Search results for: quantum efficiency
5910 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality
Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova
Abstract:In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.
Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicalityProcedia PDF Downloads 108
5909 Modeling of Silicon Window Layers for Solar Cells Based SIGE
Authors: Meriem Boukais, B. Dennai, A. Ould- Abbas
Abstract:The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the modeling, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).
Keywords: modeling, SiGe, AMPS-1D, quantum efficiency, conversion, efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 639
5908 Simulation Of Silicon Window Layers For Solar Cells Based Sige
Authors: Boukais Meriem, B. Dennai, A. Ould-Abbas
Abstract:The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).
Keywords: SiGe, AMPS-1D, simulation, conversion, efficiency, quantum efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 609
5907 Polyethylenimine-Ethoxylated Dual Interfacial Layers for High-Efficient Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes
Authors: Woosuk Lee
Abstract:We controlled the electron injection rate in inverted quantum dot light-emitting diode (QLED) by inserting PEIE layer between ZnO electron transport layer(ETL) and quantum dots(QDs) layer and successfully demonstrated high efficiency of QLEDs. The inverted QLED has the layer structure of ITO(cathode)/ ZnO NPs/PEIE/QDs/PEIE/P-TPD/MoO3/Al(anode). The PEIE between poly-TPD hole transport layer (HTL) and quantum dot emitting layer protects QD EML during HTL coating process and improves the surface morphology. In addition, the hole injection barrier is reduced by upshifting the valence band maximum (VBM) of QDs. An additional layer of PEIE was introduced between ZnO and QD to balance charge within QD emissive layer in device, which serves as an effective electron blocking layer without changing device operating condition such as turn-on voltage and emissive spectra. As a result, the optimized QLED with 5nm PEIE shows a ~36% improved current efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) compared to the QLED without PEIE.(maximum current efficiency, and EQE are achieved 70cd/A and 17.3%, respectively). In particular, the maximum brightness of the optimized QLED dramatically improved by a factor of 2.3 relative to the QLED without PEIE. The main reasons for these QLED performance improvement are due to the suppressing the leakage current across the device and well confined exciton by inserting PEIE layers.
Keywords: quantum dot light-emitting diodes, interfacial layer, charge-injection balance, suppressing QD chargingProcedia PDF Downloads 118
5906 Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Carbon Quantum Dots as an Effective Adsorbent
Authors: Hebat‑Allah S. Tohamy, Mohamed El‑Sakhawy, Samir Kamel
Abstract:Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were prepared by an economical, green, and single-step procedure based on microwave heating of urea with sugarcane bagasse (SCB), cellulose (C), or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The prepared CQDs were characterized using a series of spectroscopic techniques, and they had small size, strong absorption in the UV, and excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence. The prepared CQDs were used for Pb(II) adsorption from an aqueous solution. The removal efficiency percentages (R %) were 99.16, 96.36, and 98.48 for QCMC, QC, and QSCB. The findings validated the efficiency of CQDs synthesized from CMC, cellulose, and SCB as excellent materials for further utilization in the environmental fields of wastewater pollution detection, adsorption, and chemical sensing applications. The kinetics and isotherms studied found that all CQD isotherms fit well with the Langmuir model than Freundlich and Temkin models. According to R², the pseudo-second-order fits the adsorption of QCMC, while the first-order one fits with QC and QSCB.
Keywords: carbon quantum dots, graphene quantum dots, fluorescence, quantum yield, water treatment, agricultural wastesProcedia PDF Downloads 31
5905 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process
Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke
Abstract:The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, productionProcedia PDF Downloads 612
5904 InP/ZnS Core-Shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS Core-Multishell Quantum Dots for Improved luminescence Efficiency
Authors: Imen Harabi, Hanae Toura, Safa Jemai, Bernabe Mari Soucase
Abstract:A promising alternative to traditional Quantum Dots QD materials, which contain toxic heavy elements such as lead and cadmium, sheds light on indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) Owing to improve the quantum yields of photoluminescence and other properties. InP, InP/ZnS core/shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS core/shell/shell Quantum Dots (QDs) were synthetized by the hot injection method. The optical and structural properties of the core InP QDs, InP/ZnS QDs, and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs have being considered by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The average diameter of InP, InP/ZnS, and InP/ZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) was varying between 10 nm, 5.4 nm, and 4.10 nm. This experience revealed that the surface morphology of the Quantum Dots has a more regular spherical form with color variation of the QDs in solution. The emission peak of colloidal InP Quantum Dots was around 530 nm, while in InP/ZnS, the emission peak is displayed and located at 598 nm. whilst for InP/ZnS/ZnS is placed at 610 nm. Furthermore, an enhanced PL emission due to a passivation effect in the ZnS-covered InP QDs was obtained. Add the XRD information FWHM of the principal peak of InP QDs was 63 nm, while for InP/ZnS was 41 nm and InP/ZnS/ZnS was 33 nm. The effect of the Zinc stearate precursor concentration on the optical, structural, surface chemical of InP and InP/ZnS and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs will be discussed.
Keywords: indium phosphide, quantum dot, nanoparticle, core-shell, multishell, luminescenceProcedia PDF Downloads 85
5903 Modeling and Simulation of InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAS Quantum Dot Solar Cells in SILVACO TCAD
Authors: Fethi Benyettou, Abdelkader Aissat, M. A. Benammar
Abstract:In this work, we use Silvaco TCAD software for modeling and simulations of standard GaAs solar cell, InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAs p-i-n quantum dot solar cell. When comparing 20-layer InAs/GaAs, GaSb/GaAs quantum dots solar cells with standard GaAs solar cell, the conversion efficiency in simulation results increased from 16.48 % to 22.6% and 16.48% to 22.42% respectively. Also, the absorption range edge of photons with low energies extended from 900 nm to 1200 nm.
Keywords: SILVACO TCAD, the quantum dot, simulation, materials engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 360
5902 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect
Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong
Abstract:There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model
Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag, research activitiesProcedia PDF Downloads 516
5901 Spatial Architecture Impact in Mediation Open Circuit Voltage Control of Quantum Solar Cell Recovery Systems
Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed
Abstract:The photocurrent generations are influencing ultra-high efficiency solar cells based on self-assembled quantum dot (QD) nanostructures. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) provide a great enhancement toward solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum enabled multi-exciton generation. Based on theoretical predictions, QDs have potential to improve systems efficiency in approximate regular electrons excitation intensity greater than 50%. In solar cell devices, an intermediate band formed by the electron levels in quantum dot systems. The spatial architecture is exploring how can solar cell integrate and produce not only high open circuit voltage (> 1.7 eV) but also large short-circuit currents due to the efficient absorption of sub-bandgap photons. In the proposed QD system, the structure allows barrier material to absorb wavelengths below 700 nm while multi-photon processes in the used quantum dots to absorb wavelengths up to 2 µm. The assembly of the electronic model is flexible to demonstrate the atoms and molecules structure and material properties to tune control energy bandgap of the barrier quantum dot to their respective optimum values. In terms of energy virtual conversion, the efficiency and cost of the electronic structure are unified outperform a pair of multi-junction solar cell that obtained in the rigorous test to quantify the errors. The milestone toward achieving the claimed high-efficiency solar cell device is controlling the edge causes of energy bandgap between the barrier material and quantum dot systems according to the media design limits. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. The orientation of voltage recovery system is compared theoretically with experimental Voc variation in mediation upper–limit obtained one diode modeling form at the cells with different bandgap (Eg) as classified in the proposed spatial architecture. The opportunity for improvement Voc is valued approximately greater than 1V by using smaller QDs through QD solar cell recovery systems as confined to other micro and nano operations states.
Keywords: nanotechnology, photovoltaic solar cell, quantum systems, renewable energy, environmental modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 92
5900 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle
Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil
Abstract:In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.
Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engineProcedia PDF Downloads 125
5899 Fin Efficiency of Helical Fin with Fixed Fin Tip Temperature Boundary Condition
Authors: Richard G. Carranza, Juan Ospina
Abstract:The fin efficiency for a helical fin with a fixed fin tip (or arbitrary) temperature boundary condition is presented. Firstly, the temperature profile throughout the fin is determined via an energy balance around the fin itself. Secondly, the fin efficiency is formulated by integrating across the entire surface of the helical fin. An analytical expression for the fin efficiency is presented and compared with the literature for accuracy.
Keywords: efficiency, fin, heat, helical, transferProcedia PDF Downloads 355
5898 Maximizing the Output of Solar Photovoltaic System
Authors: Vipresh Mehta , Aman Abhishek, Jatin Batra, Gautam Iyer
Abstract:Huge amount of solar radiation reaching the earth can be harnessed to provide electricity through Photo voltaic (PV) panels. The solar PV is an exciting technology but suffers from low efficiency. A study on low efficiency in multi MW solar power plants reveals that the electric yield of the PV modules is reduced due to reflection of the irradiation from the sun and when a module’s temperature is elevated, as there is decrease in the voltage and efficiency. We intend to alter the structure of the PV system, We also intend to improve the efficiency of the Solar Photo Voltaic Panels by active cooling to reduce the temperature losses considerably and decrease reflection losses to some extent. Reflectors/concentrators and anti-reflecting coatings are also used to intensify the amount of output produced from the system. Apart from this, transformer-less Grid-tied Inverter. And also, a T-LCL immitance circuit is used to reduce the harmonics and produce a constant output from the entire system.
Keywords: PV panels, efficiency improvement, active cooling, quantum dots, organic-inorganic hybrid 3D panel, ground water tunnelingProcedia PDF Downloads 661
5897 Quantum Chemical Calculations Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Nonionic Surfactants on API X65 Steel Surface under H2s Environment
Authors: E. G. Zaki, M. A. Migahed, A. M. Al-Sabagh, E. A. Khamis
Abstract:Inhibition effect of four novel nonionic surfactants based on sulphonamide, of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABS), was reacted with 1 mole triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine then Ethoxylation of amide X 65 type carbon steel in oil wells formation water under H2S environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the steel surface. The results showed that these surfactants act as a corrosion inhibitor in and their inhibition efficiencies depend on the ethylene oxide content in the system. The obtained results showed that the percentage inhibition efficiency (η%) was increased by increasing the inhibitor concentration until the critical micelle concentration (CMC) reached The quantum chemistry calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of obtained derivatives. The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital has been calculated using the theoretical computations to reflect the chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of compounds.
Keywords: corrosion, surfactants, steel surface, quantumProcedia PDF Downloads 279
5896 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Consumption in OPEC Countries
Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar
Abstract:Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production frame work of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct energy efficiency performance index for measuring energy efficiency performance by using environmental DEA model with CO2 emissions. We finally apply the index proposed to assess the energy efficiency performance in OPEC over time.
Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental, OPEC, data envelopment analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 312
5895 A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect
Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong
Abstract:In many cases, there is a time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrated models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long-term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.
Keywords: DEA, super-efficiency, time lag, multi-periods inputProcedia PDF Downloads 367
5894 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat
Authors: Mandip Singh
Abstract:Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.
Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physicsProcedia PDF Downloads 117
5893 Science behind Quantum Teleportation
Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta
Abstract:Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.
Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distanceProcedia PDF Downloads 48
5892 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator
Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura
Abstract:In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.
Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-coneProcedia PDF Downloads 205
5891 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation
Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu
Abstract:Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.
Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonicsProcedia PDF Downloads 302
5890 Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis and Variance Inflation Factor to Measure the Efficiency of Decision Making Units
Authors: Mostafa Kazemi, Zahra N. Farkhani
Abstract:This paper proposes an integrated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) model for measuring the technical efficiency of decision making units. The model is validated using a set of 69% sales representatives’ dairy products. The analysis is done in two stages, in the first stage, VIF technique is used to distinguish independent effective factors of resellers, and in the second stage we used DEA for measuring efficiency for both constant and variable return to scales status. Further DEA is used to examine the utilization of environmental factors on efficiency. Results of this paper indicated an average managerial efficiency of 83% in the whole sales representatives’ dairy products. In addition, technical and scale efficiency were counted 96% and 80% respectively. 38% of sales representative have the technical efficiency of 100% and 72% of the sales representative in terms of managerial efficiency are quite efficient.High levels of relative efficiency indicate a good condition for sales representative efficiency.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), relative efficiency, sales representatives’ dairy products, variance inflation factor (VIF)Procedia PDF Downloads 474
5889 Development of High-Efficiency Down-Conversion Fluoride Phosphors to Increase the Efficiency of Solar Panels
Authors: S. V. Kuznetsov, M. N. Mayakova, V. Yu. Proydakova, V. V. Pavlov, A. S. Nizamutdinov, O. A. Morozov, V. V. Voronov, P. P. Fedorov
Abstract:Increase in the share of electricity received by conversion of solar energy results in the reduction of the industrial impact on the environment from the use of the hydrocarbon energy sources. One way to increase said share is to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion in silicon-based solar panels. Such efficiency increase can be achieved by transferring energy from sunlight-insensitive areas of work of silicon solar panels to the area of their photoresistivity. To achieve this goal, a transition to new luminescent materials with the high quantum yield of luminescence is necessary. Improvement in the quantum yield can be achieved by quantum cutting, which allows obtaining a quantum yield of down conversion of more than 150% due to the splitting of high-energy photons of the UV spectral range into lower-energy photons of the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. The goal of present work is to test approach of excitation through sensibilization of 4f-4f fluorescence of Yb3+ by various RE ions absorbing in UV and Vis spectral ranges. One of promising materials for quantum cutting luminophores are fluorides. In our investigation we have developed synthesis of nano- and submicron powders of calcium fluoride and strontium doped with rare-earth elements (Yb: Ce, Yb: Pr, Yb: Eu) of controlled dimensions and shape by co-precipitation from water solution technique. We have used Ca(NO3)2*4H2O, Sr(NO3)2, HF, NH4F as precursors. After initial solutions of nitrates were prepared they have been mixed with fluorine containing solution by dropwise manner. According to XRD data, the synthesis resulted in single phase samples with fluorite structure. By means of SEM measurements, we have confirmed spherical morphology and have determined sizes of particles (50-100 nm after synthesis and 150-300 nm after calcination). Temperature of calcination appeared to be 600°C. We have investigated the spectral-kinetic characteristics of above mentioned compounds. Here the diffuse reflection and laser induced fluorescence spectra of Yb3+ ions excited at around 4f-4f and 4f-5d transitions of Pr3+, Eu3+ and Ce3+ ions in the synthesized powders are reported. The investigation of down conversion luminescence capability of synthesized compounds included measurements of fluorescence decays and quantum yield of 2F5/2-2F7/2 fluorescence of Yb3+ ions as function of Yb3+ and sensitizer contents. An optimal chemical composition of CaF2-YbF3- LnF3 (Ln=Ce, Eu, Pr), SrF2-YbF3-LnF3 (Ln=Ce, Eu, Pr) micro- and nano- powders according to criteria of maximal IR fluorescence yield is proposed. We suppose that investigated materials are prospective in solar panels improvement applications. Work was supported by Russian Science Foundation grant #17-73- 20352.
Keywords: solar cell, fluorides, down-conversion luminescence, maximum quantum yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 213
5888 Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases
Authors: Juan Sepúlveda
Abstract:Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.
Keywords: energy efficiency, MCA, scientometric, trendsProcedia PDF Downloads 287
5887 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma
Authors: A. Abdikian
Abstract:A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.
Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structureProcedia PDF Downloads 222
5886 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems
Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi
Abstract:The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.
Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting systemProcedia PDF Downloads 83
5885 Photoluminescent Properties of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Supported Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticles Doped with Cerium (Ⅲ) Ions
Authors: Mitsunobu Iwasaki, Akifumi Iseda
Abstract:Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium (Ⅲ) ions (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce3+) has attracted a great attention because it can efficiently convert the blue light into a very broad yellow emission band, which produces white light emitting diodes and is applied for panel displays. To improve the brightness and resolution of the display, a considerable attention has been directed to develop fine phosphor particles. We have prepared YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors by environmental-friendly wet process. The peak maximum of absorption spectra of surface plasmon of Ag nanopaticles are close to that of the excitation spectra (460 nm) of YAG:Ce3+. It can be expected that Ag nanoparticles supported onto the surface of YAG:Ce3+ (Ag-YAG:Ce3+) enhance the absorption of Ce3+ ions. In this study, we have prepared Ag-YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors and investigated their photoluminescent properties. YCl3･6H2O and AlCl3･6H2O with a molar ratio of Y:Al=3:5 were dissolved in ethanol (100 ml), and CeCl3•7H2O (0.3 mol%) was further added to the above solution. Then, NaOH (4.6×10-2 mol) dissolved in ethanol (50 ml) was added dropwise to the mixture under reflux over 2 hours, and the solution was further refluxed for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, precipitates in the reaction mixture were heated at 673 K for 1 hour. After the calcination, the particles were immersed in AgNO3 solution for 1 hour, followed by sintering at 1123 K for 1 hour. YAG:Ce3+ were confirmed to be nanocrystals with a crystallite size of 50-80 nm in diameter. Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ were single nanometers in diameter. The excitation and emission spectra were 454 nm and 539 nm at a maximum wavelength, respectively. The emission intensity was maximum for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ immersed into 0.5 mM AgCl (Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)). The absorption maximum (461 nm) was increased for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ in comparison with that for YAG:Ce3+, indicating that the absorption was enhanced by the addition of Ag. The external and internal quantum efficiencies became 11.2 % and 36.9 % for Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM), respectively. The emission intensity and absorption maximum of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)×n (n=1, 2, 3) were increased with an increase of the number of supporting times (n), respectively. The external and internal quantum efficiencies were increased for the increase of n, respectively. The external quantum efficiency of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM) (n=3) became twice as large as that of YAG:Ce. In conclusion, Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ increased absorption and quantum efficiency. Therefore, the support of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photoluminescent properties of YAG:Ce3+.
Keywords: plasmon, quantum efficiency, silver nanoparticles, yttrium aluminum garnetProcedia PDF Downloads 213
5884 A Vertical Grating Coupler with High Efficiency and Broadband Operation
Authors: Md Asaduzzaman
Abstract:A Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) perfectly vertical fibre-to-chip grating coupler is proposed and designed based on engineered subwavelength structures. The high directionality of the coupler is achieved by implementing step gratings to realize asymmetric diffraction and by applying effective index variation with auxiliary ultra-subwavelength gratings. The proposed structure is numerically analysed by using two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (2D FDTD) method and achieves 96% (-0.2 dB) coupling efficiency and 39 nm 1-dB bandwidth. This highly efficient GC is necessary for applications where coupling efficiency between the optical fibre and nanophotonics waveguide is critically important, for instance, experiments of the quantum photonics integrated circuits. Such efficient and broadband perfectly vertical grating couplers are also significantly advantageous in highly dense photonic packaging.
Keywords: diffraction grating, FDTD, grating couplers, nanophotonicProcedia PDF Downloads 9
5883 Efficiency in Islamic Banks: Some Empirical Evidences in Indonesian Finance Market
Authors: Ahmed Sameer El Khatib
Abstract:The aim of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2009 to 2018. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Indonesian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.
Keywords: Islamic Finance, Islamic Banks, Revenue Efficiency, Data Envelopment AnalysisProcedia PDF Downloads 87
5882 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Iran and Other Middle East Countries
Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar
Abstract:According to 1404 forecasting documentation, among the most fundamental ways of Iran’s success in competition with other regional countries are innovations, efficiency enhancements and domestic productivity. Therefore, in this study, the energy consumption efficiency of Iran and the neighbor countries has been measured in the period between 2007-2012 considering the simultaneous economic activities, CO2 emission, and consumption of energy through data envelopment analysis of undesirable output. The results of the study indicated that the energy efficiency changes in both Iran and the average neighbor countries has been on a descending trend and Iran’s energy efficiency status is not desirable compared to the other countries in the region.
Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental, undesirable output, data envelopment analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 345
5881 Productive Efficiency in Asean Banking
Authors: Suhartono Suhartono
Abstract:Issue of cost efficiency is then becoming pivotal point because public expect cost of banking operation reducing and benefited of consumers. This study examines the determinants of cost efficiency of banks operating in 8 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This study uses economics theory approach to examine the existence of economies of scale in the ASEAN Banking market especially on its impact on cost efficiency. We apply concept of average cost (AC) as a proxy for the cost efficiency. We find that economies of scale is existing in the banking market indicating scale and scope economies should be considered in the industrial policy. The stronger capital position is also positive to efficiency means stronger capitalized banks are more efficient. Bank that remunerates better tend to be more efficient as result economic capital effect.
Keywords: cost efficiency, ASEAN, economies of scale, issue of costProcedia PDF Downloads 294