Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 941

Search results for: intrinsic fracture stress

941 Identification of High Stress Regions in Proximal Femur During Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: Hossein Kheirollahi, Yunhua Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
940 Keying Effect During Fracture of Stainless Steel

Authors: Farej Ahmed Emhmmed

Abstract:

Fracture of duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated in air and in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Tow sets of fatigued specimens were heat treated at 475ºC for different times and pulled to failure either in air or after kept in 3.5% NaCl with polarization of -900 mV/ SCE. Fracture took place in general by ferrite cleavage and austenite ductile fracture in transgranular mode. Specimens measured stiffness (Ms) was affected by the aging time, with higher values measured for specimens aged for longer times. Microstructural features played a role in "blocking" the crack propagation process leading to lower the CTOD values specially for specimens aged for short times. Unbroken ligaments/ austenite were observed at the crack wake. These features may exerted a bridging stress, blocking effect, at the crack tip giving resistance to the crack propagation process i.e the crack mouth opening was reduced. Higher stress intensity factor Kıc values were observed with increased amounts of crack growth suggesting longer zone of unbroken ligaments in the crack wake. The bridging zone was typically several mm in length. Attempt to model the bridge stress was suggested to understand the role of ligaments/unbroken austenite in increasing the fracture toughness factor.

Keywords: stainless steels, fracture toughness, crack keying effect, ligaments

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
939 An Unusual Fracture Pattern: Fracture of the Distal Radius (Colles') along with Fracture of the Ipsilateral Scaphoid & Capitate Bones

Authors: Srikanta Tagore Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Mandal, Dibakar Roy

Abstract:

The association of a capitate fracture with a scaphoid fracture has been termed as the naviculocapitate syndrome. The existence of some nondisplaced fractures of scaphoid and capitate with or without the fracture of lunate or radius suggests that there is a spectrum of these injuries, and this confuses the terminology. With our case; we report an unusual variety of this naviculocapitate syndrome with distal radial Colles fracture in addition to the nondisplaced fractures of the scaphoid, capitate and the dorsal lip of radial fracture. When we looked at the literature there is no another Colles fracture reported together with undisplaced scapho-capitate syndrome. The coronal and sagittal images that obtained from the MDCT (Multidetector computed tomography) is useful and effective imaging modality to diagnose complex wrist fractures with more details that are not detected in X-rays.

Keywords: scaphoid, capitate, Colles’ fracture, syndrome, MDCT, unusual

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
938 A Cohesive Zone Model with Parameters Determined by Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve

Authors: Y.J. Wang, C. Q. Ru

Abstract:

A key issue of cohesive zone models is how to determine the cohesive zone model parameters based on real material test data. In this paper, uniaxial nominal stress-strain curve (SS curve) is used to determine two key parameters of a cohesive zone model (CZM): The maximum traction and the area under the curve of traction-separation law (TSL). To this end, the true SS curve is obtained based on the nominal SS curve, and the relationship between the nominal SS curve and TSL is derived based on an assumption that the stress for cracking should be the same in both CZM and the real material. In particular, the true SS curve after necking is derived from the nominal SS curve by taking the average of the power law extrapolation and the linear extrapolation, and a damage factor is introduced to offset the true stress reduction caused by the voids generated at the necking zone. The maximum traction of the TSL is equal to the maximum true stress calculated based on the damage factor at the end of hardening. In addition, a simple specimen is modeled by Abaqus/Standard to calculate the critical J-integral, and the fracture energy calculated by the critical J-integral represents the stored strain energy in the necking zone calculated by the true SS curve. Finally, the CZM parameters obtained by the present method are compared to those used in a previous related work for a simulation of the drop-weight tear test.

Keywords: dynamic fracture, cohesive zone model, traction-separation law, stress-strain curve, J-integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
937 Determination of Cohesive Zone Model’s Parameters Based On the Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve

Authors: Y. J. Wang, C. Q. Ru

Abstract:

A key issue of cohesive zone models is how to determine the cohesive zone model (CZM) parameters based on real material test data. In this paper, uniaxial nominal stress-strain curve (SS curve) is used to determine two key parameters of a cohesive zone model: the maximum traction and the area under the curve of traction-separation law (TSL). To this end, the true SS curve is obtained based on the nominal SS curve, and the relationship between the nominal SS curve and TSL is derived based on an assumption that the stress for cracking should be the same in both CZM and the real material. In particular, the true SS curve after necking is derived from the nominal SS curve by taking the average of the power law extrapolation and the linear extrapolation, and a damage factor is introduced to offset the true stress reduction caused by the voids generated at the necking zone. The maximum traction of the TSL is equal to the maximum true stress calculated based on the damage factor at the end of hardening. In addition, a simple specimen is simulated by Abaqus/Standard to calculate the critical J-integral, and the fracture energy calculated by the critical J-integral represents the stored strain energy in the necking zone calculated by the true SS curve. Finally, the CZM parameters obtained by the present method are compared to those used in a previous related work for a simulation of the drop-weight tear test.

Keywords: dynamic fracture, cohesive zone model, traction-separation law, stress-strain curve, J-integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
936 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

Abstract:

Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
935 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: stress intensity factor (SIF), crack orientation, glass/epoxy, natural frequencies, X-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
934 Computation of Thermal Stress Intensity Factor for Bonded Composite Repairs in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Fayçal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra

Abstract:

In this study the Finite element method is used to analyse the effect of the thermal residual stresses resulting from adhesive curing on the performances of the bonded composite repair in aircraft structures. The stress intensity factor at the crack tip is chosen as fracture criterion in order to estimate the repair performances. The obtained results show that the presence of the thermal residual stresses reduces considerably the repair performances and consequently decreases the fatigue life of cracked structures. The effects of the curing temperature, the adhesive properties and the adhesive thickness on the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) variation with thermal stresses are also analysed.

Keywords: bonded composite repair, residual stress, adhesion, stress transfer, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
933 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
932 Socio-Economic Problems in Treatment of Non-Union Both Bones Fracture of the Leg: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia

Abstract:

Treatment of fracture both bones of leg following trauma is done intially at nearby primary health care center.primary management for shock,pain,control of bleeding,plaster application. These are treated for primay fixation of fracture, debridment of wound. Then, they were refered to tertiary care where they were again and planned for further treatment. This leads to loss of lot of time, money, job, etc.

Keywords: fracture both bones leg, non-union, ilizarov, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
931 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh

Abstract:

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
930 Impact Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Cobalt-Based Haynes 188 Superalloy

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Hao-Chien Kao

Abstract:

The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Keywords: Haynes 188 alloy, impact, strain rate and temperature effect, adiabatic shearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
929 Bonding Characteristics Between FRP and Concrete Substrates

Authors: Houssam A. Toutanji, Meng Han

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development of a fracture mechanics based-model that predicts the debonding behavior of FRP strengthened RC beams. In this study, a database includes 351 concrete prisms bonded with FRP plates tested in single and double shear were prepared. The existing fracture-mechanics-based models are applied to this database. Unfortunately the properties of adhesive layer, especially a soft adhesive layer, used on the specimens in the existing studies were not always able to found. Thus, the new model’s proposal was based on fifteen newly conducted pullout tests and twenty four data selected from two independent existing studies with the application of a soft adhesive layers and the availability of adhesive properties.

Keywords: carbon fiber composite materials, interface response, fracture characteristics, maximum shear stress, ultimate transferable load

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
928 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

Abstract:

Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
927 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
926 Actual Fracture Length Determination Using a Technique for Shale Fracturing Data Analysis in Real Time

Authors: M. Wigwe, M. Y Soloman, E. Pirayesh, R. Eghorieta, N. Stegent

Abstract:

The moving reference point (MRP) technique has been used in the analyses of the first three stages of two fracturing jobs. The results obtained verify the proposition that a hydraulic fracture in shale grows in spurts rather than in a continuous pattern as originally interpreted by Nolte-Smith technique. Rather than a continuous Mode I fracture that is followed by Mode II, III or IV fractures, these fracture modes could alternate throughout the pumping period. It is also shown that the Nolte-Smith time parameter plot can be very helpful in identifying the presence of natural fractures that have been intersected by the hydraulic fracture. In addition, with the aid of a fracture length-time plot generated from any fracture simulation that matches the data, the distance from the wellbore to the natural fractures, which also translates to the actual fracture length for the stage, can be determined. An algorithm for this technique is developed. This procedure was used for the first 9 minutes of the simulated frac job data. It was observed that after 7mins, the actual fracture length is about 150ft, instead of 250ft predicted by the simulator output. This difference gets larger as the analysis proceeds.

Keywords: shale, fracturing, reservoir, simulation, frac-length, moving-reference-point

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
925 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing with Targeted Delivery of Tocotrienol in Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Isa Naina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Norazlina Mohamed

Abstract:

Studies have shown that oral tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E, promoted fracture healing of osteoporotic bone. In this study, tocotrienol was combined with a polymer carrier (PLGA), and injected to the fracture site. The slow and constant release of tocotrienol particles would promote fracture healing of post-menopausal osteoporosis rat model. Fracture healing was assessed using micro-CT. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated and the left tibiae were fractured and fixed with plate and screws. The fractures were created at the upper third of the left tibiae. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomised-control (OVxC) and PLGA-incorporated tocotrienol treatment (OVx + TT) groups. After 4 weeks, the OVx + TT group showed significantly better callus fracture healing than the OVxC group. In conclusion, tocotrienol-incorporated PLGA was able to promote fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: osteoporosis, micro-CT, tocotrienol, PLGA, fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
924 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan

Abstract:

Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
923 Proposed Organizational Development Interventions in Managing Occupational Stressors for Business Schools in Batangas City

Authors: Marlon P. Perez

Abstract:

The study intended to determine the level of occupational stress that was experienced by faculty members of private and public business schools in Batangas City with the end in view of proposing organizational development interventions in managing occupational stressors. Stressors such as factors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, relationships at work, career development and organizational structure and climate were used as determinants of occupational stress level. Descriptive method of research was used as its research design. There were only 64 full-time faculty members coming from private and public business schools in Batangas City – University of Batangas, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas, Golden Gate Colleges, Batangas State University and Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas. Survey questionnaire was used as data gathering instrument. It was found out that all occupational stressors were assessed stressful when grouped according to its classification of tertiary schools while response of subject respondents differs on their assessment of occupational stressors. Age variable has become significantly related to respondents’ assessments on factors intrinsic to the job and career development; however, it was not significantly related to role in the organization, relationships at work and organizational structure and climate. On the other hand, gender, marital status, highest educational attainment, employment status, length of service, area of specialization and classification of tertiary school were revealed to be not significantly related to all occupational stressors. Various organizational development interventions have been proposed to manage the occupational stressors that are experienced by business faculty members in the institution.

Keywords: occupational stress, business school, organizational development, intervention, stressors, faculty members, assessment, manage

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
922 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield stress of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigate that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
921 Numerical Investigation for Ductile Fracture of an Aluminium Alloy 6061 T-6: Assessment of Critical J-Integral

Authors: R. Bensaada, M. Almansba, M. Ould Ouali, R. Ferhoum, N. E. Hannachi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to simulate the ductile fracture of SEN specimens in aluminium alloy. The assessment of fracture toughness is performed with the calculation of Jc (the critical value of J-Integral) through the resistance curves. The study is done using finite element code calculation ABAQUSTM including an elastic plastic with damage model of material’s behaviour. The procedure involves specimens of four different thicknesses and four ligament sizes for every thickness. The material of study is an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for which the necessary parameters to complete the study are given. We found the same results for the same specimen’s thickness and for different ligament sizes when the fracture criterion is evaluated.

Keywords: j-integral, critical-j, damage, fracture toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
920 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi

Abstract:

This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: reasoning, thinking, intrinsic motivation, active learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
919 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation, variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), the effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e with a single overload, overload band etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, al-alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
918 The Study on Mechanical Properties of Graphene Using Molecular Mechanics

Authors: I-Ling Chang, Jer-An Chen

Abstract:

The elastic properties and fracture of two-dimensional graphene were calculated purely from the atomic bonding (stretching and bending) based on molecular mechanics method. Considering the representative unit cell of graphene under various loading conditions, the deformations of carbon bonds and the variations of the interlayer distance could be realized numerically under the geometry constraints and minimum energy assumption. In elastic region, it was found that graphene was in-plane isotropic. Meanwhile, the in-plane deformation of the representative unit cell is not uniform along armchair direction due to the discrete and non-uniform distributions of the atoms. The fracture of graphene could be predicted using fracture criteria based on the critical bond length, over which the bond would break. It was noticed that the fracture behavior were directional dependent, which was consistent with molecular dynamics simulation results.

Keywords: energy minimization, fracture, graphene, molecular mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
917 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
916 Fracture Strength of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Plasma Sprayed Aluminum Oxide Coating

Authors: Anup Kumar Keshri, Arvind Agarwal

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum oxide (Al2O3) composite coating was synthesized on the steel substrate using plasma spraying technique. Three different compositions of coating such as Al2O3, Al2O¬3-4 wt. % CNT and Al2O3-8 wt. % CNT were synthesized and the fracture strength was determined using the four point bend test. Uniform dispersion of CNTs over Al2O3 powder particle was successfully achieved. With increasing CNT content, porosity in the coating showed decreasing trend and hence contributed towards enhanced mechanical properties such as hardness (~12% increased) and elastic modulus (~34 % increased). Fracture strength of the coating was found to be increasing with the CNT additions. By reinforcement of 8 wt. % of CNT, fracture strength increased by ~2.5 times. The improvement in fracture strength of Al2O3-CNT coating was attributed to three competitive phenomena viz. (i) lower porosity (ii) higher hardness and elastic modulus (iii) CNT bridging between splats.

Keywords: aluminum oxide, carbon nanotube, fracture strength, plasma spraying

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
915 Analysis of the Plastic Zone Under Mixed Mode Fracture in Bonded Composite Repair of Aircraft

Authors: W. Oudad, H. Fikirini, K. Boulenouar

Abstract:

Material fracture by opening (mode I) is not alone responsible for fracture propagation. Many industrial examples show the presence of mode II and mixed mode I + II. In the present work the three-dimensional and non-linear finite element method is used to estimate the performance of the bonded composite repair of metallic aircraft structures by analyzing the plastic zone size ahead of repaired cracks under mixed mode loading. The computations are made according to Von Mises and Tresca criteria. The extension of the plastic zone which takes place at the tip of a crack strictly depends on many variables, such as the yield stress of the material, the loading conditions, the crack size and the thickness of the cracked component, The obtained results show that the presence of the composite patch reduces considerably the size of the plastic zone ahead of the crack. The effects of the composite orientation layup (adhesive properties) and the patch thickness on the plastic zone size ahead of repaired cracks were analyzed.

Keywords: crack, elastic-plastic, J integral, patch, plastic zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
914 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka

Abstract:

Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
913 Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cracks in an Isotropic Medium by the Semi-Analytical Method

Authors: Abdoulnabi Tavangari, Nasim Salehzadeh

Abstract:

We presume a cylindrical medium that is under a uniform loading and there is a penny shaped crack located in the center of cylinder. In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, according to the RITZ method and by considering a cylindrical coordinate system as the main coordinate and a local polar coordinate, the mode-I SIF of threedimensional penny-shaped crack is obtained. In this method the unknown coefficients will be obtained with minimizing the potential energy that is including the strain energy and the external force work. By using the hook's law, stress fields will be obtained and then by using the Irvine equations, the amount of SIF will be obtained near the edge of the crack. This question has been solved for extreme medium in the Tada handbook and the result of the present research has been compared with that.

Keywords: three-dimensional cracks, penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

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912 Improval of Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Bone by Lovastatin-Incorporated Poly-(DL-Lactide)

Authors: Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Isa Naina Mohamed, Norazlina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Abstract:

Osteoporosis disease delays fracture healing. Statins have shown potential for osteoporosis and to promote fracture healing. The effects of statin can be further potentiated by combining it with a carrier known as poly-(DL-lactide), which would provide persistent release of statin to the fracture site. This study was designed to investigate the effects of direct injection of poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin on fracture healing of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomized-control rats (OVxC) and poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin (OVx+Lov) groups. The OVx+Lov group was given a single injection of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles incorporated with poly-(DL-lactide). After 4 weeks, the fractured tibiae were dissected out for biomechanical assessments of the callus. The OVx+Lov group showed significantly better callus strength than the OVxC group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a single injection of lovastatin-incorporated poly-(DL-lactide) was able to promote better fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: statins, fracture healing, osteoporosis, poly-(DL-lactide)

Procedia PDF Downloads 394