Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12815

Search results for: VTSA process modelling

12815 Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Federico Capra, Emanuele Martelli, Matteo Gazzani, Marco Mazzotti, Maurizio Notaro


Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, biogas upgrading energetic cost, CO2 adsorption, VTSA process modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
12814 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller


Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development rocess and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: COCOMO II, busines process modeling, cost estimation method, BPM COCOMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
12813 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
12812 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
12811 Linking Business Process Models and System Models Based on Business Process Modelling

Authors: Faisal A. Aburub


Organizations today need to invest in software in order to run their businesses, and to the organizations’ objectives, the software should be in line with the business process. This research presents an approach for linking process models and system models. Particularly, the new approach aims to synthesize sequence diagram based on role activity diagram (RAD) model. The approach includes four steps namely: Create business process model using RAD, identify computerized activities, identify entities in sequence diagram and identify messages in sequence diagram. The new approach has been validated using the process of student registration in University of Petra as a case study. Further research is required to validate the new approach using different domains.

Keywords: business process modelling, system models, role activity diagrams, sequence diagrams

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
12810 Product Feature Modelling for Integrating Product Design and Assembly Process Planning

Authors: Baha Hasan, Jan Wikander


This paper describes a part of the integrating work between assembly design and assembly process planning domains (APP). The work is based, in its first stage, on modelling assembly features to support APP. A multi-layer architecture, based on feature-based modelling, is proposed to establish a dynamic and adaptable link between product design using CAD tools and APP. The proposed approach is based on deriving “specific function” features from the “generic” assembly and form features extracted from the CAD tools. A hierarchal structure from “generic” to “specific” and from “high level geometrical entities” to “low level geometrical entities” is proposed in order to integrate geometrical and assembly data extracted from geometrical and assembly modelers to the required processes and resources in APP. The feature concept, feature-based modelling, and feature recognition techniques are reviewed.

Keywords: assembly feature, assembly process planning, feature, feature-based modelling, form feature, ontology

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
12809 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal


Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: fine material, granulation, intelligent technique, modelling

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12808 [Keynote Talk]: Determination of the Quality of the Machined Surface Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Dejan Tanikić, Jelena Đoković, Saša Kalinović, Miodrag Manić, Saša Ranđelović


This paper deals with measuring and modelling of the quality of the machined surface of the metal machining process. The average surface roughness (Ra) which represents the quality of the machined part was measured during the dry turning of the AISI 4140 steel. A large number of factors with the unknown relations among them influences this parameter, and that is why mathematical modelling is extremely complicated. Different values of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut (cutting regime) and workpiece hardness causes different surface roughness values. Modelling with soft computing techniques may be very useful in such cases. This paper presents the usage of the fuzzy logic-based system for determining metal machining process parameter in order to find the proper values of cutting regimes.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, metal machining, process modeling, surface roughness

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12807 Modelling of the Fire Pragmatism in the Area of Military Management and Its Experimental Verification

Authors: Ivana Mokrá


The article deals with modelling of the fire pragmatism in the area of military management and its experimental verification. Potential approaches are based on the synergy of mathematical and theoretical ideas, operational and tactical requirements and the military decision-making process. This issue has taken on importance in recent times, particularly with the increasing trend of digitized battlefield, the development of C4ISR systems and intention to streamline the command and control process at the lowest levels of command. From fundamental and philosophical point of view, these new approaches seek to significantly upgrade and enhance the decision-making process of the tactical commanders.

Keywords: military management, decision-making process, strike modeling, experimental evaluation, pragmatism, tactical strike modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
12806 A Goal-Oriented Social Business Process Management Framework

Authors: Mohammad Ehson Rangiha, Bill Karakostas


Social Business Process Management (SBPM) promises to overcome limitations of traditional BPM by allowing flexible process design and enactment through the involvement of users from a social community. This paper proposes a meta-model and architecture for socially driven business process management systems. It discusses the main facets of the architecture such as goal-based role assignment that combines social recommendations with user profile, and process recommendation, through a real example of a charity organization.

Keywords: business process management, goal-based modelling, process recommendation social collaboration, social BPM

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
12805 Biohydrogen and Potential Vinegar Production from Agricultural Wastes Using Thermotoga neopolitana

Authors: Nidhi Nalin


This study is theoretical modelling of the fermentation process of glucose in agricultural wastes like discarded peaches to produce hydrogen, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide using Thermotoga neopolitana bacteria. The hydrogen gas produced in this process can be used in hydrogen fuel cells to generate power, and the fermented broth with acetic acid and salts could be utilized as salty vinegar if enough acetic acid is produced. The theoretical modelling was done using SuperPro software, and the results indicated how much sugar (discarded peaches) is required to produce both hydrogen and vinegar for the process to be profitable.

Keywords: fermentation, thermotoga, hydrogen, vinegar, biofuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
12804 The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Process Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-Husseini, Talib A. Dosa


Transformational leadership has been identified as the most important factor affecting innovation and knowledge sharing; it leads to increased goal-directed behavior exhibited by followers and thus to enhanced performance and innovation for the organization. However, there is a lack of models linking transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and process innovation within higher education (HE) institutions in general within developing countries, particularly in Iraq. This research aims to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing in the transformational leadership and process innovation relationship. A quantitative approach was taken and 254 usable questionnaires were collected from public HE institutions in Iraq. Structural equation modelling with AMOS 22 was used to analyze the causal relationships among factors. The research found that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between transformational leadership and process innovation, and that transformational leadership would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities and influencing process innovation in the public HE in Iraq. The research has developed some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to increase process innovation within HE environment in developing countries, particularly in Iraq.

Keywords: transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, process innovation, structural equation modelling, developing countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
12803 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo


Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling

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12802 Roasting Process of Sesame Seeds Modelling Using Gene Expression Programming: A Comparative Analysis with Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Alime Cengiz, Talip Kahyaoglu


Roasting process has the major importance to obtain desired aromatic taste of nuts. In this study, two kinds of roasting process were applied to hulled sesame seeds - vacuum oven and hot air roasting. Efficiency of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), a new soft computing technique of evolutionary algorithm that describes the cause and effect relationships in the data modelling system, and response surface methodology (RSM) were examined in the modelling of roasting processes over a range of temperature (120-180°C) for various times (30-60 min). Color attributes (L*, a*, b*, Browning Index (BI)), textural properties (hardness and fracturability) and moisture content were evaluated and modelled by RSM and GEP. The GEP-based formulations and RSM approach were compared with experimental results and evaluated according to correlation coefficients. The results showed that both GEP and RSM were found to be able to adequately learn the relation between roasting conditions and physical and textural parameters of roasted seeds. However, GEP had better prediction performance than the RSM with the high correlation coefficients (R2 >0.92) for the all quality parameters. This result indicates that the soft computing techniques have better capability for describing the physical changes occuring in sesame seeds during roasting process.

Keywords: genetic expression programming, response surface methodology, roasting, sesame seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
12801 An Automatic Generating Unified Modelling Language Use Case Diagram and Test Cases Based on Classification Tree Method

Authors: Wassana Naiyapo, Atichat Sangtong


The processes in software development by Object Oriented methodology have many stages those take time and high cost. The inconceivable error in system analysis process will affect to the design and the implementation process. The unexpected output causes the reason why we need to revise the previous process. The more rollback of each process takes more expense and delayed time. Therefore, the good test process from the early phase, the implemented software is efficient, reliable and also meet the user’s requirement. Unified Modelling Language (UML) is the tool which uses symbols to describe the work process in Object Oriented Analysis (OOA). This paper presents the approach for automatically generated UML use case diagram and test cases. UML use case diagram is generated from the event table and test cases are generated from use case specifications and Graphic User Interfaces (GUI). Test cases are derived from the Classification Tree Method (CTM) that classify data to a node present in the hierarchy structure. Moreover, this paper refers to the program that generates use case diagram and test cases. As the result, it can reduce work time and increase efficiency work.

Keywords: classification tree method, test case, UML use case diagram, use case specification

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12800 Towards Incorporating Context Awareness into Business Process Management

Authors: Xiaohui Zhao, Shahan Mafuz


Context-aware technologies provide system applications with the awareness of environmental conditions, customer behaviour, object movements, etc. Further, with such capability system applications can be smart to adapt intelligently their responses to the changing conditions. Concerning business operations, this promises businesses that their business processes can run more intelligently, adaptively and flexibly, and thereby either improve customer experience, enhance reliability of service delivery, or lower operational cost, to make the business more competitive and sustainable. Aiming at realizing such context-aware business process management, this paper firstly explores its potential benefit and then identifies some gaps between the current business process management support and the expected. In addition, some preliminary solutions are also discussed with context definition, rule-based process execution, run-time process evolution, etc. A framework is also presented to give a conceptual architecture of context-aware business process management system to guide system implementation.

Keywords: business process adaptation, business process evolution, business process modelling, and context awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
12799 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Micro-Welding Process and Applications in Digital Manufacturing

Authors: Khaled Al-Badani, Andrew Norbury, Essam Elmshawet, Glynn Rotwell, Ian Jenkinson , James Ren


Micro welding procedures are widely used for joining materials, developing duplex components or functional surfaces, through various methods such as Micro Discharge Welding or Spot Welding process, which can be found in the engineering, aerospace, automotive, biochemical, biomedical and numerous other industries. The relationship between the material properties, structure and processing is very important to improve the structural integrity and the final performance of the welded joints. This includes controlling the shape and the size of the welding nugget, state of the heat affected zone, residual stress, etc. Nowadays, modern high volume productions require the welding of much versatile shapes/sizes and material systems that are suitable for various applications. Hence, an improved understanding of the micro welding process and the digital tools, which are based on computational numerical modelling linking key welding parameters, dimensional attributes and functional performance of the weldment, would directly benefit the industry in developing products that meet current and future market demands. This paper will introduce recent work on developing an integrated experimental and numerical modelling code for micro welding techniques. This includes similar and dissimilar materials for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, at different scales. The paper will also produce a comparative study, concerning the differences between the micro discharge welding process and the spot welding technique, in regards to the size effect of the welding zone and the changes in the material structure. Numerical modelling method for the micro welding processes and its effects on the material properties, during melting and cooling progression at different scales, will also be presented. Finally, the applications of the integrated numerical modelling and the material development for the digital manufacturing of welding, is discussed with references to typical application cases such as sensors (thermocouples), energy (heat exchanger) and automotive structures (duplex steel structures).

Keywords: computer modelling, droplet formation, material distortion, materials forming, welding

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12798 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali


The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
12797 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge


Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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12796 Using Gaussian Process in Wind Power Forecasting

Authors: Hacene Benkhoula, Mohamed Badreddine Benabdella, Hamid Bouzeboudja, Abderrahmane Asraoui


The wind is a random variable difficult to master, for this, we developed a mathematical and statistical methods enable to modeling and forecast wind power. Gaussian Processes (GP) is one of the most widely used families of stochastic processes for modeling dependent data observed over time, or space or time and space. GP is an underlying process formed by unrecognized operator’s uses to solve a problem. The purpose of this paper is to present how to forecast wind power by using the GP. The Gaussian process method for forecasting are presented. To validate the presented approach, a simulation under the MATLAB environment has been given.

Keywords: wind power, Gaussien process, modelling, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
12795 Modelling and Simulation of Natural Gas-Fired Power Plant Integrated to a CO2 Capture Plant

Authors: Ebuwa Osagie, Chet Biliyok, Yeung Hoi


Regeneration energy requirement and ways to reduce it is the main aim of most CO2 capture researches currently being performed and thus, post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) option is identified to be the most suitable for the natural gas-fired power plants. From current research and development (R&D) activities worldwide, two main areas are being examined in order to reduce the regeneration energy requirement of amine-based PCC, namely: (a) development of new solvents with better overall performance than 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) aqueous solution, which is considered as the base-line solvent for solvent-based PCC, (b) Integration of the PCC Plant to the power plant. In scaling-up a PCC pilot plant to the size required for a commercial-scale natural gas-fired power plant, process modelling and simulation is very essential. In this work, an integrated process made up of a 482MWe natural gas-fired power plant, an MEA-based PCC plant which is developed and validated has been modelled and simulated. The PCC plant has four absorber columns and a single stripper column, the modelling and simulation was performed with Aspen Plus® V8.4. The gas turbine, the heat recovery steam generator and the steam cycle were modelled based on a 2010 US DOE report, while the MEA-based PCC plant was modelled as a rate-based process. The scaling of the amine plant was performed using a rate based calculation in preference to the equilibrium based approach for 90% CO2 capture. The power plant was integrated to the PCC plant in three ways: (i) flue gas stream from the power plant which is divided equally into four stream and each stream is fed into one of the four absorbers in the PCC plant. (ii) Steam draw-off from the IP/LP cross-over pipe in the steam cycle of the power plant used to regenerate solvent in the reboiler. (iii) Condensate returns from the reboiler to the power plant. The integration of a PCC plant to the NGCC plant resulted in a reduction of the power plant output by 73.56 MWe and the net efficiency of the integrated system is reduced by 7.3 % point efficiency. A secondary aim of this study is the parametric studies which have been performed to assess the impacts of natural gas on the overall performance of the integrated process and this is achieved through investigation of the capture efficiencies.

Keywords: natural gas-fired, power plant, MEA, CO2 capture, modelling, simulation

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12794 Comparison of Tensile Strength and Folding Endurance of (FDM Process) 3D Printed ABS and PLA Materials

Authors: R. Devicharan


In a short span 3D Printing is expected to play a vital role in our life. The possibility of creativity and speed in manufacturing through various 3D printing processes is infinite. This study is performed on the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method of 3D printing, which is one of the pre-dominant methods of 3D printing technologies. This study focuses on physical properties of the objects produced by 3D printing which determine the applications of the 3D printed objects. This paper specifically aims at the study of the tensile strength and the folding endurance of the 3D printed objects through the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method using the ABS (Acronitirile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) plastic materials. The study is performed on a controlled environment and the specific machine settings. Appropriate tables, graphs are plotted and research analysis techniques will be utilized to analyse, verify and validate the experiment results.

Keywords: FDM process, 3D printing, ABS for 3D printing, PLA for 3D printing, rapid prototyping

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12793 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Droplet Formation

Authors: Khaled Al-Badani, James Ren, Lisa Li, David Allanson


Droplet formation is an important process in many engineering systems and manufacturing procedures, which includes welding, biotechnologies, 3D printing, biochemical, biomedical fields and many more. The volume and the characteristics of droplet formation are generally depended on various material properties, microfluidics and fluid mechanics considerations. Hence, a detailed investigation of this process, with the aid of numerical computational tools, are essential for future design optimization and process controls of many engineering systems. This will also improve the understanding of changes in the properties and the structures of materials, during the formation of the droplet, which is important for new material developments to achieve different functions, pending the requirements of the application. For example, the shape of the formed droplet is critical for the function of some final products, such as the welding nugget during Capacitor Discharge Welding process, or PLA 3D printing, etc. Although, most academic journals on droplet formation, focused on issued with material transfer rate, surface tension and residual stresses, the general emphasis on the characteristics of droplet shape has been overlooked. The proposed work for this project will examine theoretical methodologies, experimental techniques, and numerical modelling, using ANSYS FLUENT, to critically analyse and highlight optimization methods regarding the formation of pendant droplet. The project will also compare results from published data with experimental and numerical work, concerning the effects of key material parameters on the droplet shape. These effects include changes in heating/cooling rates, solidification/melting progression and separation/break-up times. From these tests, a set of objectives is prepared, with an intention of improving quality, stability and productivity in modelling metal welding and 3D printing.

Keywords: computer modelling, droplet formation, material distortion, materials forming, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
12792 Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience

Authors: Karen C. Olufokunbi, Odetunji A. Odejobi


The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.

Keywords: Coloured Petri net, computational modelling, electronic waste, electronic waste process dynamics

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12791 Infrared Thermography as an Informative Tool in Energy Audit and Software Modelling of Historic Buildings: A Case Study of the Sheffield Cathedral

Authors: Ademuyiwa Agbonyin, Stamatis Zoras, Mohammad Zandi


This paper investigates the extent to which building energy modelling can be informed based on preliminary information provided by infrared thermography using a thermal imaging camera in a walkthrough audit. The case-study building is the Sheffield Cathedral, built in the early 1400s. Based on an informative qualitative report generated from the thermal images taken at the site, the regions showing significant heat loss are input into a computer model of the cathedral within the integrated environmental solution (IES) virtual environment software which performs an energy simulation to determine quantitative heat losses through the building envelope. Building data such as material thermal properties and building plans are provided by the architects, Thomas Ford and Partners Ltd. The results of the modelling revealed the portions of the building with the highest heat loss and these aligned with those suggested by the thermal camera. Retrofit options for the building are also considered, however, may not see implementation due to a desire to conserve the architectural heritage of the building. Results show that thermal imaging in a walk-through audit serves as a useful guide for the energy modelling process. Hand calculations were also performed to serve as a 'control' to estimate losses, providing a second set of data points of comparison.

Keywords: historic buildings, energy retrofit, thermal comfort, software modelling, energy modelling

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12790 Business Intelligence for Profiling of Telecommunication Customer

Authors: Rokhmatul Insani, Hira Laksmiwati Soemitro


Business Intelligence is a methodology that exploits the data to produce information and knowledge systematically, business intelligence can support the decision-making process. Some methods in business intelligence are data warehouse and data mining. A data warehouse can store historical data from transactional data. For data modelling in data warehouse, we apply dimensional modelling by Kimball. While data mining is used to extracting patterns from the data and get insight from the data. Data mining has many techniques, one of which is segmentation. For profiling of telecommunication customer, we use customer segmentation according to customer’s usage of services, customer invoice and customer payment. Customers can be grouped according to their characteristics and can be identified the profitable customers. We apply K-Means Clustering Algorithm for segmentation. The input variable for that algorithm we use RFM (Recency, Frequency and Monetary) model. All process in data mining, we use tools IBM SPSS modeller.

Keywords: business intelligence, customer segmentation, data warehouse, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
12789 Predicting Polyethylene Processing Properties Based on Reaction Conditions via a Coupled Kinetic, Stochastic and Rheological Modelling Approach

Authors: Kristina Pflug, Markus Busch


Being able to predict polymer properties and processing behavior based on the applied operating reaction conditions in one of the key challenges in modern polymer reaction engineering. Especially, for cost-intensive processes such as the high-pressure polymerization of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with high safety-requirements, the need for simulation-based process optimization and product design is high. A multi-scale modelling approach was set-up and validated via a series of high-pressure mini-plant autoclave reactor experiments. The approach starts with the numerical modelling of the complex reaction network of the LDPE polymerization taking into consideration the actual reaction conditions. While this gives average product properties, the complex polymeric microstructure including random short- and long-chain branching is calculated via a hybrid Monte Carlo-approach. Finally, the processing behavior of LDPE -its melt flow behavior- is determined in dependence of the previously determined polymeric microstructure using the branch on branch algorithm for randomly branched polymer systems. All three steps of the multi-scale modelling approach can be independently validated against analytical data. A triple-detector GPC containing an IR, viscosimetry and multi-angle light scattering detector is applied. It serves to determine molecular weight distributions as well as chain-length dependent short- and long-chain branching frequencies. 13C-NMR measurements give average branching frequencies, and rheological measurements in shear and extension serve to characterize the polymeric flow behavior. The accordance of experimental and modelled results was found to be extraordinary, especially taking into consideration that the applied multi-scale modelling approach does not contain parameter fitting of the data. This validates the suggested approach and proves its universality at the same time. In the next step, the modelling approach can be applied to other reactor types, such as tubular reactors or industrial scale. Moreover, sensitivity analysis for systematically varying process conditions is easily feasible. The developed multi-scale modelling approach finally gives the opportunity to predict and design LDPE processing behavior simply based on process conditions such as feed streams and inlet temperatures and pressures.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, multi-scale modelling, polymer properties, reaction engineering, rheology

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12788 3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure

Authors: Q. Giraud, J. Gonçalvès, B. Paris


Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.

Keywords: dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), hexachlorobutadiene, in situ pulsed pumping, multiphase flow, numerical modelling, porous media

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12787 Thermochemical Modelling for Extraction of Lithium from Spodumene and Prediction of Promising Reagents for the Roasting Process

Authors: Allen Yushark Fosu, Ndue Kanari, James Vaughan, Alexandre Changes


Spodumene is a lithium-bearing mineral of great interest due to increasing demand of lithium in emerging electric and hybrid vehicles. The conventional method of processing the mineral for the metal requires inevitable thermal transformation of α-phase to the β-phase followed by roasting with suitable reagents to produce lithium salts for downstream processes. The selection of appropriate reagent for roasting is key for the success of the process and overall lithium recovery. Several researches have been conducted to identify good reagents for the process efficiency, leading to sulfation, alkaline, chlorination, fluorination, and carbonizing as the methods of lithium recovery from the mineral.HSC Chemistry is a thermochemical software that can be used to model metallurgical process feasibility and predict possible reaction products prior to experimental investigation. The software was employed to investigate and explain the various reagent characteristics as employed in literature during spodumene roasting up to 1200°C. The simulation indicated that all used reagents for sulfation and alkaline were feasible in the direction of lithium salt production. Chlorination was only feasible when Cl2 and CaCl2 were used as chlorination agents but not NaCl nor KCl. Depending on the kind of lithium salt formed during carbonizing and fluorination, the process was either spontaneous or nonspontaneous throughout the temperature range investigated. The HSC software was further used to simulate and predict some promising reagents which may be equally good for roasting the mineral for efficient lithium extraction but have not yet been considered by researchers.

Keywords: thermochemical modelling, HSC chemistry software, lithium, spodumene, roasting

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12786 Numerical Modelling of Immiscible Fluids Flow in Oil Reservoir Rocks during Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes

Authors: Zahreddine Hafsi, Manoranjan Mishra , Sami Elaoud


Ensuring the maximum recovery rate of oil from reservoir rocks is a challenging task that requires preliminary numerical analysis of different techniques used to enhance the recovery process. After conventional oil recovery processes and in order to retrieve oil left behind after the primary recovery phase, water flooding in one of several techniques used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this research work, EOR via water flooding is numerically modeled, and hydrodynamic instabilities resulted from immiscible oil-water flow in reservoir rocks are investigated. An oil reservoir is a porous medium consisted of many fractures of tiny dimensions. For modeling purposes, the oil reservoir is considered as a collection of capillary tubes which provides useful insights into how fluids behave in the reservoir pore spaces. Equations governing oil-water flow in oil reservoir rocks are developed and numerically solved following a finite element scheme. Numerical results are obtained using Comsol Multiphysics software. The two phase Darcy module of COMSOL Multiphysics allows modelling the imbibition process by the injection of water (as wetting phase) into an oil reservoir. Van Genuchten, Brooks Corey and Levrett models were considered as retention models and obtained flow configurations are compared, and the governing parameters are discussed. For the considered retention models it was found that onset of instabilities viz. fingering phenomenon is highly dependent on the capillary pressure as well as the boundary conditions, i.e., the inlet pressure and the injection velocity.

Keywords: capillary pressure, EOR process, immiscible flow, numerical modelling

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