Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Gabriela Marini

65 Interference of Contaminants in the Characterization of Sugarcane Straw for Energy Purpose

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Ana Larissa S. Hansted, Gabriela B. Belini, Carlos R. Sette Jr, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the interference from contaminants in the characterization of sugarcane straw. The sugarcane straw was collected after the harvest and taken to the drying oven, and then it was crushed in the mill type Willey. Analyzes of ash contents and Klason lignin were done in triplicate and high heating value (HHV) in duplicate, according to ASTM standard. The results obtained for the sugarcane straw were 5.29% for ash content, 29.87% for Klason lignin and 17.67 MJ.kg-1 for HHV. Also, the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of contaminants was observed, such as silica. The high amount of contaminants in the samples may impact the results of analyzes, also raising its values, for example in the Klason lignin content. These contaminants can also adversely affect the quality of the biomass. Even using the standards is important to know what the purpose of the analysis and care mainly of sampling.

Keywords: biomass, bioenergy, residues, solid fuel

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64 Comparison of Gestational Diabetes Influence on the Ultrastructure of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Women and Rats

Authors: Giovana Vesentini, Fernanda Piculo, Gabriela Marini, Debora Damasceno, Angelica Barbosa, Selma Martheus, Marilza Rudge

Abstract:

Problem statement: Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, muscle fiber composition and size can respond to a variety of stimuli, such physiologic, as pregnancy, and metabolic abnormalities, as Diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to analyze the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the rectus abdominis muscle (RA), and to compare this changes in rats and women. Methods: Female Wistar rats were maintained under controlled conditions and distributed in Pregnant (P) and Long-term mild pregnant diabetic (LTMd) (n=3 r/group). Diabetes in rats was induced by streptozotocin (100mg/Kg, sc) on the first day of life, for a hyperglycemic state between 120-300 mg/dL in adult life. Female rats were mated overnight, at day 21 of pregnancy were anesthetized, and killed for the harvesting of maternal RA. Pregnant women who attended the Diabetes Prenatal Care Clinic of Botucatu Medical School were distributed in Pregnant non-diabetic (Pnd) and Gestational Diabetic (GDM) (n=3 w/group). The diagnosis of GDM was established according to ADA’s criteria (2016). The harvesting of RA was during the cesarean section. Transversal cross-sections of the RA of both women and rats were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments of the Botucatu Medical School (Protocol Number 1003/2013) and by the Botucatu Medical School Ethical Committee for Human Research in Medical Sciences (CAAE: 41570815.0.0000.5411). Results: The photomicrographs of the RA of rats revealed disorganized Z lines, thinning sarcomeres, and a usual quantity of intermyofibrillar mitochondria in the P group. The LTMd group showed swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum, dilated T tubes and areas with sarcomere disruption. The ultrastructural analysis of Pnd non-diabetic women in the RA showed well-organized myofibrils forming intact sarcomeres, organized Z lines and a normal distribution of intermyofibrillar mitochondria. The GDM group revealed increase in intermyofibrillar mitochondria, areas with sarcomere disruption and increased lipid droplets. Conclusion: Pregnancy and diabetes induce adaptations in the ultrastructure of the rectus abdominis muscle for both women and rats, changing the architectural design of these tissues. However, in rats these changes are more severe maybe because, besides the high blood glucose levels, the quadrupedal animal may suffer an excessive mechanical tension during pregnancy by gravity. Probably, these findings may suggest that these alterations are a risk factor that contributes to the development of muscle dysfunction in women with GDM and may motivate treatment strategies in these patients.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, muscle dysfunction, pregnancy, rectus abdominis

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63 Serum Concentration of the CCL7 Chemokine in Diabetic Pregnant Women during Pregnancy until the Postpartum Period

Authors: Fernanda Piculo, Giovana Vesentini, Gabriela Marini, Debora Cristina Damasceno, Angelica Mercia Pascon Barbosa, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

Abstract:

Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction compared to non-diabetic women two years after a cesarean section. Additional results demonstrated that induced diabetes causes detrimental effects on pregnant rat urethral muscle. These results indicate the need for exploration of the mechanistic role of a recovery factor in female UI. Chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) was significantly over expressed in rat serum, urethral and vaginal tissues immediately following induction of stress UI in a rat model simulating birth trauma. CCL7 over expression has shown potency for stimulating targeted stem cell migration and provide a translational link (clinical measurement) which further provide opportunities for treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCL7 levels profile in diabetic pregnant women with urinary incontinence during pregnancy over the first year postpartum. Methods: This study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Research Center of the Botucatu Medical School/UNESP, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Institution (CAAE: 20639813.0.0000.5411). The diagnosis of GDM was established between 24th and 28th gestational weeks, by the 75 g-OGTT test according to ADA’s criteria. Urinary incontinence was defined according to the International Continence Society and the CCL7 levels was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Catalog Number DCC700). Two hundred twelve women were classified into four study groups: normoglycemic continent (NC), normoglycemic incontinent (NI), diabetic continent (DC) and diabetic incontinent (DI). They were evaluated at six-time-points: 12-18, 24-28 and 34-38 gestational weeks, 24-48 hours, 6 weeks and 6-12 months postpartum. Results: At 12-18 weeks, it was possible to consider only two groups, continent and incontinent, because at this early gestational period has not yet been the diagnosis of GDM. The group with GDM and UI (DI group) showed lower levels of CCL7 in all time points during pregnancy and postpartum, compared to normoglycemic groups (NC and NI), indicating that these women have not recovered from child birth induced UI during the 6-12 months postpartum compared to their controls, and that the progression of UI and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with lower levels of CCL7. Instead, serum CCL7 was significantly increased in the NC group. Taken together, these findings of overexpression of CCL7 in the NC group and decreased levels in the DI group, could confirm that diabetes delays the recovery from child birth induced UI, and that CCL7 could potentially be used as a serum marker of injury. Conclusion: This study demonstrates lower levels of CCL7 in the DI group during pregnancy and postpartum and suggests that the progression of UI in diabetic women and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with low levels of CCL7. This provides a translational potential where CCL7 measurement could be used as a surrogate for injury after delivery. Successful controlled CCL7 mediated stem cell homing to the lower urinary tract could one day introduce the potential for non-operative treatment or prevention of stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: CCL7, gestational diabetes, pregnancy, urinary incontinence

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62 Overcoming Urban Challenges through Culture and Social Sustainability in Caracas’ Barrios

Authors: Gabriela Quintana Vigiola

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Social sustainability is an issue scarcely addressed by different authors, being one of its key factors the psychosocial processes of sense of place, sense of community and appropriation. In Caracas’s barrios (Venezuela) these were developed through sharing the construction of the place and different struggles that brought the neighbours together. However, one of the main problems they face is criminal violence, hence being its social sustainability threatened and affected by it. This matter can be addressed by acknowledging communities’ sense of place and engaging in cultural events.

Keywords: Caracas’ barrios, cultural engagement, developing countries, social sustainability

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61 Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina-Elena Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Florin Adrian Grădinaru

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures and existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. Also, the plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, risk analysis, critical infrastructure protection, vulnerability, risk management, turbine, impact analysis

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60 Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides

Authors: Adriana-Gabriela Plaiasu, Catalin Marian Ducu

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The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.

Keywords: characterization, morphological, nano-oxides, structural

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59 A Descriptive Approach towards the Understanding of the Central American Coffee Business Demography Phenomena

Authors: Jesus David Argueta Moreno, Justa Rufina Martel, Edith Gabriela Carrasco

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The Central American Coffee small, medium, and large corporations search for excellence, sustainability, and continuous improvement, triggers in a still unknown scale the Local expansion, crusading, and franchising strategies towards a more suitable commercial opportunity, where the dynamics of the Central American business displacement can be explained through the markets permeability traits. By considering the previously mentioned, the present study aims to evaluate the franchising potentialities offered by Central American Coffee business scenario, in order to explain dynamics of the business demography phenomena and its relevance on the Central American competitiveness landscape.

Keywords: competitiveness, franchising, business demography, Central American Coffee

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58 Optimization of Real Time Measured Data Transmission, Given the Amount of Data Transmitted

Authors: Michal Kopcek, Tomas Skulavik, Michal Kebisek, Gabriela Krizanova

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The operation of nuclear power plants involves continuous monitoring of the environment in their area. This monitoring is performed using a complex data acquisition system, which collects status information about the system itself and values of many important physical variables e.g. temperature, humidity, dose rate etc. This paper describes a proposal and optimization of communication that takes place in teledosimetric system between the central control server responsible for the data processing and storing and the decentralized measuring stations, which are measuring the physical variables. Analyzes of ongoing communication were performed and consequently the optimization of the system architecture and communication was done.

Keywords: communication protocol, transmission optimization, data acquisition, system architecture

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57 Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Maria Gabriela Lopez Yanez

Abstract:

This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.

Keywords: digital preservation, heritage, IT management, data, metadata, ontology, serendipity

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56 The Monitoring of Surface Water Bodies from Tisa Catchment Area, Maramureş County in 2014

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, S. Nacu, R. Băstinaş

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The Monitoring of Surface Water Bodies (Rivers) from Tisa Catchment Area - Maramureş County in 2014. This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

Keywords: monitoring, surveillance, water bodies, quality

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55 Sugarcane Trash Biochar: Effect of the Temperature in the Porosity

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Elias R. D. Padilla, Joao L. Barros, Gabriela B. Belini, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji

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Biochar can be an alternative to use sugarcane trash. Biochar is a solid material obtained from pyrolysis, that is a biomass thermal degradation with low or no O₂ concentration. Pyrolysis transforms the carbon that is commonly found in other organic structures into a carbon with more stability that can resist microbial decomposition. Biochar has a versatility of uses such as soil fertility, carbon sequestration, energy generation, ecological restoration, and soil remediation. Biochar has a great ability to retain water and nutrients in the soil so that this material can improve the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization. The aim of this study was to characterize biochar produced from sugarcane trash in three different pyrolysis temperatures and determine the lowest temperature with the high yield and carbon content. Physical characterization of this biochar was performed to help the evaluation for the best production conditions. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) trash was collected at Corredeira Farm, located in Ibaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The farm has 800 hectares of planted area with an average yield of 87 t·ha⁻¹. The sugarcane varieties planted on the farm are: RB 855453, RB 867515, RB 855536, SP 803280, SP 813250. Sugarcane trash was dried and crushed into 50 mm pieces. Crucibles and lids were used to settle the sugarcane trash samples. The higher amount of sugarcane trash was added to the crucible to avoid the O₂ concentration. Biochar production was performed in three different pyrolysis temperatures (200°C, 325°C, 450°C) in 2 hours residence time in the muffle furnace. Gravimetric yield of biochar was obtained. Proximate analysis of biochar was done using ASTM E-872 and ABNT NBR 8112. Volatile matter and ash content were calculated by direct weight loss and fixed carbon content calculated by difference. Porosity measurement was evaluated using an automatic gas adsorption device, Autosorb-1, with CO₂ described by Nakatani. Approximately 0.5 g of biochar in 2 mm particle sizes were used for each measurement. Vacuum outgassing was performed as a pre-treatment in different conditions for each biochar temperature. The pore size distribution of micropores was determined using Horváth-Kawazoe method. Biochar presented different colors for each treatment. Biochar - 200°C presented a higher number of pieces with 10mm or more and did not present the dark black color like other treatments after 2 h residence time in muffle furnace. Also, this treatment had the higher content of volatiles and the lower amount of fixed carbon. In porosity analysis, while the temperature treatments increase, the amount of pores also increase. The increase in temperature resulted in a biochar with a better quality. The pores in biochar can help in the soil aeration, adsorption, water retention. Acknowledgment: This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brazil – PROAP-CAPES, PDSE and CAPES - Finance Code 001.

Keywords: proximate analysis, pyrolysis, soil amendment, sugarcane straw

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54 Analysing Environmental Licensing of Infrastructure Projects in Brazil

Authors: Ronaldo Seroa Da Motta, Gabriela Santiago

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The main contribution of this study is the identification of the factors influencing the environmental licensing process of infrastructure projects in Brazil. These factors will be those that reflect the technical characteristics of the project, the corporate governance of the entrepreneur, and the institutional and regulatory governance of the environmental agency, including the number of interventions by non-licensing agencies. The model conditions these variables to the licensing processing time of 34 infrastructure projects. Our results indicated that the conditions would be more sensitive to the type of enterprise, complexity as in gas pipelines and hydroelectric plants in the most vulnerable biome with a greater value of the enterprise or the entrepreneur's assets, together with the number of employees of the licensing agency. The number of external interventions by other non-licensing institutions does not affect the licensing time. Such results challenge the current criticism that environmental licensing has been often pointed out as a barrier to speed up investments in infrastructure projects in Brazil due to the participation of civil society and other non-licensing institutions.

Keywords: environmental licensing, condionants, Brazil, timing process

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53 Physical Modeling of Woodwind Ancient Greek Musical Instruments: The Case of Plagiaulos

Authors: Dimitra Marini, Konstantinos Bakogiannis, Spyros Polychronopoulos, Georgios Kouroupetroglou

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Archaemusicology cannot entirely depend on the study of the excavated ancient musical instruments as most of the time their condition is not ideal (i.e., missing/eroded parts) and moreover, because of the concern damaging the originals during the experiments. Researchers, in order to overcome the above obstacles, build replicas. This technique is still the most popular one, although it is rather expensive and time-consuming. Throughout the last decades, the development of physical modeling techniques has provided tools that enable the study of musical instruments through their digitally simulated models. This is not only a more cost and time-efficient technique but also provides additional flexibility as the user can easily modify parameters such as their geometrical features and materials. This paper thoroughly describes the steps to create a physical model of a woodwind ancient Greek instrument, Plagiaulos. This instrument could be considered as the ancestor of the modern flute due to the common geometry and air-jet excitation mechanism. Plagiaulos is comprised of a single resonator with an open end and a number of tone holes. The combination of closed and open tone holes produces the pitch variations. In this work, the effects of all the instrument’s components are described by means of physics and then simulated based on digital waveguides. The synthesized sound of the proposed model complies with the theory, highlighting its validity. Further, the synthesized sound of the model simulating the Plagiaulos of Koile (2nd century BCE) was compared with its replica build in our laboratory by following the scientific methodologies of archeomusicology. The aforementioned results verify that robust dynamic digital tools can be introduced in the field of computational, experimental archaemusicology.

Keywords: archaeomusicology, digital waveguides, musical acoustics, physical modeling

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52 Integrated Design of Froth Flotation Process in Sludge Oil Recovery Using Cavitation Nanobubbles for Increase the Efficiency and High Viscose Compatibility

Authors: Yolla Miranda, Marini Altyra, Karina Kalmapuspita Imas

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Oily sludge wastes always fill in upstream and downstream petroleum industry process. Sludge still contains oil that can use for energy storage. Recycling sludge is a method to handling it for reduce the toxicity and very probable to get the remaining oil around 20% from its volume. Froth flotation, a common method based on chemical unit for separate fine solid particles from an aqueous suspension. The basic composition of froth flotation is the capture of oil droplets or small solids by air bubbles in an aqueous slurry, followed by their levitation and collection in a froth layer. This method has been known as no intensive energy requirement and easy to apply. But the low efficiency and unable treat the high viscosity become the biggest problem in froth flotation unit. This study give the design to manage the high viscosity of sludge first and then entering the froth flotation including cavitation tube on it to change the bubbles into nano particles. The recovery in flotation starts with the collision and adhesion of hydrophobic particles to the air bubbles followed by transportation of the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregate from the collection zone to the froth zone, drainage and enrichment of the froth, and finally by its overflow removal from the cell top. The effective particle separation by froth flotation relies on the efficient capture of hydrophobic particles by air bubbles in three steps. The important step is collision. Decreasing the bubble particles will increasing the collision effect. It cause the process more efficient. The pre-treatment, froth flotation, and cavitation tube integrated each other. The design shows the integrated unit and its process.

Keywords: sludge oil recovery, froth flotation, cavitation tube, nanobubbles, high viscosity

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51 Design for Error-Proofing Assembly: A Systematic Approach to Prevent Assembly Issues since Early Design Stages. An Industry Case Study

Authors: Gabriela Estrada, Joaquim Lloveras

Abstract:

Design for error-proofing assembly is a new DFX approach to prevent assembly issues since early design stages. Assembly issues that can happen during the life phases of a system such as: production, installation, operation and replacement phases. This prevention is possible by designing the product with poka-yoke or error-proofing characteristics. This approach guide designers to make decisions based on poka-yoke assembly design requirements. As a result of applying these requirements designers are able to create solutions to prevent assembly issues for the product in development stage. This paper integrates the needs to design products in an error proofing way into the systematic approach of design process by Pahl and Beitz. A case study is presented applying this approach.

Keywords: poka-yoke, error-proofing, assembly issues, design process, life phases of a system

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50 Design for Error-Proofing Assembly: A Systematic Approach to Prevent Assembly Issues since Early Design Stages, an Industrial Case Study

Authors: Gabriela Estrada, Joaquim Lloveras

Abstract:

Design for error-proofing assembly is a new DFX approach to prevent assembly issues since early design stages. Assembly issues that can happen during the life phases of a system such as: production, installation, operation, and replacement phases. This prevention is possible by designing the product with poka-yoke or error-proofing characteristics. This approach guide designers to make decisions based on poka-yoke assembly design requirements. As a result of applying these requirements designers are able to create solutions to prevent assembly issues for the product in development stage. This paper integrates the needs to design products in an error proofing way into the systematic approach of design process by Pahl and Beitz. A case study is presented applying this approach.

Keywords: poka-yoke, error-proofing, assembly issues, design process, life phases of a system

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49 Simulation-Based Learning: Cases at Slovak University of Technology, at Faculty of Materials Science and Technology

Authors: Gabriela Chmelikova, Ludmila Hurajova, Pavol Bozek

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Current era has brought hand in hand with the vast and fast development of technologies enormous pressure on individuals to keep being well - oriented in their professional fields. Almost all projects in the real world require an interdisciplinary perspective. These days we notice some cases when students face that real requirements for jobs are in contrast to the knowledge and competences they gained at universities. Interlacing labor market and university programs is a big issue these days. Sometimes it seems that higher education only “chases” reality. Simulation-based learning can support students’ touch with real demand on competences and knowledge of job world. The contribution provided a descriptive study of some cases of simulation-based teaching environment in different courses at STU MTF in Trnava and discussed how students and teachers perceive this model of teaching-learning approach. Finally, some recommendations are proposed how to enhance closer relationship between academic world and labor market.

Keywords: interdisciplinary approach, simulation-based learning, students' job readiness, teaching environment in higher education

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48 Analysis of Vocal Pathologies through Subglottic Pressure Measurement

Authors: Perla E. Jimarez Rocha, Carolina D. Tejeda Franco, Gabriela Pérez Martínez, Arturo Minor Martínez, Annel Gómez Coello

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One of the biggest problems in developing new therapies for the management and treatment of voice disorders is the difficulty of objectively evaluating the results of each treatment. A system was proposed that captures and records voice signals, in addition to analyzing the vocal quality (fundamental frequency, zero crossings, energy, and amplitude spectrum), as well as the subglottic pressure (cm H₂O) during the sustained phonation of the vowel / a /; a recording system is implemented, as well as an interactive system that records information on subglottic pressure. In Mexico City, a control group of 31 patients with phoniatric pathology is proposed; non-invasive tests were performed for these most common vocal pathologies (Nodules, Polyps, Irritative Laryngitis, Ventricular Dysphonia, Laryngeal Cancer, Dysphonia, and Dysphagia). The most common pathology was irritative laryngitis (32%), followed by vocal fold paralysis (unilateral and bilateral,19.4 %). It's taken into consideration, men and women are in the pathological groups due to the physiological difference. They were separated in gender by the difference in the morphology of the respiratory tract.

Keywords: amplitude spectrum, energy, fundamental frequency, subglottic pressure, zero crossings

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47 Modeling the Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons by Order Reduction

Authors: Ruxandra Barbulescu, Daniel Ioan, Gabriela Ciuprina

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The saltatory conduction is the way the action potential is transmitted along a myelinated axon. The potential diffuses along the myelinated compartments and it is regenerated in the Ranvier nodes due to the ion channels allowing the flow across the membrane. For an efficient simulation of populations of neurons, it is important to use reduced order models both for myelinated compartments and for Ranvier nodes and to have control over their accuracy and inner parameters. The paper presents a reduced order model of this neural system which allows an efficient simulation method for the saltatory conduction in myelinated axons. This model is obtained by concatenating reduced order linear models of 1D myelinated compartments and nonlinear 0D models of Ranvier nodes. The models for the myelinated compartments are selected from a series of spatially distributed models developed and hierarchized according to their modeling errors. The extracted model described by a nonlinear PDE of hyperbolic type is able to reproduce the saltatory conduction with acceptable accuracy and takes into account the finite propagation speed of potential. Finally, this model is again reduced in order to make it suitable for the inclusion in large-scale neural circuits.

Keywords: action potential, myelinated segments, nonlinear models, Ranvier nodes, reduced order models, saltatory conduction

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46 The Efects of Viable Marketing on Sustainable Development

Authors: Gabriela Tutuanu

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The economic, social and environmental undesirable impact of the existing development pattern pushes to the adoption and use of a new development paradigm that of sustainable development. This paper intends to substantiate how the marketing can help the sustainable development. It begins with the subjects of sustainable development and sustainable marketing as they are discussed in literature. The sustainable development is a three dimensional concept which embeds the economic dimension, the social dimension and the environmental dimension that ask to have in view the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, social equity and environmental quality. A major challenge to achieve these goals at business level and to integrate all three dimensions of sustainability is the sustainable marketing. The sustainable marketing is a relationship marketing that aims at building lasting relationships with the social and natural environment on a long-term thinking and futurity and this philosophy allows helping all three dimensions of sustainability. As marketing solutions that could contribute to the sustainable development. We advance the stimulation of sustainable demand, the constant innovation and improvement of sustainable products, the design and use of customized communication, a multichannel distribution network and the sale of sustainable products and services at fair prices. Their implementation will increase the economic, social and environmental sustainability at a large extent in the future if they are supported by political, governmental and legal authorities.

Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable marketing, sustainable demand, sustainable product, credible communication, multi-channel distribution network, fair price

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45 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes

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Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: oxidative stress, lactic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant activity

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44 Evaluation of Green Logistics Performance: An Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Ranking Environmental Indicators

Authors: Eduarda Dutra De Souza, Gabriela Hammes, Marina Bouzon, Carlos M. Taboada Rodriguez

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The search for minimizing harmful impacts on the environment has become the focus of global society, affecting mainly how to manage organizations. Thus, companies have sought to transform their activities into environmentally friendly initiatives by applying green practices throughout their supply chains. In the logistics domain, the implementation of environmentally sound practices is still in its infancy in emerging countries such as Brazil. Given the need to reduce these environmental damages, this study aims to evaluate the performance of green logistics (GL) in the plastics industry sector in order to help to improve environmental performance within organizations and reduce the impact caused by their activities. The performance tool was based on theoretical research and the use of experts in the field. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to prioritize green practices and assign weight to the indicators contained in the proposed tool. The tool also allows the co-production of a single indicator. The developed tool was applied in an industry of the plastic packaging sector. However, this tool may be applied in different industry sectors, and it is adaptable to different sizes of companies. Besides the contributions to the literature, this work also presents future paths of research in the field of green logistics.

Keywords: AHP, green logistics, green supply chain, performance evaluation

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43 Community-Based Assessment Approach to Empower Child with Disabilities: Institutional Study on Deaf Art Community in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Mukhamad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus

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The emergence of a community of people with disabilities along with the various works produced has made great progress to open the public eye to their existence in society. This study focuses attention on a community that is suspected to be one of the pioneers in pursuing the movement. It is Deaf Art Community (DAC), a community of persons with disabilities based in Yogyakarta, with deaf and speech-impaired members who use sign language in everyday communication. Knowing the movement of disabled communities is a good thing, the description of the things behind it then important to know as the basis for initiating similar movements. This research focuses on the question of how community of people with disabilities begin to take shape in different regions and interact with collaborative events. Qualitative method with in-depth interview as data collection techniques was used to describe the process of formation and the emergence of community. The analytical unit in the study initially focuses on the subject in the community, but in the process, it develops to institutional analysis. Therefore some informants were determined purposively and expanded using the snowball technique. The theory used in this research is Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz to be able to see reality from the subject and institutional point of view. The results of this study found that the community is formed because the existing educational institutions (both SLB and inclusion) are less able to empower and make children with disabilities become equal with the society. Through the SLB, the presence of children with disabilities becomes isolated from the society, especially in children of his or her age. Therefore, discrimination and labeling will never be separated from society's view. Meanwhile, facilities for the basic needs of children with disabilities can not be fully provided. Besides that, the guarantee of discrimination, glances, and unpleasant behavior from children without disability does not exist, which then indicates that the existing inclusion schools offer only symbolic acceptance. Thus, both in SLB and Inclusive Schools can not empower children with disabilities. Community-based assistance, in this case, has become an alternative to actually empowering children with disabilities. Not only giving them a place to interact, through the same community, children with disabilities will be guided to discover their talents and develop their potential to be self-reliant in the future.

Keywords: children with disabilities, community-based assessment, community empowerment, social equity

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42 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu

Abstract:

Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

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41 The Tradition of Drinking Tuak in Batak Society againts the Law of Alcohol Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Siti Hazar Sitorus, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli

Abstract:

This study aims to examine how the Batak tribe in the Village Lumban Sitorus Parmaksian District, Toba Samosir (Tobasa) interpret the culture of drinking Tuak as a social interaction. This research uses qualitative method with case study approach. Through this approach, the researchers obtained primary data by looking at and observing the social interaction that occurs when the activity of drinking tuak takes place on the daily life of the Batak Toba community in the village of Lumban Sitorus. The technique of data collecting is done by observation and in-depth interview. This study focuses on Batak Toba community, especially men who daily drink tuak. The results obtained from this study is Batak Toba society has a habit of drinking Tuak (a type of alcoholic beverage derived from water sapphire juice that is fermented). In Batak Toba society, tuak is not only considered as an alcoholic drink which is usually drunk in the afternoon at lapotuak (tuak shop), but tuak is also understood as a drink of honor in a traditional party at Toba Batak society. On the other hand, the activity of drinking of tuak was also considered as a medium or a means of connecting the formation of a sense of solidarity among the people of LumbanSitorous Village. In its existence, drinking tuak is defined as a mean that can facilitate the establishment to open communication with fellow members of Batak Toba community, such as at leisure, birth party, death or as medicine. Specifically, tuak in a special sense in Batak Toba society is also a symbol of intimacy, gratitude, and respect which is manifested in the activity of daily drinking tuak. In Indonesia, if we refer to the Criminal Code in articles 300 and 536 it is clear that whoever intentionally sells and consumes intoxicating / alcoholic drinks will be subject to a maximum jail term of one year. It became interesting then when looking at Indonesia as a country that has a diversity of cultures in which the law implies the prohibition of alcoholic / intoxicating beverages. However, the existence of drinking of tuak as a drink that categorized intoxicating in Batak Toba society still continues to.

Keywords: tradition of drinking tuak, meaning of tuak, Batak society, cultural studies

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40 Juvenile Justice in Maryland: The Evidence Based Approach to Youth with History of Victimization and Trauma

Authors: Gabriela Wasileski, Debra L. Stanley

Abstract:

Maryland efforts to decrease the juvenile criminality and recidivism shifts towards evidence based sentencing. While in theory the evidence based sentencing has an impact on the reduction of juvenile delinquency and drug abuse; the assessment of juveniles’ risk and needs usually lacks crucial information about juvenile’s prior victimization. The Maryland Comprehensive Assessment and Service Planning (MCASP) Initiative is the primary tool for developing and delivering a treatment service plan for juveniles at risk. Even though it consists of evidence-based screening and assessment instruments very little is currently known regarding the effectiveness and the impact of the assessment in general. In keeping with Maryland’s priority to develop successful evidence-based recidivism reduction programs, this study examined results of assessments based on MCASP using a representative sample of the juveniles at risk and their assessment results. Specifically, it examined: (1) the results of the assessments in an electronic database (2) areas of need that are more frequent among delinquent youth in a system/agency, (3) the overall progress of youth in an agency’s care (4) the impact of child victimization and trauma experiences reported in the assessment. The project will identify challenges regarding the use of MCASP in Maryland, and will provide a knowledge base to support future research and practices.

Keywords: Juvenile Justice, assessment of risk and need, victimization and crime, recidivism

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39 Advanced Driver Assistance System: Veibra

Authors: C. Fernanda da S. Sampaio, M. Gabriela Sadith Perez Paredes, V. Antonio de O. Martins

Abstract:

Today the transport sector is undergoing a revolution, with the rise of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), industry and society itself will undergo a major transformation. However, the technological development of these applications is a challenge that requires new techniques and great machine learning and artificial intelligence. The study proposes to develop a vehicular perception system called Veibra, which consists of two front cameras for day/night viewing and an embedded device capable of working with Yolov2 image processing algorithms with low computational cost. The strategic version for the market is to assist the driver on the road with the detection of day/night objects, such as road signs, pedestrians, and animals that will be viewed through the screen of the phone or tablet through an application. The system has the ability to perform real-time driver detection and recognition to identify muscle movements and pupils to determine if the driver is tired or inattentive, analyzing the student's characteristic change and following the subtle movements of the whole face and issuing alerts through beta waves to ensure the concentration and attention of the driver. The system will also be able to perform tracking and monitoring through GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology and the cameras installed in the vehicle.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, tracking, traffic signal detection, vehicle perception system

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38 Social Construction of Merantau in Minangkabau Society in Capital City of Indonesia, Jakarta

Authors: Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Siti Hazar Sitorus

Abstract:

Merantau is one of the traditions that has been done by the Minangkabau tribe since the 15th century where it is based on socio-economic factors. In fact, that is not only limited to economic factors alone but more how to develop themselves through the experience to get the skills or education. The lack of jobs opportunity in the hometown causes the community, especially for young men to seek livelihoods in other areas. Unemployment impacts on the economy of the community that led to change in the pattern of employment from farmers to traders or new businesses in areas outside of their homeland. This is also worsened because many young people are not interested in becoming a farmer and working on the land in their village. In this context, merantau is considered to be an alternative to fulfilling livelihoods, and therefore this study examines how the merantau tradition constructed by the Minangkabau community, West Sumatera Province. The research method is done by literature review by collecting information related to the social construction of merantau tradition from various scientific publications. The results show how merantau becomes a solution of economic problems for Minangkabau society. Merantau which has now become an institutionalized tradition for the Minangkabau community where the culture of merantau occurred like a chain that can raise the people from the condition of poverty. When there are people who have successfully in merantau, they tend to bring other relatives who have not found a job to be able to trade with them. In the place of merantau, they will be disciplined to learn how to trade. Eventually, they will have new skills to trade and even make their own business. The tradition of bringing relatives to the rantau to be empowered is a unique side of merantau because it is influenced by the Matrilinear kinship system. The matrilineal kinship system in Minangkabau is the largest in the world where helping relatives are considered to be of the highest value. This system also places men as high positions where men should be encouraged to go abroad for financial success and to help their relatives in their hometown. The success of this tradition (to uplift and resolve the poverty and manpower issues) is demonstrated by the tradition of Minangkabau communities that have been successful in the area of Rantau that send money to their relatives in their homes (remittance). Merantau tradition can also be an alternative in reducing unemployment especially for young people where it is demonstrated by the culture of helping relatives to get work outside of their homeland.

Keywords: matrilineal kinship system, merantau, minangkabau community, reducing unemployment

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37 Isoflavone and Mineral Content in Conventional Commercial Soybean Cultivars and Transgenic Soybean Planted in Minas Gerais, Brazil

Authors: Renata Adriana Labanca, Gabriela Rezende Costa, Nilton de Oliveira Couto e Silva, José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino, Rodrigo Santos Leite, Nilson César Castanheira Guimarães, Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in composition between six brands of conventional soybean and six genetically modified cultivars (GM), all of them from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We focused on the isoflavones profile and mineral content questioning the substantial equivalence between conventional and GM organisms. The statement of compliance label for conventional grains was verified for the presence of genetic modified genes by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not detect the presence of the 35S promoter in commercial samples, indicating the absence of transgene insertion. For mineral analysis, we used the method of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Isoflavones quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed no statistical difference between the conventional and transgenic soybean groups concerning isoflavone content and mineral composition. The concentration of potassium, the main mineral component of soy, was the highest in conventional soybeans compared to that in GM soy, while GM samples presented the highest concentrations of iron.

Keywords: glycine max, genetically modified organism, bioactive compounds, ICP-OES, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
36 Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Gabriela V. Angeles Perez, Jose Castillejos Lopez, Araceli L. Reyes Cabello, Emilio Bravo Grajales, Adriana Perez Espinosa, Jose L. Quiroz Fabian

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represents very high inversion of time and money, additionally, the result are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms was the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.

Keywords: data mining, k-means, road traffic accidents, Waze, Weka

Procedia PDF Downloads 238