Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 979

Search results for: metals nan Oparticales

979 Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Zinc Oxide and Silver Oxide Nonparticipants

Authors: Nassima Khanfri, Ali Boucenna


As metallic nanoparticles are increasingly used in many economic sectors, there is interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods of synthesizing nanoparticales are chemical and physical approaches that are often expensive and potentially harmful to the environment. The present study is devoted to the possibility of the synthesis of silver nanoparticales and zinc oxide from silver nitrate and zinc acetate using basilica plant extracts. The products obtained are characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV/V, XRD, MEB-EDX, FTIR, and RAMAN. These analyzes confirm the crystalline nature of AgNps and ZnONps. These crystalline powders having effective biological activities regarding the antioxidant and antibacterial, which could be used in several biological applications.

Keywords: green synthesis, bio-reduction, metals nan Oparticales, Plants extracts

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978 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: removal, metal, heavy oil, nickel, vanadium

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977 Concentration of Some Hazardous Metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) in Egg Samples Analysed from Poultry Farms Located near Automechanics Workshops, Industrial Areas and Roadsides in Kano and Kaduna

Authors: M. I. Mohammed, A. M. Sani, A. S. Bayero


The aim of this work is to study the effect of farm site location by determining the levels of hazardous metals in poultry eggs samples collected near auto mechanics, industrial areas and roadsides in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the analysis of the metals. The mean concentration ranges of the metals analysed in egg white and egg yolk were Pb: 0.05-0.10mgkg⁻¹, Ni: 0.10-0.30mgkg⁻¹ and Cd: not detected -0.03mgkg⁻¹. It was concluded that farm site locations has very low significant effect on the concentration of hazardous metals level.

Keywords: albumen, Egg, hazardous metals, poultry farms

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976 Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Materials: A Review

Authors: I. Nazari, B. Shaabani, P. Abaasifar


In small quantities certain heavy metals are nutritionally essential for a healthy life. The heavy metals linked most often to human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Other heavy metals including copper, zinc and chromium are actually required by the body in small quantity but can also be toxic in large doses. Nowadays, we have contamination to this heavy metals in some untreated industrial waste waters and even in several populated cities drinking waters around the world. The contamination of ground and underground water sources to heavy metals can be concentrated and travel up to food chain by drinking water and agricultural products. In recent years, the need for safe and economical methods for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water has necessitated research interest towards the finding low-cost alternatives. Bio-adsorbents have emerged as low-cost and efficient materials for the removal of heavy metals from waste and ground waters. The bio-adsorbents have an affinity for heavy metals ions to form metal complexes or chelates due to having functional groups including carboxyl, hydroxyl, imidazole, and etc. The objective of this study is to review researches in less expensive adsorbents and their utilization possibilities for various low-cost bio-adsorbents such as coffee beans, rice husk, and saw dust for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters.

Keywords: heavy metals, water pollution, bio-adsorbents, low cost adsorbents

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975 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan


Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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974 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai, L. U. S. Ezeanyika


This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: heavy metals, female, adolescents, Nigeria

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973 A Study of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in the Manganese Mining in Drama, Greece

Authors: A. Argiri, A. Molla, Tzouvalekas, E. Skoufogianni, N. Danalatos


The release of heavy metals into the environment has increased over the last years. In this study, 25 soil samples (0-15 cm) from the fields near the mining area in Drama region were selected. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physicochemical properties and for seven “pseudo-total’’ heavy metals content, namely Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn. The total metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in digests were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. According to the results, the mean concentration of the listed heavy metals in 25 soil samples are Cd 1.1 mg/kg, Cr 15 mg/kg, Cu 21.7 mg/kg, Ni 30.1 mg/kg, Pd 50.8 mg/kg, Zn 99.5 mg/kg and Mn 815.3 mg/kg. The results show that the heavy metals remain in the soil even if the mining closed many years ago.

Keywords: Greece, heavy metals, mining, pollution

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972 Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova


Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.

Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, safflower, polluted soils, phytoremediation

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971 Impact on Soil Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Farhan Ali


Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals, which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. The study highlighted that there is a large accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, which is irrigated with industrial wastewater Laden and people consume vegetables grown in soil irrigated with sewage water to absorb a large amount of these metals. This accumulation of heavy metals in food cause possible health risks for the consumer. Regular monitoring of the levels of pathogens and heavy metals from the waste water drain which effluent are used for growing vegetables and other foodstuffs is essential to monitor excessive accumulation of these metals in the food chain.

Keywords: pathogens, wastewater, concentration, effluent

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970 Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee


The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.

Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, bioleaching, metal recovery, spent catalyst

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969 Chemical Leaching of Metals from Landfill’s Fine Fraction

Authors: E. Balkauskaitė, A. Bučinskas, R. Ivanauskas, M. Kriipsalu, G. Denafas


Leaching of heavy metals (chromium, zinc, copper) from the fine fraction of the Torma landfill (Estonia) was investigated. The leaching kinetics studies have determined the dependence of some metal’s concentration on the leaching time. Metals were leached with Aqua Regia, distilled water and EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid); process was most intensive 2 hours after the start of the experiment, except for copper with EDTA (0.5 h) and lead with EDTA (4 h). During leaching, steady concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb were fully stabilized after 8 h; however concentrations of Cu and Ni were not stabilized after 10 h.

Keywords: fine fraction, landfills, leached metals, leaching kinetics

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968 Trend and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil and Sediment: North of Thailand Region

Authors: Chatkaew Tansakul, Saovajit Nanruksa, Surasak Chonchirdsin


Heavy metals in the environment can be occurred by both natural weathering process and human activity, which may present significant risks to human health and the wider environment. A number of heavy metals, i.e. Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn), are found with a relatively high concentration in the northern part of Thailand that was assumptively from natural parent rocks and materials. However, scarce literature is challenging to identify the accurate root cause and best available explanation. This study is, therefore, aim to gather heavy metals data in 5 provinces of the North of Thailand where PTT Exploration and Production (PTTEP) public company limited has operated for more than 20 years. A thousand heavy metal analysis is collected and interpreted in term of Enrichment Factor (EF). The trend and distribution of heavy metals in soil and sediment are analyzed by considering altogether the geochemistry of the regional soil and rock. . In addition, the relationship between land use and heavy metals distribution is investigated. In the first conclusion, heavy metal concentrations of (As) and (Mn) in the studied areas are equal to 7.0 and 588.6 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those in regional parent materials (1 – 12 and 850 – 1,000 ppm for As and Mn respectively). Moreover, there is an insignificant escalation of the heavy metals in these studied areas over two decades.

Keywords: contaminated soil, enrichment factor, heavy metals, parent materials in North of Thailand

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967 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, ‎Majid Afkhami, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎


Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, health risks, THQ index

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966 Feasibilities for Recovering of Precious Metals from Printed Circuit Board Waste

Authors: Simona Ziukaite, Remigijus Ivanauskas, Gintaras Denafas


Market development of electrical and electronic equipment and a short life cycle is driven by the increasing waste streams. Gold Au, copper Cu, silver Ag and palladium Pd can be found on printed circuit board. These metals make up the largest value of printed circuit board. Therefore, the printed circuit boards scrap is valuable as potential raw material for precious metals recovery. A comparison of Cu, Au, Ag, Pd recovery from waste printed circuit techniques was selected metals leaching of chemical reagents. The study was conducted using the selected multistage technique for Au, Cu, Ag, Pd recovery of printed circuit board. In the first and second metals leaching stages, as the elution reagent, 2M H2SO4 and H2O2 (35%) was used. In the third stage, leaching of precious metals used solution of 20 g/l of thiourea and 6 g/l of Fe2 (SO4)3. Verify the efficiency of the method was carried out the metals leaching test with aqua regia. Based on the experimental study, the leaching efficiency, using the preferred methodology, 60 % of Au and 85,5 % of Cu dissolution was achieved. Metals leaching efficiency after waste mechanical crushing and thermal treatment have been increased by 1,7 times (40 %) for copper, 1,6 times (37 %) for gold and 1,8 times (44 %) for silver. It was noticed that, the Au amount in old (> 20 years) waste is 17 times more, Cu amount - 4 times more, and Ag - 2 times more than in the new (< 1 years) waste. Palladium in the new printed circuit board waste has not been found, however, it was established that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Pd (leaching with aqua regia). It was found that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Ag. Precious metals recovery in Lithuania was estimated in this study. Given the amounts of generated printed circuit board waste, the limits for recovery of precious metals were identified.

Keywords: leaching efficiency, limits for recovery, precious metals recovery, printed circuit board waste

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965 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo


In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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964 Assessment of Trace Metal Concentration of Soils Contaminated with Carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Authors: O.M. Agbogidi, I.M. Onochie


An investigation was carried out on trace metal concentration of soils contaminated with carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria in 2014 with a view to providing baseline formation on their status relative to the control plants and to the tolerable limits recommended by World standard bodies including WHO and FAO. The metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which showed an elevated level when compared with the control plots. High level of metals including Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and arsenic were recorded and these values were significantly different (P<0.05) from values obtained from the control plots. These results are indicative of the fact that carbide polluted soil had higher level of trace metals and because these metals are non-biodegradable elements in the ecosystem, a rise to their lethal levels in food chains is envisaged due to the interdependency of plants and animals stemming from soil-water organisms interrelationship.

Keywords: bio-concentration, carbide contaminated soils, heavy metals, trace metals

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963 Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa

Authors: T. Imo, F. Latū, S. Aloi, J. Leung-Wai, V. Vaurasi, P. Amosa, M. A. Sheikh


Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.

Keywords: coastal environment, heavy metals, pollution, sediments

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962 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Farejiya, Anil Kumar Dikshit


The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP–AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.

Keywords: toxic metals, marine tuna fish, bioaccumulation, biomagnifications

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961 Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agent Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf

Authors: Gulnur Arabaci


Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaver rhoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.

Keywords: inhibition, metal, red poppy, poly phenol oxidase (PPO)

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960 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai


This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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959 The Effect of Supercritical Fluid on the Extraction Efficiency of Heavy Metal from Soil

Authors: Haifa El-Sadi, Maria Elektorowicz, Reed Rushing, Ammar Badawieh, Asif Chaudry


Clay soils have particular properties that affect the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In clay soils, electro-kinetic transport of heavy metals has been carried out. The transport of these metals is predicated on maintaining a low pH throughout the cell, which, in turn, keeps the metals in the pore water phase where they are accessible to electro-kinetic transport. Supercritical fluid extraction and acid digestion were used for the analysis of heavy metals concentrations after the completion of electro-kinetic experimentation. Supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) extraction is a new technique used to extract the heavy metal (lead, nickel, calcium and potassium) from clayey soil. The comparison between supercritical extraction and acid digestion of different metals was carried out. Supercritical fluid extraction, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modifier, proved to be efficient and a safer technique than acid digestion technique in extracting metals from clayey soil. Mixing time of soil with EDTA before extracting heavy metals from clayey soil was investigated. The optimum and most practical shaking time for the extraction of lead, nickel, calcium and potassium was two hours.

Keywords: clay soil, heavy metals, supercritical fluid extraction, acid digestion

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958 Assessment of Quality of Drinking Water in Residential Houses of Kuwait by Using GIS Method

Authors: Huda Aljabi


The existence of heavy metals similar to cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury in the drinking water be able to be a threat to public health. The amount of the substances of these heavy metals in drinking water has expected importance. The National Primary Drinking Water Regulations have set limits for the concentrations of these elements in drinking water because of their toxicity. Furthermore, bromate shaped during the disinfection of drinking water by Ozonation can also be a health hazard. The Paper proposed here will concentrate on the compilation of all available data and information on the presence of trace metals and bromate in the drinking water at residential houses distributed over different areas in Kuwait. New data will also be collected through a sampling of drinking water at some of the residential houses present in different areas of Kuwait and their analysis for the contents of trace metals and bromate. The collected data will be presented on maps showing the distribution of these metals and bromate in the drinking water of Kuwait. Correlation among different chemical parameters will also be investigated using the GRAPHER software. This will help both the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) in taking corrective measures and also in planning the infrastructure activities for the future.

Keywords: bromate, ozonation, GIS, heavy metals

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957 Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn) Level in Shellfish (Etheria elliptica), Water, and Sediments of River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O. O. Olawusi-Peters, O. E. Aguda, F. O. Okoye


Investigations on the accumulation of heavy metals in water and sediments of River Ogbese were carried out between December 2010 and February 2011 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Etheria elliptica a sessile organism was also used to determine the concentration of heavy metal in the aquatic environmental. In water, Cu had the highest concentration (0.55–0.13 mg/l ±0.1) while in sediments, the highest value obtained was in Fe (1.46-3.89mg/l±0.27). The minimum concentrations recorded were in Pb; which was below detectable level. The result also revealed that the shell accumulated more heavy metals than the flesh of the mussel with Cu in the shell exhibiting a negative correlation with all the metals in the flesh. However, the condition factor (K) value is 6.44, an indication of good health. The length-weight relationship is expressed as W=-0.48xL 1.94 (r2=0.29) showing the growth pattern to be negatively allometric.

Keywords: condition factor, Etheria elliptica, heavy metals, River Ogbese

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956 Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment

Authors: Huyuan Zhang, Yi Chen


Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.

Keywords: acid buffering capacity, barrier, heavy metals, remobilization, sewage sludge

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955 Separation of Rare-Earth Metals from E-Wastes

Authors: Gulsara Akanova, Akmaral Ismailova, Duisek Kamysbayev


The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. The waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further the separation of rare-earth metals, the magnet dissolved in open and closed systems with nitric acid. In the closed system, the magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures and the dissolution process lasted 1 hour. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet was conducted at room temperature and the process lasted 30-40 minutes. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. For separation of rare earth metals (Nd, Pr and Dy) from magnet waste is used sorption method.

Keywords: dissolution of the magnet, Neodymium magnet, rare earth metals, separation, Sorption

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954 Heavy Metals in Selected Infant Milk Formula

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, M. Gazette


To test for the presence of toxic heavy metals, specifically Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in formula milk available in Misrata city north of Libya for infants aged 6-12 months through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,30 samples of imported milk formula in Libyan markets subjected to test to accurate their pollution with heavy metals, We get concentration of Hg, Ar, Pb in milk formula samples was between 0.002-1.37, 1.62-0.04–2.16, 0.15–0.65 respectively, when compared the results with Libyan &WHO standards ,they were within standards of toxic heavy metals. The presence or absence of toxic heavy metals (Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury) in selected infant formula milk and their levels within or beyond standards set by the WHO. The three infant formulas tested, all were negative for Arsenic and Lead, while two out of the three infant formulas tested positive for Mercury with levels of 0.6333ppm and 0.8333ppm. The levels of Mercury obtained, expressed in parts per million (ppm), from the two infant formulas tested were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of total Mercury, which is 0.005ppm, as set by the FAO, WHO, and JECFA.

Keywords: heavy metals, milk formula, Libya, toxic

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953 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya


The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.

Keywords: fertilizer, heavy metals, leaching, sewage sludge

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952 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals

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951 Dietary Exposure of Heavy Metals through Cereals Commonly Consumed by Dhaka City Residents

Authors: A. Md. Bayejid Hosen, B. M Zakir Hossain Howlader, C. Yearul Kabir


Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. Dietary exposure to heavy metals has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects. The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd and Hg. The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of heavy metals in cereals collected from different wholesale markets of Dhaka City. One hundred and sixty cereal samples were collected and analyzed for determination of heavy metals. Heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of six heavy metals– lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony were estimated. The average concentrations of heavy metals in cereals fall within the safe limit established by regulatory organizations except for Pb (152.4 μg/100g) and Hg (15.13 μg/100g) which exceeded the safe limits. BARI gom-26 was the highest source of Pb (304.1 μg/100g) whereas Haski-29 rice variety contained the highest amount of Hg (60.85 μg/100g). Though all the cereal varieties contained approximately same amount of Cr the naizer sail varieties contained huge amount of Cr (171.8 μg/100g). Among all the cereal samples miniket rice varieties contained the least amount of heavy metals. The concentration of Cr (63.24 μg/100g), Cd (5.54 μg/100g) and As (3.26 μg/100g) in all cereals were below the safe limits. The daily intake of heavy metals was determined using the total weight of cereals consumed each day multiplied by the concentrations of heavy metals in cereals. The daily intake was compared with provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by different regulatory organizations. The daily intake of Cd (23.0 μg), Hg (63.0 μg) and as (13.6 μg) through cereals were below the risk level except for Pb (634.0 μg) and Cr (263.1 μg). As the main meal of average Bangladeshi people is boiled rice served with some sorts of vegetables, our findings indicate that the residents of Dhaka City are at risk from Pb and Cr contamination. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted cereals need more attention.

Keywords: contamination, dietary exposure, heavy metals, human health, ICP-MS

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950 Assessment of Pollution Cd, Pb and as in Rice Cultivation in Savadkooh

Authors: Ghazal Banitahmasb, Nazanin Khakipour


More than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water environments is a serious and growing problem. Toxin by human activities causes pollution in soils so that the intensity of metals in soils was exceeded. This study was done on 7 samples of rice cultivated in Savadkooh of Mazandaran province and soils; they were grown. The amount of heavy metals Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium were measured by atomic absorption. The test results showed that the amount of Lead in rice strain, Tarom A, was 0.768 ppm, the maximum amount of Cadmium in rice strain, Hashemi B, was 0.09 ppm and the highest levels of Arsenic was in red Tarom, 0.39 ppm. According to the results obtained in this study can be found all rice grown in Savadkooh city of Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead, but the measurements are less than specified in the national standard, and their use is safe for consumers. These results also indicate that positive and significant correlation between the studied heavy metals in soil and rice strains that grow there and by increasing the amount of heavy metals in the soil, the amount of these metals in crops grown on them is also increasing.

Keywords: heavy metals, Oryza sativa L., soil pollution, Savadkooh

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