed in Round Brinjal 86602 with (0.27). It was observed that Round Brinjal 86602 cultivar showed comparatively minimum (L. orbonalis) larval population per leaf. The correlation of Brinjal fruit infestation and larval population of (L. orbonalis) with the different environmental factors showed that, the average relative humidity was positively and significantly correlated with fruit infestation on cultivars average precipitation showed positive but non- significant correlation on all the cultivars except Singhnath 666 with the value of (0.79) which was positive and significant. The average temperature showed non-significant and negative correlation with Brinjal long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602 and Singhnath 666, but significant negative correlation with Short Purpal and Round White Brinjal. Maximum temperature also showed the significant and negative correlation on all the five Brinjal cultivars which were significant and highly significant. Minimum temperature showed negative correlation and not significant correlation with all the cultivars. Consequently, based on the (L. orbonalis) larval density and Brinjal fruit infestation, the Round Brinjal 86602 proved least susceptible and Short Purpal highly susceptible cultivar.

Keywords: evaluation, Brinjal (Solanum melongena L), Cultivars, L. orbonalis

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43 Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.

Authors: Nefzi Ahlem, Aydi Ben Abdallah Rania, Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa, Ammar Nawaim, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.

Keywords: antifungal activity, associated fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Withania somnifera, tomato growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
42 Medicinal Plant Resources and Conservation of Nallamalais, Forest Range, Eastern Ghats, India

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Nallamalas one of the centres of Plant Diversity (CPD) (WWF&IUCN,1995) is located in the central eastern Ghats between latitudes 15.20’-16.30’N and Longitude 78.30-80.10E in Andhra Pradesh, extended to an area of 7640 Sq.Km. No Comprehensive work available for RET Plants in the study area, therefore the objective of the present paper is to document the RET Medicinal Plants of Nallamalias and their uses by the local people of the area. In India, one of the major resources to know about the number of plant species and their medicinal values is the groups who are habituated in near and deep forests. The most common groups in south Indian forests are Yanadis and Yerukulas. These two groups of people are residing in the forest, which is located very far from the modern society, towns and cities. They are following traditional methods obtained from their forefathers in all respects, including medication. They are the only source to know many medicinal plants in the areas where they reside and are also important to record the medicinal properties of various plant species which are not reported. The new reports may help in drug industry in order to develop pharmaceutical herbal medicine for human health. In the present study, nearly 150 rare species have been found to be used for various ailments. Out of these 23 species are critically endangered, over 25 are vulnerable and around 22 comes under the category of near threatened. Some important species like Christella dentate, Careya arborea are used for curing cough and cold. Piper attnuatum, piper nigrum are used for curing skin disease. Ipomoea mauritiana is used against male impotency.Glycosmis cochinensis, Entada perseatha are used as contraceptives. The roots of Andrographis nallamalayana and Acrocephalus indicus are used for leucorrhoea. While the stem barks of Gyrocarpus americanus is given orally for spider bite. Piper hymenophyllum leaves mixed with turmeric and gingerly oil is used externally for mouth ulcers in cattle. Piper nigrum fruits are used for skin diseases. Vernonia anthelmentica seeds are used for indigestion. It was widely distributed in this hills. Due to over exploitation this species was in declined condition. Sterculia urens which is a sorce of gum for tribal, due to over exploitation this species declaimed in these hills. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and prevent their exploitation and extinction with the help of tribals. There is a need to adopt sustainable utilization, cultivation and micro propagation techniques. Medicinal plants are as potent and effective today as they were thousands of years ago. They are natures wonderful gift to mankind and are involved in India as a very rich ancient heritage of traditional systems medicine i.e., ayurveda, siddha and unani. Unfortunately, these traditions have been largely eroded because of lack of support and recognition as well as rapid destruction of natural habitats which has led to shrinkage of medicinal plants therefore the conservation of medicinal plants and the revitalization of local health traditions has been taken up on priority basis.

Keywords: RET plants CPD, IUCN, nallamalas, yanadis, yerukulas

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41 Efficacy of Different Soil-Applied Fungicides to Manage Phytophthora Root Rot of Chili (Solanum annum) in Pakistan

Authors: Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad Nasir Subhani

Abstract:

Chili (Solanum annum L.) attacks by many fungal pathogens, including members of Oomycetes which are responsible for root rot in different chili growing areas of the world. Oomycetes pathogens cause economic losses in different regions of the Pakistan. Most of the plant tissues, including roots, crowns, fruit, and leaves, are vulnerable to Phytophthora capsici. It is very difficult to manage the Phytophthora root rot of chili as many commercial varieties are tremendously vulnerable to P. capsici. The causal agent of the disease was isolated on corn meal agar (CMA) and identified on a morphological basis by using available taxonomic keys. The pathogen was also confirmed on the molecular basis through internal transcribed spacer region and with other molecular markers.The Blastn results showed 100% homology with already reported sequences of P. capsici in NCBI database. Most of the farmers have conventionally relied on foliar fungicide applications to control Phytophthora root rot in spite of their incomplete effectiveness. In this study, in vitro plate assay, seed soaking and foliar applications of 6 fungicides were evaluated against root rot of chili. In vitro assay revealed that significant inhibition of linear growth was obtained with Triflumizole at 7.0%, followed by Thiophanate methyl (8.9%), Etridiazole (6.0%), Propamocarb (5.9%) and 7.5% with Mefenoxam and Iprodione for P. capsici. The promising treatments of in vitro plate bioassay were evaluated in pot experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. All fungicides were applied after at 6-day intervals. Results of pot experiment showed that all treatments considerably inhibited the percentage of P. capsici root rot incidence. In addition, application of seed soaking with all six fungicides combined with the foliar spray of the same components showed the significant reduction in root rot incidence. The combine treatments of all fungicides as in vitro bioassay, seed soaking followed by foliar spray is considered non-harmful control methods which have advantages and limitation. Hence, these applications proved effective and harmless for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens.

Keywords: blastn, bioassay, corn meal agar(CMA), oomycetes

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40 Determination of Carbofuran Residue in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and Soil of Brinjal Field

Authors: R. Islam, M. A. Haque, K. H. Kabir

Abstract:

A supervised trail was set with brinjal at research field, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur to determine the residue of Carbofuran in soil and fruit samples at different days after application (DAA) of Furadan 5 G @ 2 kg AI/ ha. Field collected samples were analyzed by GCMS-EI. Results of the experiment indicated the presence of Carbofuran residue up to 60 DAA in soil samples and 25 DAA in brinjal fruit samples. In case of soil samples, the detected residues were 7.04, 2.78, 0.79, 0.43, 0.12, 0.06 and 0.05 ppm at 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 DAA respectively. On the other hand, in brinjal fruit samples Carbofuran residues were 0.005 ppm, 0.095 ppm, 0.084 ppm, 0.065 ppm, 0.063 ppm, 0.056 ppm, 0.050 ppm, 0.030 ppm and 0.016 ppm at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 25-DAA, respectively. None of this amount was above the recommended MRL (0.1 mg / kg crop) of Carborufan for agricultural crops.

Keywords: brinjal, carbofuran, MRL, residue

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39 In vitro Studies on Antimycobacterial and Efflux Pump Inhibition of C. roseus and P. nigrum against Clinical Isolates of Ofloxacin Resistant M. tuberculosis

Authors: Raja Arunprasath, P. Gajalakshmi

Abstract:

Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus rosea and piperine was evaluated against ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis. Among the 68 suspected sputum samples, 32 were AFB positive belongs to age group of 40-50years. Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis was evaluated against ofloxacin and streptomycin by colorimetric assay. Of these 32 positive samples, 20 isolates were resistant to ofloxacin, 12 were resistant to Streptomycin and none of them were found to be multidrug resistant. The sensitivity pattern of ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis against two tested plant extracts showed potent tubercular activity. Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus was 22 + 2.21mm and piperine was found to be 20 + 1.08 mm. The percentage of relative inhibitory zone of C. roseus was 133 % and piperine was found to be 111 %. The MIC of C. roseus and piperine was found at 50 µg/ml. Based on the FICI value 0.37 confirms that both the tested phytochemicals were synergistically active against M. tuberculosis. The MIC of ofloxacin was reduced from 8 mg to 2 mg/l in the presence of piperine but not by C. roseus. This is the first report on Synergistic bioactivity of C. roseus rosea and piperine fractionation leads development of novel antimycobacterial prophylaxis in future.

Keywords: C. roseus, ofloxacin, piperine, synergistic

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38 Incidence and Molecular Mechanism of Human Pathogenic Bacterial Interaction with Phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prem D. Sharma, Prabir K. Paul

Abstract:

The concept of organic agriculture has been accepted as novelty in Indian society, but there is no data available on the human pathogens colonizing plant parts due to such practices. Also, the pattern and mechanism of their colonization need to be understood in order to devise possible strategies for their prevention. In the present study, human pathogenic bacteria were isolated from organically grown tomato plants and five of them were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter ludwigii, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Chryseobacterium jejuense. Tomato plants were grown in controlled aseptic conditions with 25±1˚C, 70% humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Six weeks old plants were divided into 6 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: K. pneumonia, Group 2: E. ludwigii, Group 3: S. fonticola, Group 4: S. maltophilia, Group 5: C. jejuense, Group 6: Sterile distilled water (control). The inoculums for all treatments were prepared by overnight growth with uniform concentration of 108 cells/ml. Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0.5, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post inoculation for the colony forming unit counts (CFU/cm2 of leaf area) of individual pathogens using leaf impression method. These CFU counts were used for the in vivo colonization assay and adherence assay of individual pathogens. Also, resistance of these pathogens to at least 12 antibiotics was studied. Based on these findings S. fonticola was found to be most prominently colonizing the phylloplane of tomato and was further studied. Tomato plants grown in controlled aseptic conditions same as mentioned above were divided into 2 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: S. fonticola, Group 2: Sterile distilled water (control). Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation and homogenized in suitable buffers for surface and cell wall protein isolation. Protein samples thus obtained were subjected to isocratic SDS-gel electrophoresis and analyzed. It was observed that presence of S. fonticola could induce the expression of at least 3 additional cell wall proteins at different time intervals. Surface proteins also showed variation in the expression pattern at different sampling intervals. Further identification of these proteins by MALDI-MS and bioinformatics tools revealed the gene(s) involved in the interaction of S. fonticola with tomato phylloplane.

Keywords: cell wall proteins, human pathogenic bacteria, phylloplane, solanum lycopersicum

Procedia PDF Downloads 139