Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Paramita Sekar Ayu

18 A Study on Information Structure in the Vajrachedika-Prajna-paramita Sutra and Translation Aspect

Authors: Yoon-Cheol Park

Abstract:

This research focuses on examining the information structures in the old Chinese character-Korean translation of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra. The background of this research comes from the fact that there were no previous researches which looked into the information structures in the target text of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra by now. The existing researches on the Buddhist scripture translation mainly put weight on message conveyance by literal and semantic translation methods. But the message conveyance from one language to another has a necessity to be delivered with equivalent information structure. Thus, this research is intended to investigate on the flow of old and new information in the target text of Buddhist scripture, compared with source text. The Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra unlike other Buddhist scriptures is composed of conversational structures between Buddha and his disciple, Suboli. This implies that the information flow can be changed by utterance context and some propositions. So, this research tries to analyze the flow of old and new information within the source and target text. As a result of analysis, this research can discover the following facts; firstly, there are the differences of the information flow in the message conveyance between the old Chinese character and Korean by language features. The old Chinese character reveals that old-new information flow is developed, while Korean indicates new-old information flow because of word order. Secondly, the source text of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra includes abstruse terminologies, jargon and abstract words. These make influence on the target text and cause the change of the information flow. But the repetitive expressions of these words provide the old information in the target text. Lastly, the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra offers the expository structure from conversations between Buddha and Suboli. It means that the information flow is developed in the way of explaining specific subjects and of paraphrasing unfamiliar phrases and expressions. From the results of analysis above, this research can verify that the information structures in the target text of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra are changed by specific subjects and terminologies, developed with the new-old information flow by repetitive expressions or word order and reveal the information structures familiar to target culture. It also implies that the translation of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra as a religious book needs the message conveyance to take into account the information structures of two languages.

Keywords: abstruse terminologies, the information structure, new and old information, old Chinese character-Korean translation

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17 A Religious Book Translation by Pragmatic Approach: The Vajrachedika-Prajna-Paramita Sutra

Authors: Yoon-Cheol Park

Abstract:

This research focuses on examining the Chinese character-Korean language translation of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra by a pragmatic approach. The background of this research is that there were no previous researches which looked into the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita translation by pragmatic approach until now. Even though it is composed of conversational structures between Buddha and his disciple unlike other Buddhist sutras, most of its translation could find the traces to have pursued literal translation and still has now overlooked pragmatic elements in it. Accordingly, it is meaningful to examine the messages through speaker and hearer relation and between speaker intention and utterance meaning. Practically, the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra includes pragmatic elements, such as speech acts, presupposition, conversational implicature, the cooperative principle and politeness. First, speech acts in its sutra text show the translation to reveal obvious performance meanings of language to the target text. And presupposition in their dialogues is conveyed by paraphrasing or substituting abstruse language with easy expressions. Conversational implicature in utterances makes it possible to understand the meanings of holy words by relying on utterance contexts. In particular, relevance results in an increase of readability in the translation owing to previous utterance contexts. Finally, politeness in the target text is conveyed with natural stylistics through the honorific system of the Korean language. These elements mean that the pragmatic approach can function as a useful device in conveying holy words in a specific, practical and direct way depending on utterance contexts. Therefore, we expect that taking a pragmatic approach in translating the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra will provide a theoretical foundation for seeking better translation methods than the literal translations of the past. And it implies that the translation of Buddhist sutra needs to convey messages by translation methods which take into account the characteristic of sutra text like the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita.

Keywords: buddhist sutra, Chinese character-Korean language translation, pragmatic approach, utterance context

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16 Rasch Analysis in the Development of 'Kohesif-Ques': An Instrument to Measure Social Cohesion

Authors: Paramita Sekar Ayu, Sunjaya Deni Kurniadi, Yamazaki Chiho, Hilfi Lukman, Koyama Hiroshi

Abstract:

Social cohesion, or closeness among members of society, is an important determinant of population health. A cohesive society is a crucial societal condition for a positive life evaluation and subjective wellbeing, and people living in a cohesive society are happier and more satisfied with life and achieve better health status. The objective of this study was to compose and validate a questionnaire for measuring social cohesion with Rasch analysis. We develop a set of 13 questions to measure 4 dimensions of social cohesion. Random samples of 166 Bandung citizens’ were selected to answer the questionnaire. To evaluate the questionnaire’s validity and reliability, Rasch analysis (a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data on questionnaire responses) was carried out using Winsteps version 3.75.0. Rasch analysis was performed on the response given to 13 items included in the questionnaire. The reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.70, model RMSE 0.08, SD 0.54, separation 7.14, and reliability of 0.98. ‘Kohesif-Ques’ is a useful instrument to assess social cohesion.

Keywords: rasch analysis, rasch model, social cohesion, quesionnaire

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15 Civility in Indonesia: Comparison of Indonesian People's Friendliness with the Past

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas, Amira Eka Pratiwi

Abstract:

Since a very long time ago, Indonesia are well known for their hospitality. Hospitality has been one of the civility concepts that represented Indonesia’s culture. However, as an Indonesian, we found that nowadays we are starting to lose this particular culture. The influence of modern culture is undeniably strong. As a capital city, Jakarta is one of the most modern cities in Indonesia. We conduct this experimental study to find out whether the people in Jakarta are still willing to maintain their identity as a friendly Indonesian or not by testing their willingness to reply greetings from strangers.

Keywords: city, civility, culture, greetings, hospitality, modern

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14 Consumtive Behavior of Indonesian: The Tendency of Jakarta’s Citizens to Visit Malls Frequently

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Amira Eka Pratiwi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas

Abstract:

Indonesia is one of the developing countries in the world. However, people in Indonesia, especially in big and modern cities like Jakarta (the capital city of Indonesia), have shown some consumptive behavior. As an indicator, there are about 173 malls and department stores in Jakarta, and of course these malls and department store is always crowded by visitors. This study is trying to describe the dynamics of consumptive behavior that shown by people in Jakarta. We are trying to find out why Indonesian love to go to the malls and department stores despite the low income.

Keywords: consumptive behavior, hedonism, mall, shopping

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13 Scoping Review of the Barriers and Facilitators to Enabling Scholarly Activity within Canadian Schools of Nursing

Authors: Christa Siminiuk, Morgan Yates, Paramita Banerjee, Alison Curtis, Lysbeth Cuanda

Abstract:

This review looked at current evidence regarding barriers and facilitators to nursing scholarship within the content of Canadian Schools of Nursing. Nursing scholarship mainly referred to research, though other activities as described by Boyer’s Model were also discussed. This scoping review was done to assist the Langara School of Nursing in developing an evidenced-based plan to enhance scholarly work among its faculty members. The scoping review identified 10 articles which detailed barriers and facilitators in both Canadian and international contexts. Barriers and facilitators in these articles were extracted and they were also critically appraised. The identified barriers and facilitators fell into three main areas; personal attributes, facility factors and system challenges. The three area will be discussed further in the presentation as well as strategies identified to overcome these barriers.

Keywords: barriers, facilitators, nursing education, scholarship

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12 Seismic Bearing Capacity Estimation of Shallow Foundations on Dense Sand Underlain by Loose Sand Strata by Using Finite Elements Limit Analysis

Authors: Pragyan Paramita Das, Vishwas N. Khatri

Abstract:

By using the lower- and upper- bound finite elements to limit analysis in conjunction with second-order conic programming (SOCP), the effect of seismic forces on the bearing capacity of surface strip footing resting on dense sand underlain by loose sand deposit is explored. The soil is assumed to obey the Mohr-Coulomb’s yield criterion and an associated flow rule. The angle of internal friction (ϕ) of the top and the bottom layer is varied from 42° to 44° and 32° to 34° respectively. The coefficient of seismic acceleration is varied from 0 to 0.3. The variation of bearing capacity with different thickness of top layer for various seismic acceleration coefficients is generated. A comparison will be made with the available solutions from literature wherever applicable.

Keywords: bearing capacity, conic programming, finite elements, seismic forces

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11 SFE as a Superior Technique for Extraction of Eugenol-Rich Fraction from Cinnamomum tamala Nees (Bay Leaf) - Process Analysis and Phytochemical Characterization

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Dipanwita Roy, Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Satadal Das

Abstract:

Highest yield of eugenol-rich fractions from Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) leaves were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), compared to hydro-distillation, organic solvents, liquid CO2 and subcritical CO2 extractions. Optimization of SC-CO2 extraction parameters was carried out to obtain an extract with maximum eugenol content. This was achieved using a sample size of 10 g at 55°C, 512 bar after 60 min at a flow rate of 25.0 cm3/sof gaseous CO2. This extract has the best combination of phytochemical properties such as phenolic content (1.77 mg gallic acid/g dry bay leaf), reducing power (0.80 mg BHT/g dry bay leaf), antioxidant activity (IC50 of 0.20 mg/ml) and anti-inflammatory potency (IC50 of 1.89 mg/ml). Identification of compounds in this extract was performed by GC-MS analysis and its antimicrobial potency was also evaluated. The MIC values against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were 0.5, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial potency, Cinnamomum tamala, eugenol, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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10 Modelling and Maping Malnutrition Toddlers in Bojonegoro Regency with Mixed Geographically Weighted Regression Approach

Authors: Elvira Mustikawati P.H., Iis Dewi Ratih, Dita Amelia

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Bojonegoro has proclaimed a policy of zero malnutrition. Therefore, as an effort to solve the cases of malnutrition children in Bojonegoro, this study used the approach geographically Mixed Weighted Regression (MGWR) to determine the factors that influence the percentage of malnourished children under five in which factors can be divided into locally influential factor in each district and global factors that influence throughout the district. Based on the test of goodness of fit models, R2 and AIC values in GWR models are better than MGWR models. R2 and AIC values in MGWR models are 84.37% and 14.28, while the GWR models respectively are 91.04% and -62.04. Based on the analysis with GWR models, District Sekar, Bubulan, Gondang, and Dander is a district with three predictor variables (percentage of vitamin A, the percentage of births assisted health personnel, and the percentage of clean water) that significantly influence the percentage of malnourished children under five.

Keywords: GWR, MGWR, R2, AIC

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9 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

Abstract:

Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

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8 The Effects of Music and Gender on Recall Ability on College Students: A Study in Students from Universitas Indonesia

Authors: Hestika D. Waraningrum, Indriani N. Khairunnisa, Nabila Isnandini, Nadine Yasminah, Sekar A. Winesa

Abstract:

Each individual’s ability to recall, whether they are male or female, is allegedly influenced by the environmental circumstances during the recalling process. The presence of a distraction is one of the environmental variables that affect recall ability in its capacity in the Short Term Memory. This study was made to see the difference in number of words that was successfully recalled by male participants and female participants with the presence of music as a distraction and also without music as a distraction. Data was taken using an experimental procedure from 75 female and male undergraduate students of Universitas Indonesia. The study design used was a 2x2 Factorial ANOVA, which aimed to see the difference between two variables, which were gender (male vs female) and the presence of a distraction (music serving as a distraction vs absence of music). The results indicated that there were no significant mean differences in the ability to recall between male and female participants. There are no significant mean differences between the presence and the absence of music as a distraction, but a significant interaction was found between gender and distraction with the ability to recall.

Keywords: college, gender, music, recall

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7 Government Credit Card in State Financial Management: Public Sector Innovation in Indonesia

Authors: Paramita Nur Kurniati, Stanislaus Riyanta

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In the midst of the heightened usage of electronic money (e-money), Indonesian government expenditure is yet governed through cash-basis transactions. This conventional system brings about a number of potential risks and obstacles to operational conduct, including state financial liquidity issue. Consequently, Ministry of Finance is currently establishing the cashless payment methods for State Budget (APBN). Included in those advance methods is credit card facility as a government expenditure payment scheme. This policy is one of the innovations within the public sector learned from other countries’ best practices. Moreover, this particular method is already prominent within the private-sector realm. Qualitative descriptive analysis technique is implemented to evaluate the contemporary innovation of using government credit card in the path towards cashless society. This approach is expected to generate several benefits for the government, particularly in minimizing corruption within the state financial management. Effective coordination among policy makers and policy implementers is essential for the success of this policy’s exercise, without neglecting prudence and public transparency aspects. Government credit card usage shall be the potent resolution for enhancing the government’s overall public service performance.

Keywords: cashless basis, cashless society, government credit card, public sector innovation

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6 A Witty Relief Ailment Based on the Integration of IoT and Cloud

Authors: Sai Shruthi Sridhar, A. Madhumidha, Kreethika Guru, Priyanka Sekar, Ananthi Malayappan

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Numerous changes in technology and its recent development are structuring long withstanding effect to our world, one among them is the emergence of “Internet of Things” (IoT). Similar to Technology world, one industry stands out in everyday life–healthcare. Attention to “quality of health care” is an increasingly important issue in a global economy and for every individual. As per WHO (World Health Organization) it is estimated to be less than 50% adhere to the medication provided and only about 20% get their medicine on time. Medication adherence is one of the top problems in healthcare which is fixable by use of technology. In recent past, there were minor provisions for elderly and specially-skilled to get motivated and to adhere medicines prescribed. This paper proposes a novel solution that uses IOT based RFID Medication Reminder Solution to provide personal health care services. This employs real time tracking which offer quick counter measures. The proposed solution builds on the recent digital advances in sensor technologies, smart phones and cloud services. This novel solution is easily adoptable and can benefit millions of people with a direct impact on the nation’s health care expenditure with innovative scenarios and pervasive connectivity.

Keywords: cloud services, IoT, RFID, sensors

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5 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous

Authors: Annisa Amalina, Lintang Sekar Sari, Khairunnisa Salsabila, Astya Gema Ramadhan, M. Fatkhi, Andani Eka Putra

Abstract:

Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.

Keywords: crude protein, Neisseria gonorrhea, polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous

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4 Tofu Flour as a Protein Sources

Authors: Dicky Eka Putra, S. P. Nadia Chairunissa, Lidia Paramita, Roza Hartati, Ice Yolanda Puri

Abstract:

Background: Soy bean and the products such as tofu, tempeh and soy milk are famous in the community. Moreover, another product is tofu flour which is not familiar in Indonesia yet and it is well known as Okara. There are massive differences of energy, protein and carbohydrate between them which is know as good for protein sources as well. Unfortunately, it is seldom used as food variety. Basically, it can be benefit in order to create many products for example cakes, snacks and some desserts. Aim: the study was in order to promote the benefit of tofu flour as school feeding of elementary school and baby porridge and also to compare the nutrient. Method: Soy pulp was filtered and steamed approximately 30 minutes. Then, it was put at a plate under sunrise or barked on the oven for 10 hours at 800C. When it have dried and milling and tofu flour is ready to be used. Result: Tofu flour could be used as substitute of flour and rice flour when people want to cook some foods. In addition, some references said that soy bean is good for a specific remedy for the proper functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels, constipation, as a stimulant for the lungs, for eradication of poison from the system, improving the complexion by cleaning the skin of impurities, and stimulating the growth and appearance of the hair. Discussion: Comparing between soy bean, tofu and tofu flour which has difference amount of nutrients. For example energy 382 kcal, 79 kcal and 393 kcal respectively and also protein 30.2 kcal, 7.8 kcal, and 17.4 kcal. In addition, carbohydrate of soy pulp was high than soy bean and tofu (30.1 kcal). Finally, local should replace flour, rice and gelatin rice flour with tofu flour.

Keywords: tofu flour, protein, soy bean, school feeding

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3 A First-Principles Investigation of Magnesium-Hydrogen System: From Bulk to Nano

Authors: Paramita Banerjee, K. R. S. Chandrakumar, G. P. Das

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Bulk MgH2 has drawn much attention for the purpose of hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (~7.7 wt %) as well as low cost and abundant availability. However, its practical usage has been hindered because of its high hydrogen desorption enthalpy (~0.8 eV/H2 molecule), which results in an undesirable desorption temperature of 3000C at 1 bar H2 pressure. To surmount the limitations of bulk MgH2 for the purpose of hydrogen storage, a detailed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based study on the structure and stability of neutral (Mgm) and positively charged (Mgm+) Mg nanoclusters of different sizes (m = 2, 4, 8 and 12), as well as their interaction with molecular hydrogen (H2), is reported here. It has been found that due to the absence of d-electrons within the Mg atoms, hydrogen remained in molecular form even after its interaction with neutral and charged Mg nanoclusters. Interestingly, the H2 molecules do not enter into the interstitial positions of the nanoclusters. Rather, they remain on the surface by ornamenting these nanoclusters and forming new structures with a gravimetric density higher than 15 wt %. Our observation is that the inclusion of Grimme’s DFT-D3 dispersion correction in this weakly interacting system has a significant effect on binding of the H2 molecules with these nanoclusters. The dispersion corrected interaction energy (IE) values (0.1-0.14 eV/H2 molecule) fall in the right energy window, that is ideal for hydrogen storage. These IE values are further verified by using high-level coupled-cluster calculations with non-iterative triples corrections i.e. CCSD(T), (which has been considered to be a highly accurate quantum chemical method) and thereby confirming the accuracy of our ‘dispersion correction’ incorporated DFT calculations. The significance of the polarization and dispersion energy in binding of the H2 molecules are confirmed by performing energy decomposition analysis (EDA). A total of 16, 24, 32 and 36 H2 molecules can be attached to the neutral and charged nanoclusters of size m = 2, 4, 8 and 12 respectively. Ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation shows that the outermost H2 molecules are desorbed at a rather low temperature viz. 150 K (-1230C) which is expected. However, complete dehydrogenation of these nanoclusters occur at around 1000C. Most importantly, the host nanoclusters remain stable up to ~500 K (2270C). All these results on the adsorption and desorption of molecular hydrogen with neutral and charged Mg nanocluster systems indicate towards the possibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of bulk MgH2 by designing new Mg-based nano materials which will be able to adsorb molecular hydrogen via this weak Mg-H2 interaction, rather than the strong Mg-H bonding. Notwithstanding the fact that in practical applications, these interactions will be further complicated by the effect of substrates as well as interactions with other clusters, the present study has implications on our fundamental understanding to this problem.

Keywords: density functional theory, DFT, hydrogen storage, molecular dynamics, molecular hydrogen adsorption, nanoclusters, physisorption

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2 Investigating Role of Autophagy in Cispaltin Induced Stemness and Chemoresistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Prajna Paramita Naik, Sujit Kumar Bhutia

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Background: Regardless of the development multimodal treatment strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with a high rate of recurrence, metastasis and chemo- and radio- resistance. The present study inspected the relevance of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression as a putative stem cell compartment in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and deciphered the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of aforementioned proteins, stemness and chemoresistance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression with respect to the various clinicopathological factors of sixty OSCC patients were determined via immunohistochemistry. The correlation among CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression was established. Sphere formation assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were conducted to elucidate the stemness and chemoresistance nature of established cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells (FaDu). The pattern of expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in parental (FaDu-P) and resistant FaDu cells (FaDu-CDDP-R) were investigated through fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis of autophagy marker proteins was performed to compare the status of autophagy in parental and resistant FaDu cell. To investigate the role of autophagy in chemoresistance and stemness, sphere formation assay, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was performed post transfection with siATG14 and the level of expression of autophagic proteins, mitochondrial protein and stemness-associated proteins were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 4.0 software. p-value was defined as follows: not significant (n.s.): p > 0.05;*: p ≤ 0.05; **: p ≤ 0.01; ***: p ≤ 0.001; ****: p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant. Results: In OSCC, high CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression were significantly correlated with higher tumor grades and poor differentiation. However, the expression of these proteins was not related to the age and sex of OSCC patients. Moreover, the expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 were positively correlated with each other. In vitro and OSCC tissue double labeling experiment data showed that CD44+ cells were highly associated with ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression. Further, FaDu-CDDP-R cells showed higher sphere forming capacity along with increased fraction of the CD44+ population and β-catenin expression FaDu-CDDP-R cells also showed accelerated expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17. A comparatively higher autophagic flux was observed in FaDu-CDDP-R against FaDu-P cells. The expression of mitochondrial proteins was noticeably reduced in resistant cells as compared to parental cells indicating the occurrence of autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation in oral cancer. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy was coupled with the decreased formation of orospheres suggesting autophagy-mediated stemness in oral cancer. Blockade of autophagy was also found to induce the restoration of mitochondrial proteins in FaDu-CDDP-R cells indicating the involvement of mitophagy in chemoresistance. Furthermore, a reduced expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 was also observed in ATG14 deficient cells FaDu-P and FaDu-CDDP-R cells. Conclusion: The CD44+ ⁄ABCB1+ ⁄ADAM17+ expression in OSCC might be associated with chemoresistance and a putative CSC compartment. Further, the present study highlights the contribution of mitophagy in chemoresistance and confirms the potential involvement of autophagic regulation in acquisition of stem-like characteristics in OSCC.

Keywords: ABCB1, ADAM17, autophagy, CD44, chemoresistance, mitophagy, OSCC, stemness

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1 Developing and Standardizing Individual Care Plan for Children in Conflict with Law in the State of Kerala

Authors: Kavitha Puthanveedu, Kasi Sekar, Preeti Jacob, Kavita Jangam

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In India, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the law related to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law, proposes to address to the rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by catering to the basic rights by providing care and protection, development, treatment, and social re-integration. A major concern in addressing the issues of children in conflict with law in Kerala the southernmost state in India identified were: 1. Lack of psychological assessment for children in conflict with law, 2. Poor psychosocial intervention for children in conflict with law on bail, 3. Lack of psychosocial intervention or proper care and protection of CCL residing at observation and special home, 4. Lack convergence with systems related with mental health care. Aim: To develop individual care plan for children in conflict with law. Methodology: NIMHANS a premier Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, collaborated with Social Justice Department, Govt. of Kerala to address this issue by developing a participatory methodology to implement psychosocial care in the existing services by integrating the activities through multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach as per the Sec. 18 of JJAct 2015. Developing individual care plan: Key informant interviews, focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders consisting of legal officers, police, child protection officials, counselors, and home staff were conducted. Case studies were conducted among children in conflict with law. A checklist on 80 psychosocial problems among children in conflict with law was prepared with eight major issues identified through the quantitative process such as family and parental characteristic, family interactions and relationships, stressful life event, social and environmental factors, child’s individual characteristics, education, child labour and high-risk behavior. Standardised scales were used to identify the anxiety, caseness, suicidality and substance use among the children. This provided a background data understand the psychosocial problems experienced by children in conflict with law. In the second stage, a detailed plan of action was developed involving multiple stakeholders that include Special juvenile police unit, DCPO, JJB, and NGOs. The individual care plan was reviewed by a panel of 4 experts working in the area of children, followed by the review by multiple stakeholders in juvenile justice system such as Magistrates, JJB members, legal cum probation officers, district child protection officers, social workers and counselors. Necessary changes were made in the individual care plan in each stage which was pilot tested with 45 children for a period of one month and standardized for administering among children in conflict with law. Result: The individual care plan developed through scientific process was standardized and currently administered among children in conflict with law in the state of Kerala in the 3 districts that will be further implemented in other 14 districts. The program was successful in developing a systematic approach for the psychosocial intervention of children in conflict with law that can be a forerunner for other states in India.

Keywords: psychosocial care, individual care plan, multidisciplinary, multisectoral

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